Mareike Hartmann


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Multilingual Negation Scope Resolution for Clinical Text
Mareike Hartmann | Anders Søgaard
Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Health Text Mining and Information Analysis

Negation scope resolution is key to high-quality information extraction from clinical texts, but so far, efforts to make encoders used for information extraction negation-aware have been limited to English. We present a universal approach to multilingual negation scope resolution, that overcomes the lack of training data by relying on disparate resources in different languages and domains. We evaluate two approaches to learn from these resources, training on combined data and training in a multi-task learning setup. Our experiments show that zero-shot scope resolution in clinical text is possible, and that combining available resources improves performance in most cases.

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mDAPT: Multilingual Domain Adaptive Pretraining in a Single Model
Rasmus Kær Jørgensen | Mareike Hartmann | Xiang Dai | Desmond Elliott
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Domain adaptive pretraining, i.e. the continued unsupervised pretraining of a language model on domain-specific text, improves the modelling of text for downstream tasks within the domain. Numerous real-world applications are based on domain-specific text, e.g. working with financial or biomedical documents, and these applications often need to support multiple languages. However, large-scale domain-specific multilingual pretraining data for such scenarios can be difficult to obtain, due to regulations, legislation, or simply a lack of language- and domain-specific text. One solution is to train a single multilingual model, taking advantage of the data available in as many languages as possible. In this work, we explore the benefits of domain adaptive pretraining with a focus on adapting to multiple languages within a specific domain. We propose different techniques to compose pretraining corpora that enable a language model to both become domain-specific and multilingual. Evaluation on nine domain-specific datasets—for biomedical named entity recognition and financial sentence classification—covering seven different languages show that a single multilingual domain-specific model can outperform the general multilingual model, and performs close to its monolingual counterpart. This finding holds across two different pretraining methods, adapter-based pretraining and full model pretraining.

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A Multilingual Benchmark for Probing Negation-Awareness with Minimal Pairs
Mareike Hartmann | Miryam de Lhoneux | Daniel Hershcovich | Yova Kementchedjhieva | Lukas Nielsen | Chen Qiu | Anders Søgaard
Proceedings of the 25th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

Negation is one of the most fundamental concepts in human cognition and language, and several natural language inference (NLI) probes have been designed to investigate pretrained language models’ ability to detect and reason with negation. However, the existing probing datasets are limited to English only, and do not enable controlled probing of performance in the absence or presence of negation. In response, we present a multilingual (English, Bulgarian, German, French and Chinese) benchmark collection of NLI examples that are grammatical and correctly labeled, as a result of manual inspection and reformulation. We use the benchmark to probe the negation-awareness of multilingual language models and find that models that correctly predict examples with negation cues, often fail to correctly predict their counter-examples without negation cues, even when the cues are irrelevant for semantic inference.


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Lost in Evaluation: Misleading Benchmarks for Bilingual Dictionary Induction
Yova Kementchedjhieva | Mareike Hartmann | Anders Søgaard
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

The task of bilingual dictionary induction (BDI) is commonly used for intrinsic evaluation of cross-lingual word embeddings. The largest dataset for BDI was generated automatically, so its quality is dubious. We study the composition and quality of the test sets for five diverse languages from this dataset, with concerning findings: (1) a quarter of the data consists of proper nouns, which can be hardly indicative of BDI performance, and (2) there are pervasive gaps in the gold-standard targets. These issues appear to affect the ranking between cross-lingual embedding systems on individual languages, and the overall degree to which the systems differ in performance. With proper nouns removed from the data, the margin between the top two systems included in the study grows from 3.4% to 17.2%. Manual verification of the predictions, on the other hand, reveals that gaps in the gold standard targets artificially inflate the margin between the two systems on English to Bulgarian BDI from 0.1% to 6.7%. We thus suggest that future research either avoids drawing conclusions from quantitative results on this BDI dataset, or accompanies such evaluation with rigorous error analysis.

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Mapping (Dis-)Information Flow about the MH17 Plane Crash
Mareike Hartmann | Yevgeniy Golovchenko | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Internet Freedom: Censorship, Disinformation, and Propaganda

Digital media enables not only fast sharing of information, but also disinformation. One prominent case of an event leading to circulation of disinformation on social media is the MH17 plane crash. Studies analysing the spread of information about this event on Twitter have focused on small, manually annotated datasets, or used proxys for data annotation. In this work, we examine to what extent text classifiers can be used to label data for subsequent content analysis, in particular we focus on predicting pro-Russian and pro-Ukrainian Twitter content related to the MH17 plane crash. Even though we find that a neural classifier improves over a hashtag based baseline, labeling pro-Russian and pro-Ukrainian content with high precision remains a challenging problem. We provide an error analysis underlining the difficulty of the task and identify factors that might help improve classification in future work. Finally, we show how the classifier can facilitate the annotation task for human annotators.

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Proceedings of the 22nd Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics
Mareike Hartmann | Barbara Plank
Proceedings of the 22nd Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics

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Issue Framing in Online Discussion Fora
Mareike Hartmann | Tallulah Jansen | Isabelle Augenstein | Anders Søgaard
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

In online discussion fora, speakers often make arguments for or against something, say birth control, by highlighting certain aspects of the topic. In social science, this is referred to as issue framing. In this paper, we introduce a new issue frame annotated corpus of online discussions. We explore to what extent models trained to detect issue frames in newswire and social media can be transferred to the domain of discussion fora, using a combination of multi-task and adversarial training, assuming only unlabeled training data in the target domain.


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Limitations of Cross-Lingual Learning from Image Search
Mareike Hartmann | Anders Søgaard
Proceedings of The Third Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP

Cross-lingual representation learning is an important step in making NLP scale to all the world’s languages. Previous work on bilingual lexicon induction suggests that it is possible to learn cross-lingual representations of words based on similarities between images associated with these words. However, that work focused (almost exclusively) on the translation of nouns only. Here, we investigate whether the meaning of other parts-of-speech (POS), in particular adjectives and verbs, can be learned in the same way. Our experiments across five language pairs indicate that previous work does not scale to the problem of learning cross-lingual representations beyond simple nouns.

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Why is unsupervised alignment of English embeddings from different algorithms so hard?
Mareike Hartmann | Yova Kementchedjhieva | Anders Søgaard
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

This paper presents a challenge to the community: Generative adversarial networks (GANs) can perfectly align independent English word embeddings induced using the same algorithm, based on distributional information alone; but fails to do so, for two different embeddings algorithms. Why is that? We believe understanding why, is key to understand both modern word embedding algorithms and the limitations and instability dynamics of GANs. This paper shows that (a) in all these cases, where alignment fails, there exists a linear transform between the two embeddings (so algorithm biases do not lead to non-linear differences), and (b) similar effects can not easily be obtained by varying hyper-parameters. One plausible suggestion based on our initial experiments is that the differences in the inductive biases of the embedding algorithms lead to an optimization landscape that is riddled with local optima, leading to a very small basin of convergence, but we present this more as a challenge paper than a technical contribution.

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A Danish FrameNet Lexicon and an Annotated Corpus Used for Training and Evaluating a Semantic Frame Classifier
Bolette Pedersen | Sanni Nimb | Anders Søgaard | Mareike Hartmann | Sussi Olsen
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)