Lucas Cordeiro


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Interventional Probing in High Dimensions: An NLI Case Study
Julia Rozanova | Marco Valentino | Lucas Cordeiro | André Freitas
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2023

Probing strategies have been shown to detectthe presence of various linguistic features inlarge language models; in particular, seman-tic features intermediate to the “natural logic”fragment of the Natural Language Inferencetask (NLI). In the case of natural logic, the rela-tion between the intermediate features and theentailment label is explicitly known: as such,this provides a ripe setting for interventionalstudies on the NLI models’ representations, al-lowing for stronger causal conjectures and adeeper critical analysis of interventional prob-ing methods. In this work, we carry out newand existing representation-level interventionsto investigate the effect of these semantic fea-tures on NLI classification: we perform am-nesic probing (which removes features as di-rected by learned linear probes) and introducethe mnestic probing variation (which forgetsall dimensions except the probe-selected ones).Furthermore, we delve into the limitations ofthese methods and outline some pitfalls havebeen obscuring the effectivity of interventionalprobing studies.


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Systematicity, Compositionality and Transitivity of Deep NLP Models: a Metamorphic Testing Perspective
Edoardo Manino | Julia Rozanova | Danilo Carvalho | Andre Freitas | Lucas Cordeiro
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Metamorphic testing has recently been used to check the safety of neural NLP models. Its main advantage is that it does not rely on a ground truth to generate test cases. However, existing studies are mostly concerned with robustness-like metamorphic relations, limiting the scope of linguistic properties they can test. We propose three new classes of metamorphic relations, which address the properties of systematicity, compositionality and transitivity. Unlike robustness, our relations are defined over multiple source inputs, thus increasing the number of test cases that we can produce by a polynomial factor. With them, we test the internal consistency of state-of-the-art NLP models, and show that they do not always behave according to their expected linguistic properties. Lastly, we introduce a novel graphical notation that efficiently summarises the inner structure of metamorphic relations.