Luigi Procopio


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ExtEnD: Extractive Entity Disambiguation
Edoardo Barba | Luigi Procopio | Roberto Navigli
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Local models for Entity Disambiguation (ED) have today become extremely powerful, in most part thanks to the advent of large pre-trained language models. However, despite their significant performance achievements, most of these approaches frame ED through classification formulations that have intrinsic limitations, both computationally and from a modeling perspective. In contrast with this trend, here we propose ExtEnD, a novel local formulation for ED where we frame this task as a text extraction problem, and present two Transformer-based architectures that implement it. Based on experiments in and out of domain, and training over two different data regimes, we find our approach surpasses all its competitors in terms of both data efficiency and raw performance. ExtEnD outperforms its alternatives by as few as 6 F1 points on the more constrained of the two data regimes and, when moving to the other higher-resourced regime, sets a new state of the art on 4 out of 4 benchmarks under consideration, with average improvements of 0.7 F1 points overall and 1.1 F1 points out of domain. In addition, to gain better insights from our results, we also perform a fine-grained evaluation of our performances on different classes of label frequency, along with an ablation study of our architectural choices and an error analysis. We release our code and models for research purposes at


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ConSeC: Word Sense Disambiguation as Continuous Sense Comprehension
Edoardo Barba | Luigi Procopio | Roberto Navigli
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Supervised systems have nowadays become the standard recipe for Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD), with Transformer-based language models as their primary ingredient. However, while these systems have certainly attained unprecedented performances, virtually all of them operate under the constraining assumption that, given a context, each word can be disambiguated individually with no account of the other sense choices. To address this limitation and drop this assumption, we propose CONtinuous SEnse Comprehension (ConSeC), a novel approach to WSD: leveraging a recent re-framing of this task as a text extraction problem, we adapt it to our formulation and introduce a feedback loop strategy that allows the disambiguation of a target word to be conditioned not only on its context but also on the explicit senses assigned to nearby words. We evaluate ConSeC and examine how its components lead it to surpass all its competitors and set a new state of the art on English WSD. We also explore how ConSeC fares in the cross-lingual setting, focusing on 8 languages with various degrees of resource availability, and report significant improvements over prior systems. We release our code at

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SGL: Speaking the Graph Languages of Semantic Parsing via Multilingual Translation
Luigi Procopio | Rocco Tripodi | Roberto Navigli
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Graph-based semantic parsing aims to represent textual meaning through directed graphs. As one of the most promising general-purpose meaning representations, these structures and their parsing have gained a significant interest momentum during recent years, with several diverse formalisms being proposed. Yet, owing to this very heterogeneity, most of the research effort has focused mainly on solutions specific to a given formalism. In this work, instead, we reframe semantic parsing towards multiple formalisms as Multilingual Neural Machine Translation (MNMT), and propose SGL, a many-to-many seq2seq architecture trained with an MNMT objective. Backed by several experiments, we show that this framework is indeed effective once the learning procedure is enhanced with large parallel corpora coming from Machine Translation: we report competitive performances on AMR and UCCA parsing, especially once paired with pre-trained architectures. Furthermore, we find that models trained under this configuration scale remarkably well to tasks such as cross-lingual AMR parsing: SGL outperforms all its competitors by a large margin without even explicitly seeing non-English to AMR examples at training time and, once these examples are included as well, sets an unprecedented state of the art in this task. We release our code and our models for research purposes at