Manasi Patwardhan


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Adapt and Decompose: Efficient Generalization of Text-to-SQL via Domain Adapted Least-To-Most Prompting
Aseem Arora | Shabbirhussain Bhaisaheb | Harshit Nigam | Manasi Patwardhan | Lovekesh Vig | Gautam Shroff
Proceedings of the 1st GenBench Workshop on (Benchmarking) Generalisation in NLP

Cross-domain and cross-compositional generalization of Text-to-SQL semantic parsing is a challenging task. Existing Large Language Model (LLM) based solutions rely on inference-time retrieval of few-shot exemplars from the training set to synthesize a run-time prompt for each Natural Language (NL) test query. In contrast, we devise an algorithm which performs offline sampling of a minimal set-of few-shots from the training data, with complete coverage of SQL clauses, operators and functions, and maximal domain coverage within the allowed token length. This allows for synthesis of a fixed Generic Prompt (GP), with a diverse set-of exemplars common across NL test queries, avoiding expensive test time exemplar retrieval. We further auto-adapt the GP to the target database domain (DA-GP), to better handle cross-domain generalization; followed by a decomposed Least-To-Most-Prompting (LTMP-DA-GP) to handle cross-compositional generalization. The synthesis of LTMP-DA-GP is an offline task, to be performed one-time per new database with minimal human intervention. Our approach demonstrates superior performance on the KaggleDBQA dataset, designed to evaluate generalizability for the Text-to-SQL task. We further showcase consistent performance improvement of LTMP-DA-GP over GP, across LLMs and databases of KaggleDBQA, highlighting the efficacy and model agnostic benefits of our prompt based adapt and decompose approach.

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Program Synthesis for Complex QA on Charts via Probabilistic Grammar Based Filtered Iterative Back-Translation
Shabbirhussain Bhaisaheb | Shubham Paliwal | Rajaswa Patil | Manasi Patwardhan | Lovekesh Vig | Gautam Shroff
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2023

Answering complex reasoning questions from chart images is a challenging problem requiring a combination of natural language understanding, fine-grained perception, and analytical reasoning. Current chart-based Question Answering (QA) approaches largely address structural, visual or simple data retrieval-type questions with fixed-vocabulary answers and perform poorly on reasoning queries. We focus on answering realistic, complex, reasoning-based questions where the answer needs to be computed and not selected from a fixed set of choices. Our approach employs a neural semantic parser to transform Natural Language (NL) questions into SQL programs and execute them on a standardized schema populated from the extracted chart contents. In the absence of program annotations, i.e., in a weak supervision setting, we obtain initial SQL predictions from a pre-trained CodeT5 semantic parser and employ Filtered Iterative Back-Translation (FIBT) for iteratively augmenting our NL-SQL training set. The forward (neural semantic parser) and backward (language model) models are initially trained with an external NL-SQL dataset. We iteratively move towards the NL query distribution by generating NL questions from the synthesized SQL programs using a Probabilistic Context-Free Grammar (PCFG) where the production rule probabilities are induced to be inversely proportional to the probabilities in the training data. We filter out the generated NL queries with mismatched structures and compositions. Our FIBT approach achieves State-of-the-Art (SOTA) results on reasoning-based queries in the PlotQA dataset yielding a test accuracy of 60.44%, superseding the previous baselines by a large margin.


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Domain Adaptation for NMT via Filtered Iterative Back-Translation
Surabhi Kumari | Nikhil Jaiswal | Mayur Patidar | Manasi Patwardhan | Shirish Karande | Puneet Agarwal | Lovekesh Vig
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Domain Adaptation for NLP

Domain-specific Neural Machine Translation (NMT) model can provide improved performance, however, it is difficult to always access a domain-specific parallel corpus. Iterative Back-Translation can be used for fine-tuning an NMT model for a domain even if only a monolingual domain corpus is available. The quality of synthetic parallel corpora in terms of closeness to in-domain sentences can play an important role in the performance of the translation model. Recent works have shown that filtering at different stages of the back translation and weighting the sentences can provide state-of-the-art performance. In comparison, in this work, we observe that a simpler filtering approach based on a domain classifier, applied only to the pseudo-training data can consistently perform better, providing performance gains of 1.40, 1.82 and 0.76 in terms of BLEU score for Medical, Law and IT in one direction, and 1.28, 1.60 and 1.60 in the other direction in low resource scenario over competitive baselines. In the high resource scenario, our approach is at par with competitive baselines.

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Performance of BERT on Persuasion for Good
Saumajit Saha | Kanika Kalra | Manasi Patwardhan | Shirish Karande
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Natural Language Processing (ICON)

We consider the task of automatically classifying the persuasion strategy employed by an utterance in a dialog. We base our work on the PERSUASION-FOR-GOOD dataset, which is composed of conversations between crowdworkers trying to convince each other to make donations to a charity. Currently, the best known performance on this dataset, for classification of persuader’s strategy, is not derived by employing pretrained language models like BERT. We observe that a straightforward fine-tuning of BERT does not provide significant performance gain. Nevertheless, nonuniformly sampling to account for the class imbalance and a cost function enforcing a hierarchical probabilistic structure on the classes provides an absolute improvement of 10.79% F1 over the previously reported results. On the same dataset, we replicate the framework for classifying the persuadee’s response.


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Understanding Advertisements with BERT
Kanika Kalra | Bhargav Kurma | Silpa Vadakkeeveetil Sreelatha | Manasi Patwardhan | Shirish Karande
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We consider a task based on CVPR 2018 challenge dataset on advertisement (Ad) understanding. The task involves detecting the viewer’s interpretation of an Ad image captured as text. Recent results have shown that the embedded scene-text in the image holds a vital cue for this task. Motivated by this, we fine-tune the base BERT model for a sentence-pair classification task. Despite utilizing the scene-text as the only source of visual information, we could achieve a hit-or-miss accuracy of 84.95% on the challenge test data. To enable BERT to process other visual information, we append image captions to the scene-text. This achieves an accuracy of 89.69%, which is an improvement of 4.7%. This is the best reported result for this task.

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Improving NMT via Filtered Back Translation
Nikhil Jaiswal | Mayur Patidar | Surabhi Kumari | Manasi Patwardhan | Shirish Karande | Puneet Agarwal | Lovekesh Vig
Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Asian Translation

Document-Level Machine Translation (MT) has become an active research area among the NLP community in recent years. Unlike sentence-level MT, which translates the sentences independently, document-level MT aims to utilize contextual information while translating a given source sentence. This paper demonstrates our submission (Team ID - DEEPNLP) to the Document-Level Translation task organized by WAT 2020. This task focuses on translating texts from a business dialog corpus while optionally utilizing the context present in the dialog. In our proposed approach, we utilize publicly available parallel corpus from different domains to train an open domain base NMT model. We then use monolingual target data to create filtered pseudo parallel data and employ Back-Translation to fine-tune the base model. This is further followed by fine-tuning on the domain-specific corpus. We also ensemble various models to improvise the translation performance. Our best models achieve a BLEU score of 26.59 and 22.83 in an unconstrained setting and 15.10 and 10.91 in the constrained settings for En->Ja & Ja->En direction, respectively.


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From Monolingual to Multilingual FAQ Assistant using Multilingual Co-training
Mayur Patidar | Surabhi Kumari | Manasi Patwardhan | Shirish Karande | Puneet Agarwal | Lovekesh Vig | Gautam Shroff
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Deep Learning Approaches for Low-Resource NLP (DeepLo 2019)

Recent research on cross-lingual transfer show state-of-the-art results on benchmark datasets using pre-trained language representation models (PLRM) like BERT. These results are achieved with the traditional training approaches, such as Zero-shot with no data, Translate-train or Translate-test with machine translated data. In this work, we propose an approach of “Multilingual Co-training” (MCT) where we augment the expert annotated dataset in the source language (English) with the corresponding machine translations in the target languages (e.g. Arabic, Spanish) and fine-tune the PLRM jointly. We observe that the proposed approach provides consistent gains in the performance of BERT for multiple benchmark datasets (e.g. 1.0% gain on MLDocs, and 1.2% gain on XNLI over translate-train with BERT), while requiring a single model for multiple languages. We further consider a FAQ dataset where the available English test dataset is translated by experts into Arabic and Spanish. On such a dataset, we observe an average gain of 4.9% over all other cross-lingual transfer protocols with BERT. We further observe that domain-specific joint pre-training of the PLRM using HR policy documents in English along with the machine translations in the target languages, followed by the joint finetuning, provides a further improvement of 2.8% in average accuracy.


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Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Demonstrations
Yang Liu | Tim Paek | Manasi Patwardhan
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Demonstrations