Lukas Lange


2021

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FAME: Feature-Based Adversarial Meta-Embeddings for Robust Input Representations
Lukas Lange | Heike Adel | Jannik Strötgen | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Combining several embeddings typically improves performance in downstream tasks as different embeddings encode different information. It has been shown that even models using embeddings from transformers still benefit from the inclusion of standard word embeddings. However, the combination of embeddings of different types and dimensions is challenging. As an alternative to attention-based meta-embeddings, we propose feature-based adversarial meta-embeddings (FAME) with an attention function that is guided by features reflecting word-specific properties, such as shape and frequency, and show that this is beneficial to handle subword-based embeddings. In addition, FAME uses adversarial training to optimize the mappings of differently-sized embeddings to the same space. We demonstrate that FAME works effectively across languages and domains for sequence labeling and sentence classification, in particular in low-resource settings. FAME sets the new state of the art for POS tagging in 27 languages, various NER settings and question classification in different domains.

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To Share or not to Share: Predicting Sets of Sources for Model Transfer Learning
Lukas Lange | Jannik Strötgen | Heike Adel | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In low-resource settings, model transfer can help to overcome a lack of labeled data for many tasks and domains. However, predicting useful transfer sources is a challenging problem, as even the most similar sources might lead to unexpected negative transfer results. Thus, ranking methods based on task and text similarity — as suggested in prior work — may not be sufficient to identify promising sources. To tackle this problem, we propose a new approach to automatically determine which and how many sources should be exploited. For this, we study the effects of model transfer on sequence labeling across various domains and tasks and show that our methods based on model similarity and support vector machines are able to predict promising sources, resulting in performance increases of up to 24 F1 points.

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A Survey on Recent Approaches for Natural Language Processing in Low-Resource Scenarios
Michael A. Hedderich | Lukas Lange | Heike Adel | Jannik Strötgen | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Deep neural networks and huge language models are becoming omnipresent in natural language applications. As they are known for requiring large amounts of training data, there is a growing body of work to improve the performance in low-resource settings. Motivated by the recent fundamental changes towards neural models and the popular pre-train and fine-tune paradigm, we survey promising approaches for low-resource natural language processing. After a discussion about the different dimensions of data availability, we give a structured overview of methods that enable learning when training data is sparse. This includes mechanisms to create additional labeled data like data augmentation and distant supervision as well as transfer learning settings that reduce the need for target supervision. A goal of our survey is to explain how these methods differ in their requirements as understanding them is essential for choosing a technique suited for a specific low-resource setting. Further key aspects of this work are to highlight open issues and to outline promising directions for future research.

2020

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The SOFC-Exp Corpus and Neural Approaches to Information Extraction in the Materials Science Domain
Annemarie Friedrich | Heike Adel | Federico Tomazic | Johannes Hingerl | Renou Benteau | Anika Marusczyk | Lukas Lange
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

This paper presents a new challenging information extraction task in the domain of materials science. We develop an annotation scheme for marking information on experiments related to solid oxide fuel cells in scientific publications, such as involved materials and measurement conditions. With this paper, we publish our annotation guidelines, as well as our SOFC-Exp corpus consisting of 45 open-access scholarly articles annotated by domain experts. A corpus and an inter-annotator agreement study demonstrate the complexity of the suggested named entity recognition and slot filling tasks as well as high annotation quality. We also present strong neural-network based models for a variety of tasks that can be addressed on the basis of our new data set. On all tasks, using BERT embeddings leads to large performance gains, but with increasing task complexity, adding a recurrent neural network on top seems beneficial. Our models will serve as competitive baselines in future work, and analysis of their performance highlights difficult cases when modeling the data and suggests promising research directions.

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Closing the Gap: Joint De-Identification and Concept Extraction in the Clinical Domain
Lukas Lange | Heike Adel | Jannik Strötgen
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Exploiting natural language processing in the clinical domain requires de-identification, i.e., anonymization of personal information in texts. However, current research considers de-identification and downstream tasks, such as concept extraction, only in isolation and does not study the effects of de-identification on other tasks. In this paper, we close this gap by reporting concept extraction performance on automatically anonymized data and investigating joint models for de-identification and concept extraction. In particular, we propose a stacked model with restricted access to privacy sensitive information and a multitask model. We set the new state of the art on benchmark datasets in English (96.1% F1 for de-identification and 88.9% F1 for concept extraction) and Spanish (91.4% F1 for concept extraction).

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On the Choice of Auxiliary Languages for Improved Sequence Tagging
Lukas Lange | Heike Adel | Jannik Strötgen
Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP

Recent work showed that embeddings from related languages can improve the performance of sequence tagging, even for monolingual models. In this analysis paper, we investigate whether the best auxiliary language can be predicted based on language distances and show that the most related language is not always the best auxiliary language. Further, we show that attention-based meta-embeddings can effectively combine pre-trained embeddings from different languages for sequence tagging and set new state-of-the-art results for part-of-speech tagging in five languages.

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Adversarial Alignment of Multilingual Models for Extracting Temporal Expressions from Text
Lukas Lange | Anastasiia Iurshina | Heike Adel | Jannik Strötgen
Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP

Although temporal tagging is still dominated by rule-based systems, there have been recent attempts at neural temporal taggers. However, all of them focus on monolingual settings. In this paper, we explore multilingual methods for the extraction of temporal expressions from text and investigate adversarial training for aligning embedding spaces to one common space. With this, we create a single multilingual model that can also be transferred to unseen languages and set the new state of the art in those cross-lingual transfer experiments.

2019

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Feature-Dependent Confusion Matrices for Low-Resource NER Labeling with Noisy Labels
Lukas Lange | Michael A. Hedderich | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

In low-resource settings, the performance of supervised labeling models can be improved with automatically annotated or distantly supervised data, which is cheap to create but often noisy. Previous works have shown that significant improvements can be reached by injecting information about the confusion between clean and noisy labels in this additional training data into the classifier training. However, for noise estimation, these approaches either do not take the input features (in our case word embeddings) into account, or they need to learn the noise modeling from scratch which can be difficult in a low-resource setting. We propose to cluster the training data using the input features and then compute different confusion matrices for each cluster. To the best of our knowledge, our approach is the first to leverage feature-dependent noise modeling with pre-initialized confusion matrices. We evaluate on low-resource named entity recognition settings in several languages, showing that our methods improve upon other confusion-matrix based methods by up to 9%.

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NLNDE: Enhancing Neural Sequence Taggers with Attention and Noisy Channel for Robust Pharmacological Entity Detection
Lukas Lange | Heike Adel | Jannik Strötgen
Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on BioNLP Open Shared Tasks

Named entity recognition has been extensively studied on English news texts. However, the transfer to other domains and languages is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we describe the system with which we participated in the first subtrack of the PharmaCoNER competition of the BioNLP Open Shared Tasks 2019. Aiming at pharmacological entity detection in Spanish texts, the task provides a non-standard domain and language setting. However, we propose an architecture that requires neither language nor domain expertise. We treat the task as a sequence labeling task and experiment with attention-based embedding selection and the training on automatically annotated data to further improve our system’s performance. Our system achieves promising results, especially by combining the different techniques, and reaches up to 88.6% F1 in the competition.

2018

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KRAUTS: A German Temporally Annotated News Corpus
Jannik Strötgen | Anne-Lyse Minard | Lukas Lange | Manuela Speranza | Bernardo Magnini
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)