Lucian Popa


2022

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Domain Representative Keywords Selection: A Probabilistic Approach
Pritom Saha Akash | Jie Huang | Kevin Chang | Yunyao Li | Lucian Popa | ChengXiang Zhai
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

We propose a probabilistic approach to select a subset of a target domain representative keywords from a candidate set, contrasting with a context domain. Such a task is crucial for many downstream tasks in natural language processing. To contrast the target domain and the context domain, we adapt the two-component mixture model concept to generate a distribution of candidate keywords. It provides more importance to the distinctive keywords of the target domain than common keywords contrasting with the context domain. To support the representativeness of the selected keywords towards the target domain, we introduce an optimization algorithm for selecting the subset from the generated candidate distribution. We have shown that the optimization algorithm can be efficiently implemented with a near-optimal approximation guarantee. Finally, extensive experiments on multiple domains demonstrate the superiority of our approach over other baselines for the tasks of keyword summary generation and trending keywords selection.

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Learning to Robustly Aggregate Labeling Functions for Semi-supervised Data Programming
Ayush Maheshwari | Krishnateja Killamsetty | Ganesh Ramakrishnan | Rishabh Iyer | Marina Danilevsky | Lucian Popa
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

A critical bottleneck in supervised machine learning is the need for large amounts of labeled data which is expensive and time-consuming to obtain. Although a small amount of labeled data cannot be used to train a model, it can be used effectively for the generation of humaninterpretable labeling functions (LFs). These LFs, in turn, have been used to generate a large amount of additional noisy labeled data in a paradigm that is now commonly referred to as data programming. Previous methods of generating LFs do not attempt to use the given labeled data further to train a model, thus missing opportunities for improving performance. Additionally, since the LFs are generated automatically, they are likely to be noisy, and naively aggregating these LFs can lead to suboptimal results. In this work, we propose an LF-based bi-level optimization framework WISDOM to solve these two critical limitations. WISDOM learns a joint model on the (same) labeled dataset used for LF induction along with any unlabeled data in a semi-supervised manner, and more critically, reweighs each LF according to its goodness, influencing its contribution to the semi-supervised loss using a robust bi-level optimization algorithm. We show that WISDOM significantly outperforms prior approaches on several text classification datasets.

2021

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Leveraging Abstract Meaning Representation for Knowledge Base Question Answering
Pavan Kapanipathi | Ibrahim Abdelaziz | Srinivas Ravishankar | Salim Roukos | Alexander Gray | Ramón Fernandez Astudillo | Maria Chang | Cristina Cornelio | Saswati Dana | Achille Fokoue | Dinesh Garg | Alfio Gliozzo | Sairam Gurajada | Hima Karanam | Naweed Khan | Dinesh Khandelwal | Young-Suk Lee | Yunyao Li | Francois Luus | Ndivhuwo Makondo | Nandana Mihindukulasooriya | Tahira Naseem | Sumit Neelam | Lucian Popa | Revanth Gangi Reddy | Ryan Riegel | Gaetano Rossiello | Udit Sharma | G P Shrivatsa Bhargav | Mo Yu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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LNN-EL: A Neuro-Symbolic Approach to Short-text Entity Linking
Hang Jiang | Sairam Gurajada | Qiuhao Lu | Sumit Neelam | Lucian Popa | Prithviraj Sen | Yunyao Li | Alexander Gray
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Entity linking (EL) is the task of disambiguating mentions appearing in text by linking them to entities in a knowledge graph, a crucial task for text understanding, question answering or conversational systems. In the special case of short-text EL, which poses additional challenges due to limited context, prior approaches have reached good performance by employing heuristics-based methods or purely neural approaches. Here, we take a different, neuro-symbolic approach that combines the advantages of using interpretable rules based on first-order logic with the performance of neural learning. Even though constrained to use rules, we show that we reach competitive or better performance with SoTA black-box neural approaches. Furthermore, our framework has the benefits of extensibility and transferability. We show that we can easily blend existing rule templates given by a human expert, with multiple types of features (priors, BERT encodings, box embeddings, etc), and even with scores resulting from previous EL methods, thus improving on such methods. As an example of improvement, on the LC-QuAD-1.0 dataset, we show more than 3% increase in F1 score relative to previous SoTA. Finally, we show that the inductive bias offered by using logic results in a set of learned rules that transfers from one dataset to another, sometimes without finetuning, while still having high accuracy.

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Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Data Science with Human in the Loop: Language Advances
Eduard Dragut | Yunyao Li | Lucian Popa | Slobodan Vucetic
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Data Science with Human in the Loop: Language Advances

2020

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Learning Structured Representations of Entity Names using Active Learning and Weak Supervision
Kun Qian | Poornima Chozhiyath Raman | Yunyao Li | Lucian Popa
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Structured representations of entity names are useful for many entity-related tasks such as entity normalization and variant generation. Learning the implicit structured representations of entity names without context and external knowledge is particularly challenging. In this paper, we present a novel learning framework that combines active learning and weak supervision to solve this problem. Our experimental evaluation show that this framework enables the learning of high-quality models from merely a dozen or so labeled examples.

2019

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Low-resource Deep Entity Resolution with Transfer and Active Learning
Jungo Kasai | Kun Qian | Sairam Gurajada | Yunyao Li | Lucian Popa
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Entity resolution (ER) is the task of identifying different representations of the same real-world entities across databases. It is a key step for knowledge base creation and text mining. Recent adaptation of deep learning methods for ER mitigates the need for dataset-specific feature engineering by constructing distributed representations of entity records. While these methods achieve state-of-the-art performance over benchmark data, they require large amounts of labeled data, which are typically unavailable in realistic ER applications. In this paper, we develop a deep learning-based method that targets low-resource settings for ER through a novel combination of transfer learning and active learning. We design an architecture that allows us to learn a transferable model from a high-resource setting to a low-resource one. To further adapt to the target dataset, we incorporate active learning that carefully selects a few informative examples to fine-tune the transferred model. Empirical evaluation demonstrates that our method achieves comparable, if not better, performance compared to state-of-the-art learning-based methods while using an order of magnitude fewer labels.