Lukas Edman


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Too Much Information: Keeping Training Simple for BabyLMs
Lukas Edman | Lisa Bylinina
Proceedings of the BabyLM Challenge at the 27th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

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LCT-1 at SemEval-2023 Task 10: Pre-training and Multi-task Learning for Sexism Detection and Classification
Konstantin Chernyshev | Ekaterina Garanina | Duygu Bayram | Qiankun Zheng | Lukas Edman
Proceedings of the 17th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2023)

Misogyny and sexism are growing problems in social media. Advances have been made in online sexism detection but the systems are often uninterpretable. SemEval-2023 Task 10 on Explainable Detection of Online Sexism aims at increasing explainability of the sexism detection, and our team participated in all the proposed subtasks. Our system is based on further domain-adaptive pre-training. Building on the Transformer-based models with the domain adaptation, we compare fine-tuning with multi-task learning and show that each subtask requires a different system configuration. In our experiments, multi-task learning performs on par with standard fine-tuning for sexism detection and noticeably better for coarse-grained sexism classification, while fine-tuning is preferable for fine-grained classification.


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RUG-1-Pegasussers at SemEval-2022 Task 3: Data Generation Methods to Improve Recognizing Appropriate Taxonomic Word Relations
Frank van den Berg | Gijs Danoe | Esther Ploeger | Wessel Poelman | Lukas Edman | Tommaso Caselli
Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2022)

This paper describes our system created for the SemEval 2022 Task 3: Presupposed Taxonomies - Evaluating Neural-network Semantics. This task is focused on correctly recognizing taxonomic word relations in English, French and Italian. We developed various datageneration techniques that expand the originally provided train set and show that all methods increase the performance of modelstrained on these expanded datasets. Our final system outperformed the baseline system from the task organizers by achieving an average macro F1 score of 79.6 on all languages, compared to the baseline’s 67.4.

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Subword-Delimited Downsampling for Better Character-Level Translation
Lukas Edman | Antonio Toral | Gertjan van Noord
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Subword-level models have been the dominant paradigm in NLP. However, character-level models have the benefit of seeing each character individually, providing the model with more detailed information that ultimately could lead to better models. Recent works have shown character-level models to be competitive with subword models, but costly in terms of time and computation. Character-level models with a downsampling component alleviate this, but at the cost of quality, particularly for machine translation. This work analyzes the problems of previous downsampling methods and introduces a novel downsampling method which is informed by subwords.This new downsampling method not only outperforms existing downsampling methods, showing that downsampling characters can be done without sacrificing quality, but also leads to promising performance compared to subword models for translation.


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The Importance of Context in Very Low Resource Language Modeling
Lukas Edman | Antonio Toral | Gertjan van Noord
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Natural Language Processing (ICON)

This paper investigates very low resource language model pretraining, when less than 100 thousand sentences are available. We find that, in very low-resource scenarios, statistical n-gram language models outperform state-of-the-art neural models. Our experiments show that this is mainly due to the focus of the former on a local context. As such, we introduce three methods to improve a neural model’s performance in the low-resource setting, finding that limiting the model’s self-attention is the most effective one, improving on downstream tasks such as NLI and POS tagging by up to 5% for the languages we test on: English, Hindi, and Turkish.

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Unsupervised Translation of German–Lower Sorbian: Exploring Training and Novel Transfer Methods on a Low-Resource Language
Lukas Edman | Ahmet Üstün | Antonio Toral | Gertjan van Noord
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper describes the methods behind the systems submitted by the University of Groningen for the WMT 2021 Unsupervised Machine Translation task for German–Lower Sorbian (DE–DSB): a high-resource language to a low-resource one. Our system uses a transformer encoder-decoder architecture in which we make three changes to the standard training procedure. First, our training focuses on two languages at a time, contrasting with a wealth of research on multilingual systems. Second, we introduce a novel method for initializing the vocabulary of an unseen language, achieving improvements of 3.2 BLEU for DE->DSB and 4.0 BLEU for DSB->DE.Lastly, we experiment with the order in which offline and online back-translation are used to train an unsupervised system, finding that using online back-translation first works better for DE->DSB by 2.76 BLEU. Our submissions ranked first (tied with another team) for DSB->DE and third for DE->DSB.


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Machine Translation for English–Inuktitut with Segmentation, Data Acquisition and Pre-Training
Christian Roest | Lukas Edman | Gosse Minnema | Kevin Kelly | Jennifer Spenader | Antonio Toral
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation

Translating to and from low-resource polysynthetic languages present numerous challenges for NMT. We present the results of our systems for the English–Inuktitut language pair for the WMT 2020 translation tasks. We investigated the importance of correct morphological segmentation, whether or not adding data from a related language (Greenlandic) helps, and whether using contextual word embeddings improves translation. While each method showed some promise, the results are mixed.

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Data Selection for Unsupervised Translation of German–Upper Sorbian
Lukas Edman | Antonio Toral | Gertjan van Noord
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper describes the methods behind the systems submitted by the University of Groningen for the WMT 2020 Unsupervised Machine Translation task for German–Upper Sorbian. We investigate the usefulness of data selection in the unsupervised setting. We find that we can perform data selection using a pretrained model and show that the quality of a set of sentences or documents can have a great impact on the performance of the UNMT system trained on it. Furthermore, we show that document-level data selection should be preferred for training the XLM model when possible. Finally, we show that there is a trade-off between quality and quantity of the data used to train UNMT systems.

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Low-Resource Unsupervised NMT: Diagnosing the Problem and Providing a Linguistically Motivated Solution
Lukas Edman | Antonio Toral | Gertjan van Noord
Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

Unsupervised Machine Translation has been advancing our ability to translate without parallel data, but state-of-the-art methods assume an abundance of monolingual data. This paper investigates the scenario where monolingual data is limited as well, finding that current unsupervised methods suffer in performance under this stricter setting. We find that the performance loss originates from the poor quality of the pretrained monolingual embeddings, and we offer a potential solution: dependency-based word embeddings. These embeddings result in a complementary word representation which offers a boost in performance of around 1.5 BLEU points compared to standard word2vec when monolingual data is limited to 1 million sentences per language. We also find that the inclusion of sub-word information is crucial to improving the quality of the embeddings.


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Neural Machine Translation for English–Kazakh with Morphological Segmentation and Synthetic Data
Antonio Toral | Lukas Edman | Galiya Yeshmagambetova | Jennifer Spenader
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 2: Shared Task Papers, Day 1)

This paper presents the systems submitted by the University of Groningen to the English– Kazakh language pair (both translation directions) for the WMT 2019 news translation task. We explore the potential benefits of (i) morphological segmentation (both unsupervised and rule-based), given the agglutinative nature of Kazakh, (ii) data from two additional languages (Turkish and Russian), given the scarcity of English–Kazakh data and (iii) synthetic data, both for the source and for the target language. Our best submissions ranked second for Kazakh→English and third for English→Kazakh in terms of the BLEU automatic evaluation metric.