Luuk Van Waes

Also published as: Luuk Van Waes


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A Process-oriented Dataset of Revisions during Writing
Rianne Conijn | Emily Dux Speltz | Menno van Zaanen | Luuk Van Waes | Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Revision plays a major role in writing and the analysis of writing processes. Revisions can be analyzed using a product-oriented approach (focusing on a finished product, the text that has been produced) or a process-oriented approach (focusing on the process that the writer followed to generate this product). Although several language resources exist for the product-oriented approach to revisions, there are hardly any resources available yet for an in-depth analysis of the process of revisions. Therefore, we provide an extensive dataset on revisions made during writing (accessible via This dataset is based on keystroke data and eye tracking data of 65 students from a variety of backgrounds (undergraduate and graduate English as a first language and English as a second language students) and a variety of tasks (argumentative text and academic abstract). In total, 7,120 revisions were identified in the dataset. For each revision, 18 features have been manually annotated and 31 features have been automatically extracted. As a case study, we show two potential use cases of the dataset. In addition, future uses of the dataset are described.


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From Character to Word Level: Enabling the Linguistic Analyses of Inputlog Process Data
Mariëlle Leijten | Lieve Macken | Veronique Hoste | Eric Van Horenbeeck | Luuk Van Waes
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Computational Linguistics and Writing (CL&W 2012): Linguistic and Cognitive Aspects of Document Creation and Document Engineering

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From keystrokes to annotated process data: Enriching the output of Inputlog with linguistic information
Lieve Macken | Veronique Hoste | Mariëlle Leijten | Luuk Van Waes
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

Keystroke logging tools are a valuable aid to monitor written language production. These tools record all keystrokes, including backspaces and deletions together with timing information. In this paper we report on an extension to the keystroke logging program Inputlog in which we aggregate the logged process data from the keystroke (character) level to the word level. The logged process data are further enriched with different kinds of linguistic information: part-of-speech tags, lemmata, chunk boundaries, syllable boundaries and word frequency. A dedicated parser has been developed that distils from the logged process data word-level revisions, deleted fragments and final product data. The linguistically-annotated output will facilitate the linguistic analysis of the logged data and will provide a valuable basis for more linguistically-oriented writing process research. The set-up of the extension to Inputlog is largely language-independent. As proof-of-concept, the extension has been developed for English and Dutch. Inputlog is freely available for research purposes.