Lorna Quandt


2023

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Including Facial Expressions in Contextual Embeddings for Sign Language Generation
Carla Viegas | Mert Inan | Lorna Quandt | Malihe Alikhani
Proceedings of the 12th Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics (*SEM 2023)

State-of-the-art sign language generation frameworks lack expressivity and naturalness which is the result of only focusing manual signs, neglecting the affective, grammatical and semantic functions of facial expressions. The purpose of this work is to augment semantic representation of sign language through grounding facial expressions. We study the effect of modeling the relationship between text, gloss, and facial expressions on the performance of the sign generation systems. In particular, we propose a Dual Encoder Transformer able to generate manual signs as well as facial expressions by capturing the similarities and differences found in text and sign gloss annotation. We take into consideration the role of facial muscle activity to express intensities of manual signs by being the first to employ facial action units in sign language generation. We perform a series of experiments showing that our proposed model improves the quality of automatically generated sign language.

2022

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Signing Avatars in a New Dimension: Challenges and Opportunities in Virtual Reality
Lorna Quandt | Jason Lamberton | Carly Leannah | Athena Willis | Melissa Malzkuhn
Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Sign Language Translation and Avatar Technology: The Junction of the Visual and the Textual: Challenges and Perspectives

With improved and more easily accessible technology, immersive virtual reality (VR) head-mounted devices have become more ubiquitous. As signing avatar technology improves, virtual reality presents a new and relatively unexplored application for signing avatars. This paper discusses two primary ways that signed language can be represented in immersive virtual spaces: 1) Third-person, in which the VR user sees a character who communicates in signed language; and 2) First-person, in which the VR user produces signed content themselves, tracked by the head-mounted device and visible to the user herself (and/or to other users) in the virtual environment. We will discuss the unique affordances granted by virtual reality and how signing avatars might bring accessibility and new opportunities to virtual spaces. We will then discuss the limitations of signed con-tent in virtual reality concerning virtual signers shown from both third- and first-person perspectives.

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Modeling Intensification for Sign Language Generation: A Computational Approach
Mert Inan | Yang Zhong | Sabit Hassan | Lorna Quandt | Malihe Alikhani
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

End-to-end sign language generation models do not accurately represent the prosody in sign language. A lack of temporal and spatial variations leads to poor-quality generated presentations that confuse human interpreters. In this paper, we aim to improve the prosody in generated sign languages by modeling intensification in a data-driven manner. We present different strategies grounded in linguistics of sign language that inform how intensity modifiers can be represented in gloss annotations. To employ our strategies, we first annotate a subset of the benchmark PHOENIX-14T, a German Sign Language dataset, with different levels of intensification. We then use a supervised intensity tagger to extend the annotated dataset and obtain labels for the remaining portion of it. This enhanced dataset is then used to train state-of-the-art transformer models for sign language generation. We find that our efforts in intensification modeling yield better results when evaluated with automatic metrics. Human evaluation also indicates a higher preference of the videos generated using our model.