Maneesh Singh


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DocInfer: Document-level Natural Language Inference using Optimal Evidence Selection
Puneet Mathur | Gautam Kunapuli | Riyaz Bhat | Manish Shrivastava | Dinesh Manocha | Maneesh Singh
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We present DocInfer - a novel, end-to-end Document-level Natural Language Inference model that builds a hierarchical document graph enriched through inter-sentence relations (topical, entity-based, concept-based), performs paragraph pruning using the novel SubGraph Pooling layer, followed by optimal evidence selection based on REINFORCE algorithm to identify the most important context sentences for a given hypothesis. Our evidence selection mechanism allows it to transcend the input length limitation of modern BERT-like Transformer models while presenting the entire evidence together for inferential reasoning. We show this is an important property needed to reason on large documents where the evidence may be fragmented and located arbitrarily far from each other. Extensive experiments on popular corpora - DocNLI, ContractNLI, and ConTRoL datasets, and our new proposed dataset called CaseHoldNLI on the task of legal judicial reasoning, demonstrate significant performance gains of 8-12% over SOTA methods. Our ablation studies validate the impact of our model. Performance improvement of 3-6% on annotation-scarce downstream tasks of fact verification, multiple-choice QA, and contract clause retrieval demonstrates the usefulness of DocInfer beyond primary NLI tasks.

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Is My Model Using the Right Evidence? Systematic Probes for Examining Evidence-Based Tabular Reasoning
Vivek Gupta | Riyaz A. Bhat | Atreya Ghosal | Manish Shrivastava | Maneesh Singh | Vivek Srikumar
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 10

Neural models command state-of-the-art performance across NLP tasks, including ones involving “reasoning”. Models claiming to reason about the evidence presented to them should attend to the correct parts of the input while avoiding spurious patterns therein, be self-consistent in their predictions across inputs, and be immune to biases derived from their pre-training in a nuanced, context- sensitive fashion. Do the prevalent *BERT- family of models do so? In this paper, we study this question using the problem of reasoning on tabular data. Tabular inputs are especially well-suited for the study—they admit systematic probes targeting the properties listed above. Our experiments demonstrate that a RoBERTa-based model, representative of the current state-of-the-art, fails at reasoning on the following counts: it (a) ignores relevant parts of the evidence, (b) is over- sensitive to annotation artifacts, and (c) relies on the knowledge encoded in the pre-trained language model rather than the evidence presented in its tabular inputs. Finally, through inoculation experiments, we show that fine- tuning the model on perturbed data does not help it overcome the above challenges.


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The Effect of Pretraining on Extractive Summarization for Scientific Documents
Yash Gupta | Pawan Sasanka Ammanamanchi | Shikha Bordia | Arjun Manoharan | Deepak Mittal | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Manish Shrivastava | Maneesh Singh | Mohit Bansal | Preethi Jyothi
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Scholarly Document Processing

Large pretrained models have seen enormous success in extractive summarization tasks. In this work, we investigate the influence of pretraining on a BERT-based extractive summarization system for scientific documents. We derive significant performance improvements using an intermediate pretraining step that leverages existing summarization datasets and report state-of-the-art results on a recently released scientific summarization dataset, SciTLDR. We systematically analyze the intermediate pretraining step by varying the size and domain of the pretraining corpus, changing the length of the input sequence in the target task and varying target tasks. We also investigate how intermediate pretraining interacts with contextualized word embeddings trained on different domains.


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HoVer: A Dataset for Many-Hop Fact Extraction And Claim Verification
Yichen Jiang | Shikha Bordia | Zheng Zhong | Charles Dognin | Maneesh Singh | Mohit Bansal
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

We introduce HoVer (HOppy VERification), a dataset for many-hop evidence extraction and fact verification. It challenges models to extract facts from several Wikipedia articles that are relevant to a claim and classify whether the claim is supported or not-supported by the facts. In HoVer, the claims require evidence to be extracted from as many as four English Wikipedia articles and embody reasoning graphs of diverse shapes. Moreover, most of the 3/4-hop claims are written in multiple sentences, which adds to the complexity of understanding long-range dependency relations such as coreference. We show that the performance of an existing state-of-the-art semantic-matching model degrades significantly on our dataset as the number of reasoning hops increases, hence demonstrating the necessity of many-hop reasoning to achieve strong results. We hope that the introduction of this challenging dataset and the accompanying evaluation task will encourage research in many-hop fact retrieval and information verification.


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Sampling Bias in Deep Active Classification: An Empirical Study
Ameya Prabhu | Charles Dognin | Maneesh Singh
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

The exploding cost and time needed for data labeling and model training are bottlenecks for training DNN models on large datasets. Identifying smaller representative data samples with strategies like active learning can help mitigate such bottlenecks. Previous works on active learning in NLP identify the problem of sampling bias in the samples acquired by uncertainty-based querying and develop costly approaches to address it. Using a large empirical study, we demonstrate that active set selection using the posterior entropy of deep models like (FTZ) is robust to sampling biases and to various algorithmic choices (query size and strategies) unlike that suggested by traditional literature. We also show that FTZ based query strategy produces sample sets similar to those from more sophisticated approaches (e.g ensemble networks). Finally, we show the effectiveness of the selected samples by creating tiny high-quality datasets, and utilizing them for fast and cheap training of large models. Based on the above, we propose a simple baseline for deep active text classification that outperforms the state of the art. We expect the presented work to be useful and informative for dataset compression and for problems involving active, semi-supervised or online learning scenarios. Code and models are available at: