Luke O’Brien


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Gamli - Icelandic Oral History Corpus: Design, Collection and Evaluation
Luke O’Brien | Finnur Ingimundarson | Jón Guðnasson | Steinþór Steingrímsson
Proceedings of the 24th Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics (NoDaLiDa)

We present Gamli, an ASR corpus for Icelandic oral histories, the first of its kind for this language, derived from the Ísmús ethnographic collection. Corpora for oral histories differ in various ways from corpora for general ASR, they contain spontaneous speech, multiple speakers per channel, noisy environments, the effects of historic recording equipment, and typically a large proportion of elderly speakers. Gamli contains 146 hours of aligned speech and transcripts, split into a training set and a test set. We describe our approach for creating the transcripts, through both OCR of previous transcripts and post-editing of ASR output. We also describe our approach for aligning, segmenting, and filtering the corpus and finally training a Kaldi ASR system, which achieves 22.4% word error rate (WER) on the Gamli test set, a substantial improvement from 58.4% word error rate from a baseline general ASR system for Icelandic.


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Compiling a Highly Accurate Bilingual Lexicon by Combining Different Approaches
Steinþór Steingrímsson | Luke O’Brien | Finnur Ingimundarson | Hrafn Loftsson | Andy Way
Proceedings of Globalex Workshop on Linked Lexicography within the 13th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Bilingual lexicons can be generated automatically using a wide variety of approaches. We perform a rigorous manual evaluation of four different methods: word alignments on different types of bilingual data, pivoting, machine translation and cross-lingual word embeddings. We investigate how the different setups perform using publicly available data for the English-Icelandic language pair, doing separate evaluations for each method, dataset and confidence class where it can be calculated. The results are validated by human experts, working with a random sample from all our experiments. By combining the most promising approaches and data sets, using confidence scores calculated from the data and the results of manually evaluating samples from our manual evaluation as indicators, we are able to induce lists of translations with a very high acceptance rate. We show how multiple different combinations generate lists with well over 90% acceptance rate, substantially exceeding the results for each individual approach, while still generating reasonably large candidate lists. All manually evaluated equivalence pairs are published in a new lexicon of over 232,000 pairs under an open license.