We present a fairly large, Potential Idiomatic Expression (PIE) dataset for Natural Language Processing (NLP) in English. The challenges with NLP systems with regards to tasks such as Machine Translation (MT), word sense disambiguation (WSD) and information retrieval make it imperative to have a labelled idioms dataset with classes such as it is in this work. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first idioms corpus with classes of idioms beyond the literal and the general idioms classification. In particular, the following classes are labelled in the dataset: metaphor, simile, euphemism, parallelism, personification, oxymoron, paradox, hyperbole, irony and literal. We obtain an overall inter-annotator agreement (IAA) score, between two independent annotators, of 88.89%. Many past efforts have been limited in the corpus size and classes of samples but this dataset contains over 20,100 samples with almost 1,200 cases of idioms (with their meanings) from 10 classes (or senses). The corpus may also be extended by researchers to meet specific needs. The corpus has part of speech (PoS) tagging from the NLTK library. Classification experiments performed on the corpus to obtain a baseline and comparison among three common models, including the BERT model, give good results. We also make publicly available the corpus and the relevant codes for working with it for NLP tasks.
This paper describes the system used by the Machine Learning Group of LTU in subtask 1 of the SemEval-2022 Task 4: Patronizing and Condescending Language (PCL) Detection. Our system consists of finetuning a pretrained text-to-text transfer transformer (T5) and innovatively reducing its out-of-class predictions. The main contributions of this paper are 1) the description of the implementation details of the T5 model we used, 2) analysis of the successes & struggles of the model in this task, and 3) ablation studies beyond the official submission to ascertain the relative importance of data split. Our model achieves an F1 score of 0.5452 on the official test set.
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has brought online education to the forefront of pedagogical discussions. To make this increased interest sustainable in a post-pandemic era, online courses must be built on strong pedagogical foundations. With a long history of pedagogic research, there are many principles, frameworks, and models available to help teachers in doing so. These models cover different teaching perspectives, such as constructive alignment, feedback, and the learning environment. In this paper, we discuss how we designed and implemented our online Natural Language Processing (NLP) course following constructive alignment and adhering to the pedagogical principles of LTU. By examining our course and analyzing student evaluation forms, we show that we have met our goal and successfully delivered the course. Furthermore, we discuss the additional benefits resulting from the current mode of delivery, including the increased reusability of course content and increased potential for collaboration between universities. Lastly, we also discuss where we can and will further improve the current course design.