Marija Brkić

Also published as: Marija Brkic


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On Machine Translation of User Reviews
Maja Popović | Alberto Poncelas | Marija Brkic | Andy Way
Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP 2021)

This work investigates neural machine translation (NMT) systems for translating English user reviews into Croatian and Serbian, two similar morphologically complex languages. Two types of reviews are used for testing the systems: IMDb movie reviews and Amazon product reviews. Two types of training data are explored: large out-of-domain bilingual parallel corpora, as well as small synthetic in-domain parallel corpus obtained by machine translation of monolingual English Amazon reviews into the target languages. Both automatic scores and human evaluation show that using the synthetic in-domain corpus together with a selected sub-set of out-of-domain data is the best option. Separated results on IMDb and Amazon reviews indicate that MT systems perform differently on different review types so that user reviews generally should not be considered as a homogeneous genre. Nevertheless, more detailed research on larger amount of different reviews covering different domains/topics is needed to fully understand these differences.


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Neural Machine Translation for translating into Croatian and Serbian
Maja Popović | Alberto Poncelas | Marija Brkic | Andy Way
Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on NLP for Similar Languages, Varieties and Dialects

In this work, we systematically investigate different set-ups for training of neural machine translation (NMT) systems for translation into Croatian and Serbian, two closely related South Slavic languages. We explore English and German as source languages, different sizes and types of training corpora, as well as bilingual and multilingual systems. We also explore translation of English IMDb user movie reviews, a domain/genre where only monolingual data are available. First, our results confirm that multilingual systems with joint target languages perform better. Furthermore, translation performance from English is much better than from German, partly because German is morphologically more complex and partly because the corpus consists mostly of parallel human translations instead of original text and its human translation. The translation from German should be further investigated systematically. For translating user reviews, creating synthetic in-domain parallel data through back- and forward-translation and adding them to a small out-of-domain parallel corpus can yield performance comparable with a system trained on a full out-of-domain corpus. However, it is still not clear what is the optimal size of synthetic in-domain data, especially for forward-translated data where the target language is machine translated. More detailed research including manual evaluation and analysis is needed in this direction.


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BLEU Evaluation of Machine-Translated English-Croatian Legislation
Sanja Seljan | Marija Brkić | Tomislav Vičić
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

This paper presents work on the evaluation of online available machine translation (MT) service, i.e. Google Translate, for English-Croatian language pair in the domain of legislation. The total set of 200 sentences, for which three reference translations are provided, is divided into short and long sentences. Human evaluation is performed by native speakers, using the criteria of adequacy and fluency. For measuring the reliability of agreement among raters, Fleiss' kappa metric is used. Human evaluation is enriched by error analysis, in order to examine the influence of error types on fluency and adequacy, and to use it in further research. Translation errors are divided into several categories: non-translated words, word omissions, unnecessarily translated words, morphological errors, lexical errors, syntactic errors and incorrect punctuation. The automatic evaluation metric BLEU is calculated with regard to a single and multiple reference translations. System level Pearson's correlation between BLEU scores based on a single and multiple reference translations is given, as well as correlation between short and long sentences BLEU scores, and correlation between the criteria of fluency and adequacy and each error category.