In this paper, we present a methodology for decomposing and comparing multiple meaning relations (paraphrasing, textual entailment, contradiction, and specificity). The methodology includes SHARel - a new typology that consists of 26 linguistic and 8 reason-based categories. We use the typology to annotate a corpus of 520 sentence pairs in English and we demonstrate that unlike previous typologies, SHARel can be applied to all relations of interest with a high inter-annotator agreement. We analyze and compare the frequency and distribution of the linguistic and reason-based phenomena involved in paraphrasing, textual entailment, contradiction, and specificity. This comparison allows for a much more in-depth analysis of the workings of the individual relations and the way they interact and compare with each other. We release all resources (typology, annotation guidelines, and annotated corpus) to the community.
In this paper, we present a new approach for the evaluation, error analysis, and interpretation of supervised and unsupervised Paraphrase Identification (PI) systems. Our evaluation framework makes use of a PI corpus annotated with linguistic phenomena to provide a better understanding and interpretation of the performance of various PI systems. Our approach allows for a qualitative evaluation and comparison of the PI models using human interpretable categories. It does not require modification of the training objective of the systems and does not place additional burden on the developers. We replicate several popular supervised and unsupervised PI systems. Using our evaluation framework we show that: 1) Each system performs differently with respect to a set of linguistic phenomena and makes qualitatively different kinds of errors; 2) Some linguistic phenomena are more challenging than others across all systems.
We present WARP-Text, an open-source web-based tool for annotating relationships between pairs of texts. WARP-Text supports multi-layer annotation and custom definitions of inter-textual and intra-textual relationships. Annotation can be performed at different granularity levels (such as sentences, phrases, or tokens). WARP-Text has an intuitive user-friendly interface both for project managers and annotators. WARP-Text fills a gap in the currently available NLP toolbox, as open-source alternatives for annotation of pairs of text are not readily available. WARP-Text has already been used in several annotation tasks and can be of interest to the researchers working in the areas of Paraphrasing, Entailment, Simplification, and Summarization, among others.
This paper presents the main sources of disagreement found during the annotation of the Spanish SFU Review Corpus with negation (SFU ReviewSP -NEG). Negation detection is a challenge in most of the task related to NLP, so the availability of corpora annotated with this phenomenon is essential in order to advance in tasks related to this area. A thorough analysis of the problems found during the annotation could help in the study of this phenomenon.
We present an extension of the coreference annotation in the English NP4E and the Catalan AnCora-CA corpora with near-identity relations, which are borderline cases of coreference. The annotated subcorpora have 50K tokens each. Near-identity relations, as presented by Recasens et al. (2010; 2011), build upon the idea that identity is a continuum rather than an either/or relation, thus introducing a middle ground category to explain currently problematic cases. The first annotation effort that we describe shows that it is not possible to annotate near-identity explicitly because subjects are not fully aware of it. Therefore, our second annotation effort used an indirect method, and arrived at near-identity annotations by inference from the disagreements between five annotators who had only a two-alternative choice between coreference and non-coreference. The results show that whereas as little as 2-6% of the relations were explicitly annotated as near-identity in the former effort, up to 12-16% of the relations turned out to be near-identical following the indirect method of the latter effort.
The task of coreference resolution requires people or systems to decide when two referring expressions refer to the 'same' entity or event. In real text, this is often a difficult decision because identity is never adequately defined, leading to contradictory treatment of cases in previous work. This paper introduces the concept of 'near-identity', a middle ground category between identity and non-identity, to handle such cases systematically. We present a typology of Near-Identity Relations (NIDENT) that includes fifteen types―grouped under four main families―that capture a wide range of ways in which (near-)coreference relations hold between discourse entities. We validate the theoretical model by annotating a small sample of real data and showing that inter-annotator agreement is high enough for stability (K=0.58, and up to K=0.65 and K=0.84 when leaving out one and two outliers, respectively). This work enables subsequent creation of the first internally consistent language resource of this type through larger annotation efforts.
This presentation focuses on the semi-automatic extension of Arabic WordNet (AWN) using lexical and morphological rules and applying Bayesian inference. We briefly report on the current status of AWN and propose a way of extending its coverage by taking advantage of a limited set of highly productive Arabic morphological rules for deriving a range of semantically related word forms from verb entries. The application of this set of rules, combined with the use of bilingual Arabic-English resources and Princetons WordNet, allows the generation of a graph representing the semantic neighbourhood of the original word. In previous work, a set of associations between the hypothesized Arabic words and English synsets was proposed on the basis of this graph. Here, a novel approach to extending AWN is presented whereby a Bayesian Network is automatically built from the graph and then the net is used as an inferencing mechanism for scoring the set of candidate associations. Both on its own and in combination with the previous technique, this new approach has led to improved results.
This paper presents AnCora, a multilingual corpus annotated at different linguistic levels consisting of 500,000 words in Catalan (AnCora-Ca) and in Spanish (AnCora-Es). At present AnCora is the largest multilayer annotated corpus of these languages freely available from http://clic.ub.edu/ancora. The two corpora consist mainly of newspaper texts annotated at different levels of linguistic description: morphological (PoS and lemmas), syntactic (constituents and functions), and semantic (argument structures, thematic roles, semantic verb classes, named entities, and WordNet nominal senses). All resulting layers are independent of each other, thus making easier the data management. The annotation was performed manually, semiautomatically, or fully automatically, depending on the encoded linguistic information. The development of these basic resources constituted a primary objective, since there was a lack of such resources for these languages. A second goal was the definition of a consistent methodology that can be followed in further annotations. The current versions of AnCora have been used in several international evaluation competitions
In this paper we present two large-scale verbal lexicons, AnCora-Verb-Ca for Catalan and AnCora-Verb-Es for Spanish, which are the basis for the semantic annotation with arguments and thematic roles of AnCora corpora. In AnCora-Verb lexicons, the mapping between syntactic functions, arguments and thematic roles of each verbal predicate it is established taking into account the verbal semantic class and the diatheses alternations in which the predicate can participate. Each verbal predicate is related to one or more semantic classes basically differentiated according to the four event classes -accomplishments, achievements, states and activities-, and on the diatheses alternations in which a verb can occur. AnCora-Verb-Es contains a total of 1,965 different verbs corresponding to 3,671 senses and AnCora-Verb-Ca contains 2,151 verbs and 4,513 senses. These figures correspond to the total of 500,000 words contained in each corpus, AnCora-Ca and AnCora-Es. The lexicons and the annotated corpora constitute the richest linguistic resources of this kind freely available for Spanish and Catalan. The big amount of linguistic information contained in both resources should be of great interest for computational applications and linguistic studies. Currently, a consulting interface for these lexicons is available at (http://clic.ub.edu/ancora/).
We present a machine translation framework in which the interlingua— Lexical Conceptual Structure (LCS)—is coupled with a definitional component that includes bilingual (EuroWordNet) links between words in the source and target languages. While the links between individual words are language-specific, the LCS is designed to be a language-independent, compositional representation. We take the view that the two types of information—shallower, transfer-like knowledge as well as deeper, compositional knowledge—can be reconciled in interlingual machine translation, the former for overcoming the intractability of LCS-based lexical selec- tion, and the latter for relating the underlying semantics of two words cross-linguistically. We describe the acquisition process for these two information types and present results of hand-verification of the acquired lexicon. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the two information types in interlingual MT.