Marianne Vergez-Couret


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Empowering Low-Resource Regional Languages with Lexicons : A Comparative Study of NLP Tools for Morphosyntactic Analysis
Cristina Garcia Holgado | Marianne Vergez-Couret
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

We investigate the effect of integrating lexicon information to an extremely low-resource language when annotated data is scarce for morpho-syntactic analysis. Obtaining such data and linguistic resources for these languages are usually constrained by a lack of human and financial resources making this task particularly challenging. In this paper, we describe the collection and leverage of a bilingual lexicon for Poitevin-Saintongeais, a regional language of France, to create augmented data through a neighbor-based distributional method. We assess this lexicon-driven approach in improving POS tagging while using different lexicon and augmented data sizes. To evaluate this strategy, we compare two distinct paradigms: neural networks, which typically require extensive data, and a conventional probabilistic approach, in which a lexicon is instrumental in its performance. Our findings reveal that the lexicon is a valuable asset for all models, but in particular for neural, demonstrating an enhanced generalization across diverse classes without requiring an extensive lexicon size.

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Loflòc: A Morphological Lexicon for Occitan using Universal Dependencies
Marianne Vergez-Couret | Myriam Bras | Aleksandra Miletić | Clamença Poujade
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

This paper presents Loflòc (Lexic obèrt flechit Occitan – Open Inflected Lexicon of Occitan), a morphological lexicon for Occitan. Even though the lexicon no longer occupies the same place in the NLP pipeline since the advent of large language models, it remains a crucial resource for low-resourced languages. Occitan is a Romance language spoken in the south of France and in parts of Italy and Spain. It is not recognized as an official language in France and no standard variety is shared across the area. To the best of our knowledge, Loflòc is the first publicly available lexicon for Occitan. It contains 650 thousand entries for 57 thousand lemmas. Each entry is accompanied by the corresponding Universal Dependencies Part-of-Speech tag. We show that the lexicon has solid coverage on the existing freely available corpora of Occitan in four major dialects. Coverage gaps on multi-dialect corpora are overwhelmingly driven by dialectal variation, which affects both open and closed classes. Based on this analysis we propose directions for future improvements.

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The ParCoLab Parallel Corpus and Its Extension to Four Regional Languages of France
Dejan Stosic | Saša Marjanović | Delphine Bernhard | Myriam Bras | Laurent Kevers | Stella Retali-Medori | Marianne Vergez-Couret | Carole Werner
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Parallel corpora are still scarce for most of the world’s language pairs. The situation is by no means different for regional languages of France. In addition, adequate web interfaces facilitate and encourage the use of parallel corpora by target users, such as language learners and teachers, as well as linguists. In this paper, we describe ParCoLab, a parallel corpus and a web platform for querying the corpus. From its onset, ParCoLab has been geared towards lower-resource languages, with an initial corpus in Serbian, along with French and English (later Spanish). We focus here on the extension of ParCoLab with a parallel corpus for four regional languages of France: Alsatian, Corsican, Occitan and Poitevin-Saintongeais. In particular, we detail criteria for choosing texts and issues related to their collection. The new parallel corpus contains more than 20k tokens per regional language.

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Managing Fine-grained Metadata for Text Bases in Extremely Low Resource Languages: The Cases of Two Regional Languages of France
Marianne Vergez-Couret | Delphine Bernhard | Michael Nauge | Myriam Bras | Pablo Ruiz Fabo | Carole Werner
Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Under-resourced Languages @ LREC-COLING 2024

Metadata are key components of language resources and facilitate their exploitation and re-use. Their creation is a labour intensive process and requires a modeling step, which identifies resource-specific information as well as standards and controlled vocabularies that can be reused. In this article, we focus on metadata for documenting text bases for regional languages of France characterised by several levels of variation (space, time, usage, social status), based on a survey of existing metadata schema. Moreover, we implement our metadata model as a database structure for the Heurist data management system, which combines both the ease of use of spreadsheets and the ability to model complex relationships between entities of relational databases. The Heurist template is made freely available and was used to describe metadata for text bases in Alsatian and Poitevin-Santongeais. We also propose tools to automatically generate XML metadata headers files from the database.


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Building a Universal Dependencies Treebank for Occitan
Aleksandra Miletic | Myriam Bras | Marianne Vergez-Couret | Louise Esher | Clamença Poujade | Jean Sibille
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

This paper outlines the ongoing effort of creating the first treebank for Occitan, a low-ressourced regional language spoken mainly in the south of France. We briefly present the global context of the project and report on its current status. We adopt the Universal Dependencies framework for this project. Our methodology is based on two main principles. Firstly, in order to guarantee the annotation quality, we use the agile annotation approach. Secondly, we rely on pre-processing using existing tools (taggers and parsers) to facilitate the work of human annotators, mainly through a delexicalized cross-lingual parsing approach. We present the results available at this point (annotation guidelines and a sub-corpus annotated with PoS tags and lemmas) and give the timeline for the rest of the work.

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A Four-Dialect Treebank for Occitan: Building Process and Parsing Experiments
Aleksandra Miletic | Myriam Bras | Marianne Vergez-Couret | Louise Esher | Clamença Poujade | Jean Sibille
Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on NLP for Similar Languages, Varieties and Dialects

Occitan is a Romance language spoken mainly in the south of France. It has no official status in the country, it is not standardized and displays important diatopic variation resulting in a rich system of dialects. Recently, a first treebank for this language was created. However, this corpus is based exclusively on texts in the Lengadocian dialect. Our paper describes the work aimed at extending the existing corpus with content in three new dialects, namely Gascon, Provençau and Lemosin. We describe both the annotation of initial content in these new varieties of Occitan and experiments allowing us to identify the most efficient method for further enrichment of the corpus. We observe that parsing models trained on Occitan dialects achieve better results than a delexicalized model trained on other Romance languages despite the latter training corpus being much larger (20K vs 900K tokens). The results of the native Occitan models show an important impact of cross-dialectal lexical variation, whereas syntactic variation seems to affect the systems less. We hope that the resulting corpus, incorporating several Occitan varieties, will facilitate the training of robust NLP tools, capable of processing all kinds of Occitan texts.


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Transformation d’annotations en parties du discours et lemmes vers le format Universal Dependencies : étude de cas pour l’alsacien et l’occitan (Converting POS-tag and Lemma Annotations into the Universal Dependencies Format : A Case Study on Alsatian and Occitan )
Aleksandra Miletić | Delphine Bernhard | Myriam Bras | Anne-Laure Ligozat | Marianne Vergez-Couret
Actes de la Conférence sur le Traitement Automatique des Langues Naturelles (TALN) PFIA 2019. Volume II : Articles courts

Cet article présente un retour d’expérience sur la transformation de corpus annotés pour l’alsacien et l’occitan vers le format CONLL-U défini dans le projet Universal Dependencies. Il met en particulier l’accent sur divers points de vigilance à prendre en compte, concernant la tokénisation et la définition des catégories pour l’annotation.

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Building a treebank for Occitan: what use for Romance UD corpora?
Aleksandra Miletic | Myriam Bras | Louise Esher | Jean Sibille | Marianne Vergez-Couret
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Universal Dependencies (UDW, SyntaxFest 2019)


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Corpora with Part-of-Speech Annotations for Three Regional Languages of France: Alsatian, Occitan and Picard
Delphine Bernhard | Anne-Laure Ligozat | Fanny Martin | Myriam Bras | Pierre Magistry | Marianne Vergez-Couret | Lucie Steiblé | Pascale Erhart | Nabil Hathout | Dominique Huck | Christophe Rey | Philippe Reynés | Sophie Rosset | Jean Sibille | Thomas Lavergne
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)


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Pos-tagging different varieties of Occitan with single-dialect resources
Marianne Vergez-Couret | Assaf Urieli
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Applying NLP Tools to Similar Languages, Varieties and Dialects


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Exploiting naive vs expert discourse annotations: an experiment using lexical cohesion to predict Elaboration / Entity-Elaboration confusions
Clémentine Adam | Marianne Vergez-Couret
Proceedings of the Sixth Linguistic Annotation Workshop

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An empirical resource for discovering cognitive principles of discourse organisation: the ANNODIS corpus
Stergos Afantenos | Nicholas Asher | Farah Benamara | Myriam Bras | Cécile Fabre | Mai Ho-dac | Anne Le Draoulec | Philippe Muller | Marie-Paule Péry-Woodley | Laurent Prévot | Josette Rebeyrolles | Ludovic Tanguy | Marianne Vergez-Couret | Laure Vieu
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

This paper describes the ANNODIS resource, a discourse-level annotated corpus for French. The corpus combines two perspectives on discourse: a bottom-up approach and a top-down approach. The bottom-up view incrementally builds a structure from elementary discourse units, while the top-down view focuses on the selective annotation of multi-level discourse structures. The corpus is composed of texts that are diversified with respect to genre, length and type of discursive organisation. The methodology followed here involves an iterative design of annotation guidelines in order to reach satisfactory inter-annotator agreement levels. This allows us to raise a few issues relevant for the comparison of such complex objects as discourse structures. The corpus also serves as a source of empirical evidence for discourse theories. We present here two first analyses taking advantage of this new annotated corpus --one that tested hypotheses on constraints governing discourse structure, and another that studied the variations in composition and signalling of multi-level discourse structures.


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ANNODIS: une approche outillée de l’annotation de structures discursives
Marie-Paule Péry-Woodley | Nicholas Asher | Patrice Enjalbert | Farah Benamara | Myriam Bras | Cécile Fabre | Stéphane Ferrari | Lydia-Mai Ho-Dac | Anne Le Draoulec | Yann Mathet | Philippe Muller | Laurent Prévot | Josette Rebeyrolle | Ludovic Tanguy | Marianne Vergez-Couret | Laure Vieu | Antoine Widlöcher
Actes de la 16ème conférence sur le Traitement Automatique des Langues Naturelles. Articles courts

Le projet ANNODIS vise la construction d’un corpus de textes annotés au niveau discursif ainsi que le développement d’outils pour l’annotation et l’exploitation de corpus. Les annotations adoptent deux points de vue complémentaires : une perspective ascendante part d’unités de discours minimales pour construire des structures complexes via un jeu de relations de discours ; une perspective descendante aborde le texte dans son entier et se base sur des indices pré-identifiés pour détecter des structures discursives de haut niveau. La construction du corpus est associée à la création de deux interfaces : la première assiste l’annotation manuelle des relations et structures discursives en permettant une visualisation du marquage issu des prétraitements ; une seconde sera destinée à l’exploitation des annotations. Nous présentons les modèles et protocoles d’annotation élaborés pour mettre en oeuvre, au travers de l’interface dédiée, la campagne d’annotation.