Lu Hou


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mCLIP: Multilingual CLIP via Cross-lingual Transfer
Guanhua Chen | Lu Hou | Yun Chen | Wenliang Dai | Lifeng Shang | Xin Jiang | Qun Liu | Jia Pan | Wenping Wang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Large-scale vision-language pretrained (VLP) models like CLIP have shown remarkable performance on various downstream cross-modal tasks. However, they are usually biased towards English due to the lack of sufficient non-English image-text pairs. Existing multilingual VLP methods often learn retrieval-inefficient single-stream models by translation-augmented non-English image-text pairs. In this paper, we introduce mCLIP, a retrieval-efficient dual-stream multilingual VLP model, trained by aligning the CLIP model and a Multilingual Text Encoder (MTE) through a novel Triangle Cross-modal Knowledge Distillation (TriKD) method. It is parameter-efficient as only two light projectors on the top of them are updated during distillation. Furthermore, to enhance the token- and sentence-level multilingual representation of the MTE, we propose to train it with machine translation and contrastive learning jointly before the TriKD to provide a better initialization. Empirical results show that mCLIP achieves new state-of-the-art performance for both zero-shot and finetuned multilingual image-text retrieval task.

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Wukong-Reader: Multi-modal Pre-training for Fine-grained Visual Document Understanding
Haoli Bai | Zhiguang Liu | Xiaojun Meng | Li Wentao | Shuang Liu | Yifeng Luo | Nian Xie | Rongfu Zheng | Liangwei Wang | Lu Hou | Jiansheng Wei | Xin Jiang | Qun Liu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Unsupervised pre-training on millions of digital-born or scanned documents has shown promising advances in visual document understanding (VDU). While various vision-language pre-training objectives are studied in existing solutions, the document textline, as an intrinsic granularity in VDU, has seldom been explored so far. A document textline usually contains words that are spatially and semantically correlated, which can be easily obtained from OCR engines. In this paper, we propose Wukong-Reader, trained with new pre-training objectives to leverage the structural knowledge nested in document textlines. We introduce textline-region contrastive learning to achieve fine-grained alignment between the visual regions and texts of document textlines. Furthermore, masked region modeling and textline-grid matching are also designed to enhance the visual and layout representations of textlines. Experiments show that Wukong-Reader brings superior performance on various VDU tasks in both English and Chinese. The fine-grained alignment over textlines also empowers Wukong-Reader with promising localization ability.

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Structured Pruning for Efficient Generative Pre-trained Language Models
Chaofan Tao | Lu Hou | Haoli Bai | Jiansheng Wei | Xin Jiang | Qun Liu | Ping Luo | Ngai Wong
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

The increasing sizes of large generative Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) hinder their deploymentin real-world applications. To obtain efficient PLMs, previous studies mostly focus on pruning the attention heads and feed-forward networks (FFNs) of the Transformer. Nevertheless, we find that in generative PLMs, the hidden dimension shared by many other modules (e.g., embedding layer and layer normalization) contains persistent outliers regardless of the network input. This study comprehensively investigates the structured pruning of generative PLMs with all the above compressible components. To identify redundant network structures, we assign learnable masks over compressible components followed by sparse training. Various sizes of PLMs can be flexibly extracted via different thresholds, and are then task-specifically fine-tuned for further improvement. Extensive experiments on language modeling, summarization and machine translation validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. For example, the pruned BART brings 1.51x/6.96x inference speedup on GPU/CPU with 67% size reduction, and can be further combined with quantization for more than 25× compression.

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TESTA: Temporal-Spatial Token Aggregation for Long-form Video-Language Understanding
Shuhuai Ren | Sishuo Chen | Shicheng Li | Xu Sun | Lu Hou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Large-scale video-language pre-training has made remarkable strides in advancing video-language understanding tasks. However, the heavy computational burden of video encoding remains a formidable efficiency bottleneck, particularly for long-form videos. These videos contain massive visual tokens due to their inherent 3D properties and spatiotemporal redundancy, making it challenging to capture complex temporal and spatial relationships. To tackle this issue, we propose an efficient method called TEmporal-Spatial Token Aggregation (TESTA). TESTA condenses video semantics by adaptively aggregating similar frames, as well as similar patches within each frame. TESTA can reduce the number of visual tokens by 75% and thus accelerate video encoding. Building upon TESTA, we introduce a pre-trained video-language model equipped with a divided space-time token aggregation module in each video encoder block. We evaluate our model on five datasets for paragraph-to-video retrieval and long-form VideoQA tasks. Experimental results show that TESTA improves computing efficiency by 1.7 times, and achieves significant performance gains from its scalability in processing longer input frames, e.g., +13.7 R@1 on QuerYD and +6.5 R@1 on Condensed Movie.


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Compression of Generative Pre-trained Language Models via Quantization
Chaofan Tao | Lu Hou | Wei Zhang | Lifeng Shang | Xin Jiang | Qun Liu | Ping Luo | Ngai Wong
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The increasing size of generative Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) have greatly increased the demand for model compression. Despite various methods to compress BERT or its variants, there are few attempts to compress generative PLMs, and the underlying difficulty remains unclear. In this paper, we compress generative PLMs by quantization. We find that previous quantization methods fail on generative tasks due to the homogeneous word embeddings caused by reduced capacity and the varied distribution of weights. Correspondingly, we propose a token-level contrastive distillation to learn distinguishable word embeddings, and a module-wise dynamic scaling to make quantizers adaptive to different modules. Empirical results on various tasks show that our proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art compression methods on generative PLMs by a clear margin. With comparable performance with the full-precision models, we achieve 14.4x and 13.4x compression rate on GPT-2 and BART, respectively.

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LiteVL: Efficient Video-Language Learning with Enhanced Spatial-Temporal Modeling
Dongsheng Chen | Chaofan Tao | Lu Hou | Lifeng Shang | Xin Jiang | Qun Liu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent large-scale video-language pre-trained models have shown appealing performance on various downstream tasks. However, the pre-training process is computationally expensive due to the requirement of millions of video-text pairs and the redundant data structure of each video. To mitigate these problems, we propose LiteVL, which adapts a pre-trained image-language model BLIP into a video-text model directly on downstream tasks, without heavy pre-training. To enhance the temporal modeling lacking in the image-language model, we propose to add temporal attention modules in the image encoder of BLIP with dynamic temporal scaling. Besides the model-wise adaptation, we also propose a non-parametric pooling mechanism to adaptively reweight the fine-grained video embedding conditioned on the text. Experimental results on text-video retrieval and video question answering show that the proposed LiteVL even outperforms previous video-language pre-trained models by a clear margin, though without any video-language pre-training.

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Enabling Multimodal Generation on CLIP via Vision-Language Knowledge Distillation
Wenliang Dai | Lu Hou | Lifeng Shang | Xin Jiang | Qun Liu | Pascale Fung
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

The recent large-scale vision-language pre-training (VLP) of dual-stream architectures (e.g., CLIP) with a tremendous amount of image-text pair data, has shown its superiority on various multimodal alignment tasks. Despite its success, the resulting models are not capable of multimodal generative tasks due to the weak text encoder. To tackle this problem, we propose to augment the dual-stream VLP model with a textual pre-trained language model (PLM) via vision-language knowledge distillation (VLKD), enabling the capability for multimodal generation. VLKD is pretty data- and computation-efficient compared to the pre-training from scratch. Experimental results show that the resulting model has strong zero-shot performance on multimodal generation tasks, such as open-ended visual question answering and image captioning. For example, it achieves 44.5% zero-shot accuracy on the VQAv2 dataset, surpassing the previous state-of-the-art zero-shot model with fewer parameters. Furthermore, the original textual language understanding and generation ability of the PLM is maintained after VLKD, which makes our model versatile for both multimodal and unimodal tasks.


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BinaryBERT: Pushing the Limit of BERT Quantization
Haoli Bai | Wei Zhang | Lu Hou | Lifeng Shang | Jin Jin | Xin Jiang | Qun Liu | Michael Lyu | Irwin King
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The rapid development of large pre-trained language models has greatly increased the demand for model compression techniques, among which quantization is a popular solution. In this paper, we propose BinaryBERT, which pushes BERT quantization to the limit by weight binarization. We find that a binary BERT is hard to be trained directly than a ternary counterpart due to its complex and irregular loss landscape. Therefore, we propose ternary weight splitting, which initializes BinaryBERT by equivalently splitting from a half-sized ternary network. The binary model thus inherits the good performance of the ternary one, and can be further enhanced by fine-tuning the new architecture after splitting. Empirical results show that our BinaryBERT has only a slight performance drop compared with the full-precision model while being 24x smaller, achieving the state-of-the-art compression results on the GLUE and SQuAD benchmarks. Code will be released.

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GhostBERT: Generate More Features with Cheap Operations for BERT
Zhiqi Huang | Lu Hou | Lifeng Shang | Xin Jiang | Xiao Chen | Qun Liu
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Transformer-based pre-trained language models like BERT, though powerful in many tasks, are expensive in both memory and computation, due to their large number of parameters. Previous works show that some parameters in these models can be pruned away without severe accuracy drop. However, these redundant features contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the training data and removing them weakens the model’s representation ability. In this paper, we propose GhostBERT, which generates more features with very cheap operations from the remaining features. In this way, GhostBERT has similar memory and computational cost as the pruned model, but enjoys much larger representation power. The proposed ghost module can also be applied to unpruned BERT models to enhance their performance with negligible additional parameters and computation. Empirical results on the GLUE benchmark on three backbone models (i.e., BERT, RoBERTa and ELECTRA) verify the efficacy of our proposed method.


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TernaryBERT: Distillation-aware Ultra-low Bit BERT
Wei Zhang | Lu Hou | Yichun Yin | Lifeng Shang | Xiao Chen | Xin Jiang | Qun Liu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Transformer-based pre-training models like BERT have achieved remarkable performance in many natural language processing tasks. However, these models are both computation and memory expensive, hindering their deployment to resource-constrained devices. In this work, we propose TernaryBERT, which ternarizes the weights in a fine-tuned BERT model. Specifically, we use both approximation-based and loss-aware ternarization methods and empirically investigate the ternarization granularity of different parts of BERT. Moreover, to reduce the accuracy degradation caused by lower capacity of low bits, we leverage the knowledge distillation technique in the training process. Experiments on the GLUE benchmark and SQuAD show that our proposed TernaryBERT outperforms the other BERT quantization methods, and even achieves comparable performance as the full-precision model while being 14.9x smaller.