Makoto Nagao

Also published as: M. Nagao


2005

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Reviewing Back the Past MT Summits
Makoto Nagao
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit X: Invited papers

1999

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Resolution of Indirect Anaphora in Japanese Sentences Using Examples: “X no Y (Y of X)”
Masaki Murata | Hitoshi Isahara | Makoto Nagao
Coreference and Its Applications

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Pronoun Resolution in Japanese Sentences Using Surface Expressions and Examples
Masaki Murata | Hitoshi Isahara | Makoto Nagao
Coreference and Its Applications

1998

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Construction of Japanese Nominal Semantic Dictionary using “A NO B” Phrases in Corpora
Sadao Kurohashi | Masaki Murata | Yasunori Yata | Mitsunobu Shimada | Makoto Nagao
The Computational Treatment of Nominals

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General Word Sense Disambiguation Method Based on a Full Sentential Context
Jiri Stetina | Sadao Kurohashi | Makoto Nagao
Usage of WordNet in Natural Language Processing Systems

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A Stochastic Language Model using Dependency and its Improvement by Word Clustering
Shinsuke Mori | Makoto Nagao
36th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Volume 2

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An Estimate of Referent of Noun Phrases in Japanese Sentences
Masaki Murata | Makoto Nagao
36th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Volume 2

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Diagram Understanding Using Integration of Layout Information and Textual Information
Yasuhiko Watanabe | Makoto Nagao
36th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Volume 2

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Aligning Articles in TV Newscasts and Newspapers
Yasuhiko Watanabe | Yoshihiro Okada | Kengo Kaneji | Makoto Nagao
36th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Volume 2

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A Stochastic Language Model using Dependency and Its Improvement by Word Clustering
Shinsuke Mori | Makoto Nagao
COLING 1998 Volume 2: The 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

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An Estimate of Referent of Noun Phrases in Japanese Sentences
Masaki Murata | Makoto Nagao
COLING 1998 Volume 2: The 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

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Diagram Understanding Using Integration of Layout Information and Textual Information
Yasuhiko Watanabe | Makoto Nagao
COLING 1998 Volume 2: The 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

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Aligning Articles in TV Newscasts and Newspapers
Yasuhiko Watanabe | Yoshihiro Okada | Kengo Kaneji | Makoto Nagao
COLING 1998 Volume 2: The 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

1997

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Corpus Based PP Attachment Ambiguity Resolution with a Semantic Dictionary
Jiri Stetina | Makoto Nagao
Fifth Workshop on Very Large Corpora

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Machine Translation Through Language Understanding
Makoto Nagao
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit VI: Plenaries

In this paper is described a general framework of a next generation machine translation system which translates a text not sentence by sentence but by considering inter-sentential discourse. The method is a step closer to human translation than the present-day machine translation systems. Particularly important are a detailed discourse analysis and a flexible text generation by using information obtained from the discourse analysis.

1996

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Document Classification Using Domain Specific Kanji Characters Extracted by X2 Method
Yasuhiko Watanabe | Masaki Murata | Masahito Takeuchi | Makoto Nagao
COLING 1996 Volume 2: The 16th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

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Word Extraction from Corpora and Its Part-of-Speech Estimation Using Distributional Analysis
Shinsuke Mori | Makoto Nagao
COLING 1996 Volume 2: The 16th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

1995

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What have we to do for the future of MT systems?
Makoto Nagao
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit V

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Parsing Without Grammar
Shinsuke Mori | Makoto Nagao
Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Parsing Technologies

We describe and evaluate experimentally a method to parse a tagged corpus without grammar modeling a natural language on context-free language. This method is based on the following three hypotheses. 1) Part-of-speech sequences on the right-hand side of a rewriting rule are less constrained as to what part-of-speech precedes and follows them than non-constituent sequences. 2) Part-of-speech sequences directly derived from the same non-terminal symbol have similar environments. 3) The most suitable set of rewriting rules makes the greatest reduction of the corpus size. Based on these hypotheses, the system finds a set of constituent-like part-of-speech sequences and replaces them with a new symbol. The repetition of these processes brings us a set of rewriting rules, a grammar, and the bracketed corpus.

1994

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A Syntactic Analysis Method of Long Japanese Sentences Based on the Detection of Conjunctive Structures
Sadao Kurohashi | Makoto Nagao
Computational Linguistics, Volume 20, Number 4, December 1994

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A New Method of N-gram Statistics for Large Number of n and Automatic Extraction of Words and Phrases from Large Text Data of Japanese
Makoto Nagao | Shinsuke Mori
COLING 1994 Volume 1: The 15th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

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Thesaurus-based Efficient Example Retrieval by Generating Retrieval Queries from Similarities
Takehito Utsuro | Kiyotaka Uchimoto | Mitsutaka Matsumoto | Makoto Nagao
COLING 1994 Volume 2: The 15th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

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Bilingual Text, Matching using Bilingual Dictionary and Statistics
Takehito Utsuro | Hiroshi Ikeda | Masaya Yamane | Yuji Matsumoto | Makoto Nagao
COLING 1994 Volume 2: The 15th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

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Automatic Detection of Discourse Structure by Checking Surface Information in Sentences
Sadao Kurohashi | Makoto Nagao
COLING 1994 Volume 2: The 15th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

1993

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Structural Disambiguation in Japanese by Evaluating Case Structures based on Examples in a Case Frame Dictionary
Sadao Kurohashi | Makoto Nagao
Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Parsing Technologies

A case structure expression is one of the most important forms to represent the meaning of a sentence. Case structure analysis is usually performed by consulting case frame information in verb dictionaries and by selecting a proper case frame for an input sentence. However, this analysis is very difficult because of word sense ambiguity and structural ambiguity. A conventional method for solving these problems is to use the method of selectional restriction, but this method has a drawback in the semantic marker (SM) system – the trade-off between descriptive power and construction cost. This paper describes a method of case structure analysis of Japanese sentences which overcomes the drawback in the SM system, concentrating on the structural disambiguation. This method selects a proper case frame for an input by the similarity measure between the input and typical example sentences of each case frame. When there are two or more possible readings for an input because of structural ambiguity, the best reading will be selected by evaluating case structures in each possible reading by the similarity measure with typical example sentences of case frames.

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Determination of Referential Property and Number of Nouns in Japanese Sentences for Machine Translation into English
Masaki Murata | Makoto Nagao
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Languages

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Translation into English
Masaki Murata | Makoto Nagao
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Languages

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Machine Translation: What have we to do?
Makoto Nagao
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit IV

1992

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Are the grammars so far developed appropriate to recognize the real structure of a sentence?
Makoto Nagao
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Languages

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A Method of Automatic Hypertext Construction from an Encyclopedic Dictionary of a Specific Field
Sadao Kurohashi | Makoto Nagao | Satoshi Sato | Masahiko Murakami
Third Conference on Applied Natural Language Processing

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Dynamic Programming Method for Analyzing Conjunctive Structures in Japanese
Sadao Kurohashi | Makoto Nagao
COLING 1992 Volume 1: The 14th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

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Lexical Knowledge Acquisition from Bilingual Corpora
Takehito Utsuro | Yuji Matsumoto | Makoto Nagao
COLING 1992 Volume 2: The 14th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

1991

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Current Practical Machine Translation Systems in Japan and Future Directions EUROTRA: an assessment of the current state of the EC’s MT programme
Makoto Nagao
Proceedings of Translating and the Computer 13: The theory and practice of machine translation – a marriage of convenience?

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Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Parsing Technologies (IWPT ’91)
Masaru Tomita | Martin Kay | Robert Berwick | Eva Hajicova | Aravind Joshi | Ronald Kaplan | Makoto Nagao | Yorick Wilks
Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Parsing Technologies

February 13-25, 1991

1990

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Toward Memory-based Translation
Satoshi Sato | Makoto Nagao
COLING 1990 Volume 3: Papers presented to the 13th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

1989

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Two years after the MT Summit
Makoto Nagao
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit II

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Japanese view of the future of machine translation
Makoto Nagao
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit II

1988

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PANEL: Language Engineering: The Real Bottle Neck of Natural Language Processing
Makoto Nagao
Coling Budapest 1988 Volume 2: International Conference on Computational Linguistics

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Extraction of Semantic Information from an Ordinary English Dictionary and its Evaluation
Jun-ichi Nakamura | Makoto Nagao
Coling Budapest 1988 Volume 2: International Conference on Computational Linguistics

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How to Get Preferred Readings in Natural Language Analysis
Jun-ichi Tsujii | Yukiyoshi Muto | Yuuji Ikeda | Makoto Nagao
Coling Budapest 1988 Volume 2: International Conference on Computational Linguistics

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Dialogue Translation vs. Text Translation
Jun-ichi Tsujii | Makoto Nagao
Coling Budapest 1988 Volume 2: International Conference on Computational Linguistics

1987

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Present and future of machine translation systems — an introduction to the MT Summit —
Makoto Nagao
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit I

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Concluding Remarks
Makoto Nagao
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit I

1986

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Solutions for Problems of MT Parser - Methods Used in Mu-Machine Translation Project -
Jun-ichi Nakamura | Jun-ichi Tsujii | Makoto Nagao
Coling 1986 Volume 1: The 11th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

1985

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Structural Transformation in the Generation Stage of the MU Japanese to English Machine Translation System
Makoto Nagao
Proceedings of the first Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Languages

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The Japanese Government Project for Machine Translation
Makoto Nagao | Jun-ichi Tsujii | Jun-ichi Nakamura
Computational Linguistics Formerly the American Journal of Computational Linguistics, Volume 11, Number 2-3, April-September 1985

1984

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Analysis Grammar of Japanese in the Mu-project - A Procedural Approach to Analysis Grammar
Jun-ichi Tsujii | Jun-ichi Nakamura | Makoto Nagao
10th International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 22nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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Grammar Writing System (GRADE) of Mu-Machine Translation Project and its Characteristics
Jun-ichi Nakamura | Jun-ichi Tsujii | Makoto Nagao
10th International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 22nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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Dealing With Incompleteness of Linguistic Knowledge in Language Translation – Transfer and Generation Stage of Mu Machine Translation Project
Makoto Nagao | Toyoaki Nishida | Jun-ichi Tsujii
10th International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 22nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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A software system for describing a grammar of machine translation: GRADE
Jun-ichi Nakamura | Makoto Nagao
Proceedings of the International Conference on Methodology and Techniques of Machine Translation: Processing from words to language

A new software system for describing a grammar of a machine translation system has been developed. This software system is called GRADE (GRAmmar DEscriber). GRADE has the following features: 1. GRADE allows a grammar writer to divide a whole grammar into several parts. Each part of the grammar is called a subgrammar. A subgrammar describes a step of the translation process. A whole grammar is then described by a network of sub-grammars. This network is called a subgrammar network. A subgrammar network allows a grammar writer to control the process of the translation precisely. When a subgrammar network in the analysis phase consists of a subgrammar for a noun-phrase (SG1) and a subgrammar for a verb-phase (SG2) in this sequence, the subgrammar network first applies SG1 to an input sentence, then applies SG2 to the result of an application of SG1, thus getting a syntactic structure for the input sentence. 2. A subgrammar consists of a set of rewriting rules. Rewriting rules in a subgrammar are applied for an input sentence in an appropriate order, which is specified in the description of the subgrammar. A rewriting rule transforms a tree structure into another tree structure. Rewriting rules use a powerful pattern matching algorithm to test their applicability to a tree structure. For example, a grammar writer can write a pattern that recognizes and parses an arbitrary numbers of sub-trees. Each node of a tree-structure has a list of pairs of a property name and a property value. A node can express a category name, a semantic marker, flags to control the translation process, and various other information. This tree-to-tree transformation operation by GRADE allows a grammar writer to describe all the processes of analysis, transfer and generation of a machine translation system with this uniform description capability of GRADE. 3. A subgrammar network or a subgrammar can be written in an entry of the dictionaries for a machine translation system. A subgrammar network or a subgrammar written in a dictionary entry is called a dictionary rule, which is specific for a word. When an input sentence contains a word which has a dictionary rule, it is applied to an input sentence at an appropriate point of a translation process. It can express more precise processing appropriate for that specific word that a general Subgrammar Network or Subgrammar. it also allows grammar writers to adjust a machine translation system to a specific domain easily. 4. GRADE is written in LISP. GRADE is implemented on FACOM M-382 and Symbolics 3600. GRADE is used in the machine translation system between Japanese and English. The project was started by the Japanese government in 1982. The effectiveness of GRADE has been demonstrated in the project.

1982

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An English Japanese Machine Translation System of the Titles of Scientific and Engineering Papers
Makoto Nagao | Jun-ichi Tsujii | Koji Yada | Toshihiro Kakimoto
Coling 1982: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computational Linguistics

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Parser Which Learns the Application Order of Rewriting Rules
Makoto Nagao | Jun-ichi Nakamura
Coling 1982: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computational Linguistics

1980

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A Machine Translation System From Japanese Into English - Another Perspective of MT Systems -
M. Nagao | J. Tsujii | K. Mitamura | H. Hirakawa | M. Kume
COLING 1980 Volume 1: The 8th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

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An Attempt to Computerized Dictionary Data Bases
M. Nagao | J. Tsujii | Y. Ueda | M. Takiyama
COLING 1980 Volume 1: The 8th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

1976

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PLATON--A New Programming Language for Natural Language Analysis
Makoto Nagao | Jun-Ichi Tsujii
American Journal of Computational Linguistics (February 1976)

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Analysis of Japanese Sentences
Makoto Nagao | Jun-Ichi Tsujii
American Journal of Computational Linguistics (February 1976)

1965

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Sentence Generation by Semantic Concordance
Toshiyuki Sakai | Makoto Nagao
COLING 1965