Marek Kadlčík

Also published as: Marek Kadlcik


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Resources and Few-shot Learners for In-context Learning in Slavic Languages
Michal Štefánik | Marek Kadlčík | Piotr Gramacki | Petr Sojka
Proceedings of the 9th Workshop on Slavic Natural Language Processing 2023 (SlavicNLP 2023)

Despite the rapid recent progress in creating accurate and compact in-context learners, most recent work focuses on in-context learning (ICL) for tasks in English. However, the ability to interact with users of languages outside English presents a great potential for broadening the applicability of language technologies to non-English speakers. In this work, we collect the infrastructure necessary for training and evaluation of ICL in a selection of Slavic languages: Czech, Polish, and Russian. We link a diverse set of datasets and cast these into a unified instructional format through a set of transformations and newly-crafted templates written purely in target languages. Using the newly-curated dataset, we evaluate a set of the most recent in-context learners and compare their results to the supervised baselines. Finally, we train, evaluate and publish a set of in-context learning models that we train on the collected resources and compare their performance to previous work. We find that ICL models tuned in English are also able to learn some tasks from non-English contexts, but multilingual instruction fine-tuning consistently improves the ICL ability. We also find that the massive multitask training can be outperformed by single-task training in the target language, uncovering the potential for specializing in-context learners to the language(s) of their application.

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Can In-context Learners Learn a Reasoning Concept from Demonstrations?
Michal Štefánik | Marek Kadlčík
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Natural Language Reasoning and Structured Explanations (NLRSE)

Large language models show an emergent ability to learn a new task from a small number of input-output demonstrations. However, recent work shows that in-context learners largely rely on their pre-trained knowledge, such as the sentiment of the labels, instead of finding new associations in the input. However, the commonly-used few-shot evaluation settings using a random selection of in-context demonstrations can not disentangle models’ ability to learn a new skill from demonstrations, as most of the randomly-selected demonstrations do not present relations informative for prediction beyond exposing the new task distribution. To disentangle models’ in-context learning ability independent of models’ memory, we introduce a Conceptual few-shot learning method selecting the demonstrations sharing a possibly-informative concept with the predicted sample. We extract a set of such concepts from annotated explanations and measure how much can models benefit from presenting these concepts in few-shot demonstrations. We find that smaller models are more sensitive to the presented concepts. While some of the models are able to benefit from concept-presenting demonstrations for each assessed concept, we find that none of the assessed in-context learners can benefit from all presented reasoning concepts consistently, leaving the in-context concept learning an open challenge.

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Soft Alignment Objectives for Robust Adaptation of Language Generation
Michal Štefánik | Marek Kadlcik | Petr Sojka
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Domain adaptation allows generative language models to address specific flaws caused by the domain shift of their application. However, the traditional adaptation by further training on in-domain data rapidly weakens the model’s ability to generalize to other domains, making the open-ended deployments of the adapted models prone to errors. This work introduces novel training objectives built upon a semantic similarity of the predicted tokens to the reference. Our results show that (1) avoiding the common assumption of a single correct prediction by constructing the training target from tokens’ semantic similarity can largely mitigate catastrophic forgetting of adaptation, while (2) preserving the adaptation in-domain quality, (3) with negligible additions to compute costs. In the broader context, the objectives grounded in a continuous token similarity pioneer the exploration of the middle ground between the efficient but naive exact-match token-level objectives and expressive but computationally- and resource-intensive sequential objectives.