Łukasz Borchmann


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STable: Table Generation Framework for Encoder-Decoder Models
Michał Pietruszka | Michał Turski | Łukasz Borchmann | Tomasz Dwojak | Gabriela Nowakowska | Karolina Szyndler | Dawid Jurkiewicz | Łukasz Garncarek
Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The output structure of database-like tables, consisting of values structured in horizontal rows and vertical columns identifiable by name, can cover a wide range of NLP tasks. Following this constatation, we propose a framework for text-to-table neural models applicable to problems such as extraction of line items, joint entity and relation extraction, or knowledge base population. The permutation-based decoder of our proposal is a generalized sequential method that comprehends information from all cells in the table. The training maximizes the expected log-likelihood for a table’s content across all random permutations of the factorization order. During the content inference, we exploit the model’s ability to generate cells in any order by searching over possible orderings to maximize the model’s confidence and avoid substantial error accumulation, which other sequential models are prone to. Experiments demonstrate a high practical value of the framework, which establishes state-of-the-art results on several challenging datasets, outperforming previous solutions by up to 15\\%.


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Sparsifying Transformer Models with Trainable Representation Pooling
Michał Pietruszka | Łukasz Borchmann | Łukasz Garncarek
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We propose a novel method to sparsify attention in the Transformer model by learning to select the most-informative token representations during the training process, thus focusing on the task-specific parts of an input. A reduction of quadratic time and memory complexity to sublinear was achieved due to a robust trainable top-k operator.Our experiments on a challenging long document summarization task show that even our simple baseline performs comparably to the current SOTA, and with trainable pooling we can retain its top quality, while being 1.8× faster during training, 4.5× faster during inference, and up to 13× more computationally efficient in the decoder.


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From Dataset Recycling to Multi-Property Extraction and Beyond
Tomasz Dwojak | Michał Pietruszka | Łukasz Borchmann | Jakub Chłędowski | Filip Graliński
Proceedings of the 24th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

This paper investigates various Transformer architectures on the WikiReading Information Extraction and Machine Reading Comprehension dataset. The proposed dual-source model outperforms the current state-of-the-art by a large margin. Next, we introduce WikiReading Recycled - a newly developed public dataset, and the task of multiple-property extraction. It uses the same data as WikiReading but does not inherit its predecessor’s identified disadvantages. In addition, we provide a human-annotated test set with diagnostic subsets for a detailed analysis of model performance.

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Contract Discovery: Dataset and a Few-Shot Semantic Retrieval Challenge with Competitive Baselines
Łukasz Borchmann | Dawid Wisniewski | Andrzej Gretkowski | Izabela Kosmala | Dawid Jurkiewicz | Łukasz Szałkiewicz | Gabriela Pałka | Karol Kaczmarek | Agnieszka Kaliska | Filip Graliński
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

We propose a new shared task of semantic retrieval from legal texts, in which a so-called contract discovery is to be performed – where legal clauses are extracted from documents, given a few examples of similar clauses from other legal acts. The task differs substantially from conventional NLI and shared tasks on legal information extraction (e.g., one has to identify text span instead of a single document, page, or paragraph). The specification of the proposed task is followed by an evaluation of multiple solutions within the unified framework proposed for this branch of methods. It is shown that state-of-the-art pretrained encoders fail to provide satisfactory results on the task proposed. In contrast, Language Model-based solutions perform better, especially when unsupervised fine-tuning is applied. Besides the ablation studies, we addressed questions regarding detection accuracy for relevant text fragments depending on the number of examples available. In addition to the dataset and reference results, LMs specialized in the legal domain were made publicly available.

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ApplicaAI at SemEval-2020 Task 11: On RoBERTa-CRF, Span CLS and Whether Self-Training Helps Them
Dawid Jurkiewicz | Łukasz Borchmann | Izabela Kosmala | Filip Graliński
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper presents the winning system for the propaganda Technique Classification (TC) task and the second-placed system for the propaganda Span Identification (SI) task. The purpose of TC task was to identify an applied propaganda technique given propaganda text fragment. The goal of SI task was to find specific text fragments which contain at least one propaganda technique. Both of the developed solutions used semi-supervised learning technique of self-training. Interestingly, although CRF is barely used with transformer-based language models, the SI task was approached with RoBERTa-CRF architecture. An ensemble of RoBERTa-based models was proposed for the TC task, with one of them making use of Span CLS layers we introduce in the present paper. In addition to describing the submitted systems, an impact of architectural decisions and training schemes is investigated along with remarks regarding training models of the same or better quality with lower computational budget. Finally, the results of error analysis are presented.


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“He Said She Said” ― a Male/Female Corpus of Polish
Filip Graliński | Łukasz Borchmann | Piotr Wierzchoń
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

Gender differences in language use have long been of interest in linguistics. The task of automatic gender attribution has been considered in computational linguistics as well. Most research of this type is done using (usually English) texts with authorship metadata. In this paper, we propose a new method of male/female corpus creation based on gender-specific first-person expressions. The method was applied on CommonCrawl Web corpus for Polish (language, in which gender-revealing first-person expressions are particularly frequent) to yield a large (780M words) and varied collection of men’s and women’s texts. The whole procedure for building the corpus and filtering out unwanted texts is described in the present paper. The quality check was done on a random sample of the corpus to make sure that the majority (84%) of texts are correctly attributed, natural texts. Some preliminary (socio)linguistic insights (websites and words frequently occurring in male/female fragments) are given as well.