Marius Mosbach


2022

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StereoKG: Data-Driven Knowledge Graph Construction For Cultural Knowledge and Stereotypes
Awantee Deshpande | Dana Ruiter | Marius Mosbach | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Online Abuse and Harms (WOAH)

Analyzing ethnic or religious bias is important for improving fairness, accountability, and transparency of natural language processing models. However, many techniques rely on human-compiled lists of bias terms, which are expensive to create and are limited in coverage. In this study, we present a fully data-driven pipeline for generating a knowledge graph (KG) of cultural knowledge and stereotypes. Our resulting KG covers 5 religious groups and 5 nationalities and can easily be extended to more entities. Our human evaluation shows that the majority (59.2%) of non-singleton entries are coherent and complete stereotypes. We further show that performing intermediate masked language model training on the verbalized KG leads to a higher level of cultural awareness in the model and has the potential to increase classification performance on knowledge-crucial samples on a related task, i.e., hate speech detection.

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MCSE: Multimodal Contrastive Learning of Sentence Embeddings
Miaoran Zhang | Marius Mosbach | David Adelani | Michael Hedderich | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Learning semantically meaningful sentence embeddings is an open problem in natural language processing. In this work, we propose a sentence embedding learning approach that exploits both visual and textual information via a multimodal contrastive objective. Through experiments on a variety of semantic textual similarity tasks, we demonstrate that our approach consistently improves the performance across various datasets and pre-trained encoders. In particular, combining a small amount of multimodal data with a large text-only corpus, we improve the state-of-the-art average Spearman’s correlation by 1.7%. By analyzing the properties of the textual embedding space, we show that our model excels in aligning semantically similar sentences, providing an explanation for its improved performance.

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Knowledge Base Index Compression via Dimensionality and Precision Reduction
Vilém Zouhar | Marius Mosbach | Miaoran Zhang | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Semiparametric Methods in NLP: Decoupling Logic from Knowledge

Recently neural network based approaches to knowledge-intensive NLP tasks, such as question answering, started to rely heavily on the combination of neural retrievers and readers. Retrieval is typically performed over a large textual knowledge base (KB) which requires significant memory and compute resources, especially when scaled up. On HotpotQA we systematically investigate reducing the size of the KB index by means of dimensionality (sparse random projections, PCA, autoencoders) and numerical precision reduction. Our results show that PCA is an easy solution that requires very little data and is only slightly worse than autoencoders, which are less stable. All methods are sensitive to pre- and post-processing and data should always be centered and normalized both before and after dimension reduction. Finally, we show that it is possible to combine PCA with using 1bit per dimension. Overall we achieve (1) 100× compression with 75%, and (2) 24× compression with 92% original retrieval performance.

2021

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Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Beyond Vision and LANguage: inTEgrating Real-world kNowledge (LANTERN)
Marius Mosbach | Michael A. Hedderich | Sandro Pezzelle | Aditya Mogadala | Dietrich Klakow | Marie-Francine Moens | Zeynep Akata
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Beyond Vision and LANguage: inTEgrating Real-world kNowledge (LANTERN)

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incom.py 2.0 - Calculating Linguistic Distances and Asymmetries in Auditory Perception of Closely Related Languages
Marius Mosbach | Irina Stenger | Tania Avgustinova | Bernd Möbius | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP 2021)

We present an extended version of a tool developed for calculating linguistic distances and asymmetries in auditory perception of closely related languages. Along with evaluating the metrics available in the initial version of the tool, we introduce word adaptation entropy as an additional metric of linguistic asymmetry. Potential predictors of speech intelligibility are validated with human performance in spoken cognate recognition experiments for Bulgarian and Russian. Special attention is paid to the possibly different contributions of vowels and consonants in oral intercomprehension. Using incom.py 2.0 it is possible to calculate, visualize, and validate three measurement methods of linguistic distances and asymmetries as well as carrying out regression analyses in speech intelligibility between related languages.

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Graph-based Argument Quality Assessment
Ekaterina Saveleva | Volha Petukhova | Marius Mosbach | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP 2021)

The paper presents a novel discourse-based approach to argument quality assessment defined as a graph classification task, where the depth of reasoning (argumentation) is evident from the number and type of detected discourse units and relations between them. We successfully applied state-of-the-art discourse parsers and machine learning models to reconstruct argument graphs with the identified and classified discourse units as nodes and relations between them as edges. Then Graph Neural Networks were trained to predict the argument quality assessing its acceptability, relevance, sufficiency and overall cogency. The obtained accuracy ranges from 74.5% to 85.0% and indicates that discourse-based argument structures reflect qualitative properties of natural language arguments. The results open many interesting prospects for future research in the field of argumentation mining.

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Discourse-based Argument Segmentation and Annotation
Ekaterina Saveleva | Volha Petukhova | Marius Mosbach | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the 17th Joint ACL - ISO Workshop on Interoperable Semantic Annotation

The paper presents a discourse-based approach to the analysis of argumentative texts departing from the assumption that the coherence of a text should capture argumentation structure as well and, therefore, existing discourse analysis tools can be successfully applied for argument segmentation and annotation tasks. We tested the widely used Penn Discourse Tree Bank full parser (Lin et al., 2010) and the state-of-the-art neural network NeuralEDUSeg (Wang et al., 2018) and XLNet (Yang et al., 2019) models on the two-stage discourse segmentation and discourse relation recognition. The two-stage approach outperformed the PDTB parser by broad margin, i.e. the best achieved F1 scores of 21.2 % for PDTB parser vs 66.37% for NeuralEDUSeg and XLNet models. Neural network models were fine-tuned and evaluated on the argumentative corpus showing a promising accuracy of 60.22%. The complete argument structures were reconstructed for further argumentation mining tasks. The reference Dagstuhl argumentative corpus containing 2,222 elementary discourse unit pairs annotated with the top-level and fine-grained PDTB relations will be released to the research community.

2020

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A Closer Look at Linguistic Knowledge in Masked Language Models: The Case of Relative Clauses in American English
Marius Mosbach | Stefania Degaetano-Ortlieb | Marie-Pauline Krielke | Badr M. Abdullah | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Transformer-based language models achieve high performance on various tasks, but we still lack understanding of the kind of linguistic knowledge they learn and rely on. We evaluate three models (BERT, RoBERTa, and ALBERT), testing their grammatical and semantic knowledge by sentence-level probing, diagnostic cases, and masked prediction tasks. We focus on relative clauses (in American English) as a complex phenomenon needing contextual information and antecedent identification to be resolved. Based on a naturalistic dataset, probing shows that all three models indeed capture linguistic knowledge about grammaticality, achieving high performance.Evaluation on diagnostic cases and masked prediction tasks considering fine-grained linguistic knowledge, however, shows pronounced model-specific weaknesses especially on semantic knowledge, strongly impacting models’ performance. Our results highlight the importance of (a)model comparison in evaluation task and (b) building up claims of model performance and the linguistic knowledge they capture beyond purely probing-based evaluations.

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On the Interplay Between Fine-tuning and Sentence-level Probing for Linguistic Knowledge in Pre-trained Transformers
Marius Mosbach | Anna Khokhlova | Michael A. Hedderich | Dietrich Klakow
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Fine-tuning pre-trained contextualized embedding models has become an integral part of the NLP pipeline. At the same time, probing has emerged as a way to investigate the linguistic knowledge captured by pre-trained models. Very little is, however, understood about how fine-tuning affects the representations of pre-trained models and thereby the linguistic knowledge they encode. This paper contributes towards closing this gap. We study three different pre-trained models: BERT, RoBERTa, and ALBERT, and investigate through sentence-level probing how fine-tuning affects their representations. We find that for some probing tasks fine-tuning leads to substantial changes in accuracy, possibly suggesting that fine-tuning introduces or even removes linguistic knowledge from a pre-trained model. These changes, however, vary greatly across different models, fine-tuning and probing tasks. Our analysis reveals that while fine-tuning indeed changes the representations of a pre-trained model and these changes are typically larger for higher layers, only in very few cases, fine-tuning has a positive effect on probing accuracy that is larger than just using the pre-trained model with a strong pooling method. Based on our findings, we argue that both positive and negative effects of fine-tuning on probing require a careful interpretation.

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On the Interplay Between Fine-tuning and Sentence-Level Probing for Linguistic Knowledge in Pre-Trained Transformers
Marius Mosbach | Anna Khokhlova | Michael A. Hedderich | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the Third BlackboxNLP Workshop on Analyzing and Interpreting Neural Networks for NLP

Fine-tuning pre-trained contextualized embedding models has become an integral part of the NLP pipeline. At the same time, probing has emerged as a way to investigate the linguistic knowledge captured by pre-trained models. Very little is, however, understood about how fine-tuning affects the representations of pre-trained models and thereby the linguistic knowledge they encode. This paper contributes towards closing this gap. We study three different pre-trained models: BERT, RoBERTa, and ALBERT, and investigate through sentence-level probing how fine-tuning affects their representations. We find that for some probing tasks fine-tuning leads to substantial changes in accuracy, possibly suggesting that fine-tuning introduces or even removes linguistic knowledge from a pre-trained model. These changes, however, vary greatly across different models, fine-tuning and probing tasks. Our analysis reveals that while fine-tuning indeed changes the representations of a pre-trained model and these changes are typically larger for higher layers, only in very few cases, fine-tuning has a positive effect on probing accuracy that is larger than just using the pre-trained model with a strong pooling method. Based on our findings, we argue that both positive and negative effects of fine-tuning on probing require a careful interpretation.

2019

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Some steps towards the generation of diachronic WordNets
Yuri Bizzoni | Marius Mosbach | Dietrich Klakow | Stefania Degaetano-Ortlieb
Proceedings of the 22nd Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics

We apply hyperbolic embeddings to trace the dynamics of change of conceptual-semantic relationships in a large diachronic scientific corpus (200 years). Our focus is on emerging scientific fields and the increasingly specialized terminology establishing around them. Reproducing high-quality hierarchical structures such as WordNet on a diachronic scale is a very difficult task. Hyperbolic embeddings can map partial graphs into low dimensional, continuous hierarchical spaces, making more explicit the latent structure of the input. We show that starting from simple lists of word pairs (rather than a list of entities with directional links) it is possible to build diachronic hierarchical semantic spaces which allow us to model a process towards specialization for selected scientific fields.

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incom.py - A Toolbox for Calculating Linguistic Distances and Asymmetries between Related Languages
Marius Mosbach | Irina Stenger | Tania Avgustinova | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP 2019)

Languages may be differently distant from each other and their mutual intelligibility may be asymmetric. In this paper we introduce incom.py, a toolbox for calculating linguistic distances and asymmetries between related languages. incom.py allows linguist experts to quickly and easily perform statistical analyses and compare those with experimental results. We demonstrate the efficacy of incom.py in an incomprehension experiment on two Slavic languages: Bulgarian and Russian. Using incom.py we were able to validate three methods to measure linguistic distances and asymmetries: Levenshtein distance, word adaptation surprisal, and conditional entropy as predictors of success in a reading intercomprehension experiment.