Luna De Bruyne


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Misery Loves Complexity: Exploring Linguistic Complexity in the Context of Emotion Detection
Pranaydeep Singh | Luna De Bruyne | Orphée De Clercq | Els Lefever
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Given the omnipresence of social media in our society, thoughts and opinions are being shared online in an unprecedented manner. This means that both positive and negative emotions can be equally and freely expressed. However, the negativity bias posits that human beings are inherently drawn to and more moved by negativity and, as a consequence, negative emotions get more traffic. Correspondingly, when writing about emotions this negativity bias could lead to expressions of negative emotions that are linguistically more complex. In this paper, we attempt to use readability and linguistic complexity metrics to better understand the manifestation of emotions on social media platforms like Reddit based on the widely-used GoEmotions dataset. We demonstrate that according to most metrics, negative emotions indeed tend to generate more complex text than positive emotions. In addition, we examine whether a higher complexity hampers the automatic identification of emotions. To answer this question, we fine-tuned three state-of-the-art transformers (BERT, RoBERTa, and SpanBERT) on the same emotion detection dataset. We demonstrate that these models often fail to predict emotions for the more complex texts. More advanced LLMs like RoBERTa and SpanBERT also fail to improve by significant margins on complex samples. This calls for a more nuanced interpretation of the emotion detection performance of transformer models. We make the automatically annotated data available for further research at:

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The Paradox of Multilingual Emotion Detection
Luna De Bruyne
Proceedings of the 13th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment, & Social Media Analysis

The dominance of English is a well-known issue in NLP research. In this position paper, I turn to state-of-the-art psychological insights to explain why this problem is especially persistent in research on automatic emotion detection, and why the seemingly promising approach of using multilingual models to include lower-resourced languages might not be the desired solution. Instead, I campaign for the use of models that acknowledge linguistic and cultural differences in emotion conceptualization and verbalization. Moreover, I see much potential in NLP to better understand emotions and emotional language use across different languages.


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Aspect-Based Emotion Analysis and Multimodal Coreference: A Case Study of Customer Comments on Adidas Instagram Posts
Luna De Bruyne | Akbar Karimi | Orphee De Clercq | Andrea Prati | Veronique Hoste
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

While aspect-based sentiment analysis of user-generated content has received a lot of attention in the past years, emotion detection at the aspect level has been relatively unexplored. Moreover, given the rise of more visual content on social media platforms, we want to meet the ever-growing share of multimodal content. In this paper, we present a multimodal dataset for Aspect-Based Emotion Analysis (ABEA). Additionally, we take the first steps in investigating the utility of multimodal coreference resolution in an ABEA framework. The presented dataset consists of 4,900 comments on 175 images and is annotated with aspect and emotion categories and the emotional dimensions of valence and arousal. Our preliminary experiments suggest that ABEA does not benefit from multimodal coreference resolution, and that aspect and emotion classification only requires textual information. However, when more specific information about the aspects is desired, image recognition could be essential.

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How Language-Dependent is Emotion Detection? Evidence from Multilingual BERT
Luna De Bruyne | Pranaydeep Singh | Orphee De Clercq | Els Lefever | Veronique Hoste
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Multi-lingual Representation Learning (MRL)

As emotion analysis in text has gained a lot of attention in the field of natural language processing, differences in emotion expression across languages could have consequences for how emotion detection models work. We evaluate the language-dependence of an mBERT-based emotion detection model by comparing language identification performance before and after fine-tuning on emotion detection, and performing (adjusted) zero-shot experiments to assess whether emotion detection models rely on language-specific information. When dealing with typologically dissimilar languages, we found evidence for the language-dependence of emotion detection.


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Emotional RobBERT and Insensitive BERTje: Combining Transformers and Affect Lexica for Dutch Emotion Detection
Luna De Bruyne | Orphee De Clercq | Veronique Hoste
Proceedings of the Eleventh Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment and Social Media Analysis

In a first step towards improving Dutch emotion detection, we try to combine the Dutch transformer models BERTje and RobBERT with lexicon-based methods. We propose two architectures: one in which lexicon information is directly injected into the transformer model and a meta-learning approach where predictions from transformers are combined with lexicon features. The models are tested on 1,000 Dutch tweets and 1,000 captions from TV-shows which have been manually annotated with emotion categories and dimensions. We find that RobBERT clearly outperforms BERTje, but that directly adding lexicon information to transformers does not improve performance. In the meta-learning approach, lexicon information does have a positive effect on BERTje, but not on RobBERT. This suggests that more emotional information is already contained within this latter language model.


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An Emotional Mess! Deciding on a Framework for Building a Dutch Emotion-Annotated Corpus
Luna De Bruyne | Orphee De Clercq | Veronique Hoste
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Seeing the myriad of existing emotion models, with the categorical versus dimensional opposition the most important dividing line, building an emotion-annotated corpus requires some well thought-out strategies concerning framework choice. In our work on automatic emotion detection in Dutch texts, we investigate this problem by means of two case studies. We find that the labels joy, love, anger, sadness and fear are well-suited to annotate texts coming from various domains and topics, but that the connotation of the labels strongly depends on the origin of the texts. Moreover, it seems that information is lost when an emotional state is forcedly classified in a limited set of categories, indicating that a bi-representational format is desirable when creating an emotion corpus.


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LT3 at SemEval-2018 Task 1: A classifier chain to detect emotions in tweets
Luna De Bruyne | Orphée De Clercq | Véronique Hoste
Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper presents an emotion classification system for English tweets, submitted for the SemEval shared task on Affect in Tweets, subtask 5: Detecting Emotions. The system combines lexicon, n-gram, style, syntactic and semantic features. For this multi-class multi-label problem, we created a classifier chain. This is an ensemble of eleven binary classifiers, one for each possible emotion category, where each model gets the predictions of the preceding models as additional features. The predicted labels are combined to get a multi-label representation of the predictions. Our system was ranked eleventh among thirty five participating teams, with a Jaccard accuracy of 52.0% and macro- and micro-average F1-scores of 49.3% and 64.0%, respectively.