Mark Gales


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CUED at ProbSum 2023: Hierarchical Ensemble of Summarization Models
Potsawee Manakul | Yassir Fathullah | Adian Liusie | Vyas Raina | Vatsal Raina | Mark Gales
The 22nd Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing and BioNLP Shared Tasks

In this paper, we consider the challenge of summarizing patients medical progress notes in a limited data setting. For the Problem List Summarization (shared task 1A) at the BioNLP Workshop 2023, we demonstrate that ClinicalT5 fine-tuned to 765 medical clinic notes outperforms other extractive, abstractive and zero-shot baselines, yielding reasonable baseline systems for medical note summarization. Further, we introduce Hierarchical Ensemble of Summarization Models (HESM), consisting of token-level ensembles of diverse fine-tuned ClinicalT5 models, followed by Minimum Bayes Risk (MBR) decoding. Our HESM approach lead to a considerable summarization performance boost, and when evaluated on held-out challenge data achieved a ROUGE-L of 32.77, which was the best-performing system at the top of the shared task leaderboard.

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SelfCheckGPT: Zero-Resource Black-Box Hallucination Detection for Generative Large Language Models
Potsawee Manakul | Adian Liusie | Mark Gales
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Generative Large Language Models (LLMs) such as GPT-3 are capable of generating highly fluent responses to a wide variety of user prompts. However, LLMs are known to hallucinate facts and make non-factual statements which can undermine trust in their output. Existing fact-checking approaches either require access to the output probability distribution (which may not be available for systems such as ChatGPT) or external databases that are interfaced via separate, often complex, modules. In this work, we propose “SelfCheckGPT”, a simple sampling-based approach that can be used to fact-check the responses of black-box models in a zero-resource fashion, i.e. without an external database. SelfCheckGPT leverages the simple idea that if an LLM has knowledge of a given concept, sampled responses are likely to be similar and contain consistent facts. However, for hallucinated facts, stochastically sampled responses are likely to diverge and contradict one another. We investigate this approach by using GPT-3 to generate passages about individuals from the WikiBio dataset, and manually annotate the factuality of the generated passages. We demonstrate that SelfCheckGPT can: i) detect non-factual and factual sentences; and ii) rank passages in terms of factuality. We compare our approach to several baselines and show that our approach has considerably higher AUC-PR scores in sentence-level hallucination detection and higher correlation scores in passage-level factuality assessment compared to grey-box methods.

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“World Knowledge” in Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension
Adian Liusie | Vatsal Raina | Mark Gales
Proceedings of the Sixth Fact Extraction and VERification Workshop (FEVER)

Recently it has been shown that without any access to the contextual passage, multiple choice reading comprehension (MCRC) systems are able to answer questions significantly better than random on average. These systems use their accumulated “world knowledge” to directly answer questions, rather than using information from the passage. This paper examines the possibility of exploiting this observation as a tool for test designers to ensure that the form of “world knowledge” is acceptable for a particular set of questions. We propose information-theory based metrics that enable the level of “world knowledge” exploited by systems to be assessed. Two metrics are described: the expected number of options, which measures whether a passage-free system can identify the answer a question using world knowledge; and the contextual mutual information, which measures the importance of context for a given question. We demonstrate that questions with low expected number of options, and hence answerable by the shortcut system, are often similarly answerable by humans without context. This highlights that the general knowledge ‘shortcuts’ could be equally used by exam candidates, and that our proposed metrics may be helpful for future test designers to monitor the quality of questions.

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Sample Attackability in Natural Language Adversarial Attacks
Vyas Raina | Mark Gales
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Trustworthy Natural Language Processing (TrustNLP 2023)

Adversarial attack research in natural language processing (NLP) has made significant progress in designing powerful attack methods and defence approaches. However, few efforts have sought to identify which source samples are the most attackable or robust, i.e. can we determine for an unseen target model, which samples are the most vulnerable to an adversarial attack. This work formally extends the definition of sample attackability/robustness for NLP attacks. Experiments on two popular NLP datasets, four state of the art models and four different NLP adversarial attack methods, demonstrate that sample uncertainty is insufficient for describing characteristics of attackable/robust samples and hence a deep learning based detector can perform much better at identifying the most attackable and robust samples for an unseen target model. Nevertheless, further analysis finds that there is little agreement in which samples are considered the most attackable/robust across different NLP attack methods, explaining a lack of portability of attackability detection methods across attack methods.


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Grammatical Error Correction Systems for Automated Assessment: Are They Susceptible to Universal Adversarial Attacks?
Vyas Raina | Yiting Lu | Mark Gales
Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 12th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Grammatical error correction (GEC) systems are a useful tool for assessing a learner’s writing ability. These systems allow the grammatical proficiency of a candidate’s text to be assessed without requiring an examiner or teacher to read the text. A simple summary of a candidate’s ability can be measured by the total number of edits between the input text and the GEC system output: the fewer the edits the better the candidate. With advances in deep learning, GEC systems have become increasingly powerful and accurate. However, deep learning systems are susceptible to adversarial attacks, in which a small change at the input can cause large, undesired changes at the output. In the context of GEC for automated assessment, the aim of an attack can be to deceive the system into not correcting (concealing) grammatical errors to create the perception of higher language ability. An interesting aspect of adversarial attacks in this scenario is that the attack needs to be simple as it must be applied by, for example, a learner of English. The form of realistic attack examined in this work is appending the same phrase to each input sentence: a concatenative universal attack. The candidate only needs to learn a single attack phrase. State-of-the-art GEC systems are found to be susceptible to this form of simple attack, which transfers to different test sets as well as system architectures,

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Analyzing Biases to Spurious Correlations in Text Classification Tasks
Adian Liusie | Vatsal Raina | Vyas Raina | Mark Gales
Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 12th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Machine learning systems have shown impressive performance across a range of natural language tasks. However, it has been hypothesized that these systems are prone to learning spurious correlations that may be present in the training data. Though these correlations will not impact in-domain performance, they are unlikely to generalize well to out-of-domain data, limiting the applicability of systems. This work examines this phenomenon on text classification tasks. Rather than artificially injecting features into the data, we demonstrate that real spurious correlations can be exploited by current state-of-the-art deep-learning systems. Specifically, we show that even when only ‘stop’ words are available at the input stage, it is possible to predict the class significantly better than random. Though it is shown that these stop words are not required for good in-domain performance, they can degrade the ability of the system to generalize well to out-of-domain data.

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Residue-Based Natural Language Adversarial Attack Detection
Vyas Raina | Mark Gales
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Deep learning based systems are susceptible to adversarial attacks, where a small, imperceptible change at the input alters the model prediction. However, to date the majority of the approaches to detect these attacks have been designed for image processing systems. Many popular image adversarial detection approaches are able to identify adversarial examples from embedding feature spaces, whilst in the NLP domain existing state of the art detection approaches solely focus on input text features, without consideration of model embedding spaces. This work examines what differences result when porting these image designed strategies to Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks - these detectors are found to not port over well. This is expected as NLP systems have a very different form of input: discrete and sequential in nature, rather than the continuous and fixed size inputs for images. As an equivalent model-focused NLP detection approach, this work proposes a simple sentence-embedding “residue” based detector to identify adversarial examples. On many tasks, it out-performs ported image domain detectors and recent state of the art NLP specific detectors.

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Answer Uncertainty and Unanswerability in Multiple-Choice Machine Reading Comprehension
Vatsal Raina | Mark Gales
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Machine reading comprehension (MRC) has drawn a lot of attention as an approach for assessing the ability of systems to understand natural language. Usually systems focus on selecting the correct answer to a question given a contextual paragraph. However, for many applications of multiple-choice MRC systems there are two additional considerations. For multiple-choice exams there is often a negative marking scheme; there is a penalty for an incorrect answer. In terms of an MRC system this means that the system is required to have an idea of the uncertainty in the predicted answer. The second consideration is that many multiple-choice questions have the option of none-of-the-above (NOA) indicating that none of the answers is applicable, rather than there always being the correct answer in the list of choices. This paper investigates both of these issues by making use of predictive uncertainty. Whether the system should propose an answer is a direct application of answer uncertainty. There are two possibilities when considering the NOA option. The simplest is to explicitly build a system on data that includes this option. Alternatively uncertainty can be applied to detect whether the other options include the correct answer. If the system is not sufficiently confident it will select NOA. As there is no standard corpus available to investigate these topics, the ReClor corpus is modified by removing the correct answer from a subset of possible answers. A high-performance MRC system is used to evaluate whether answer uncertainty can be applied in these situations. It is shown that uncertainty does allow questions that the system is not confident about to be detected. Additionally it is shown that uncertainty outperforms a system explicitly built with an NOA option.

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On Assessing and Developing Spoken ’Grammatical Error Correction’ Systems
Yiting Lu | Stefano Bannò | Mark Gales
Proceedings of the 17th Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications (BEA 2022)

Spoken ‘grammatical error correction’ (SGEC) is an important process to provide feedback for second language learning. Due to a lack of end-to-end training data, SGEC is often implemented as a cascaded, modular system, consisting of speech recognition, disfluency removal, and grammatical error correction (GEC). This cascaded structure enables efficient use of training data for each module. It is, however, difficult to compare and evaluate the performance of individual modules as preceeding modules may introduce errors. For example the GEC module input depends on the output of non-native speech recognition and disfluency detection, both challenging tasks for learner data. This paper focuses on the assessment and development of SGEC systems. We first discuss metrics for evaluating SGEC, both individual modules and the overall system. The system-level metrics enable tuning for optimal system performance. A known issue in cascaded systems is error propagation between modules. To mitigate this problem semi-supervised approaches and self-distillation are investigated. Lastly, when SGEC system gets deployed it is important to give accurate feedback to users. Thus, we apply filtering to remove edits with low-confidence, aiming to improve overall feedback precision. The performance metrics are examined on a Linguaskill multi-level data set, which includes the original non-native speech, manual transcriptions and reference grammatical error corrections, to enable system analysis and development.


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Long-Span Summarization via Local Attention and Content Selection
Potsawee Manakul | Mark Gales
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Transformer-based models have achieved state-of-the-art results in a wide range of natural language processing (NLP) tasks including document summarization. Typically these systems are trained by fine-tuning a large pre-trained model to the target task. One issue with these transformer-based models is that they do not scale well in terms of memory and compute requirements as the input length grows. Thus, for long document summarization, it can be challenging to train or fine-tune these models. In this work, we exploit large pre-trained transformer-based models and address long-span dependencies in abstractive summarization using two methods: local self-attention; and explicit content selection. These approaches are compared on a range of network configurations. Experiments are carried out on standard long-span summarization tasks, including Spotify Podcast, arXiv, and PubMed datasets. We demonstrate that by combining these methods, we can achieve state-of-the-art results on all three tasks in the ROUGE scores. Moreover, without a large-scale GPU card, our approach can achieve comparable or better results than existing approaches.

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Sparsity and Sentence Structure in Encoder-Decoder Attention of Summarization Systems
Potsawee Manakul | Mark Gales
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Transformer models have achieved state-of-the-art results in a wide range of NLP tasks including summarization. Training and inference using large transformer models can be computationally expensive. Previous work has focused on one important bottleneck, the quadratic self-attention mechanism in the encoder. Modified encoder architectures such as LED or LoBART use local attention patterns to address this problem for summarization. In contrast, this work focuses on the transformer’s encoder-decoder attention mechanism. The cost of this attention becomes more significant in inference or training approaches that require model-generated histories. First, we examine the complexity of the encoder-decoder attention. We demonstrate empirically that there is a sparse sentence structure in document summarization that can be exploited by constraining the attention mechanism to a subset of input sentences, whilst maintaining system performance. Second, we propose a modified architecture that selects the subset of sentences to constrain the encoder-decoder attention. Experiments are carried out on abstractive summarization tasks, including CNN/DailyMail, XSum, Spotify Podcast, and arXiv.


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Complementary Systems for Off-Topic Spoken Response Detection
Vatsal Raina | Mark Gales | Kate Knill
Proceedings of the Fifteenth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications

Increased demand to learn English for business and education has led to growing interest in automatic spoken language assessment and teaching systems. With this shift to automated approaches it is important that systems reliably assess all aspects of a candidate’s responses. This paper examines one form of spoken language assessment; whether the response from the candidate is relevant to the prompt provided. This will be referred to as off-topic spoken response detection. Two forms of previously proposed approaches are examined in this work: the hierarchical attention-based topic model (HATM); and the similarity grid model (SGM). The work focuses on the scenario when the prompt, and associated responses, have not been seen in the training data, enabling the system to be applied to new test scripts without the need to collect data or retrain the model. To improve the performance of the systems for unseen prompts, data augmentation based on easy data augmentation (EDA) and translation based approaches are applied. Additionally for the HATM, a form of prompt dropout is described. The systems were evaluated on both seen and unseen prompts from Linguaskill Business and General English tests. For unseen data the performance of the HATM was improved using data augmentation, in contrast to the SGM where no gains were obtained. The two approaches were found to be complementary to one another, yielding a combined F0.5 score of 0.814 for off-topic response detection where the prompts have not been seen in training.


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Incorporating Uncertainty into Deep Learning for Spoken Language Assessment
Andrey Malinin | Anton Ragni | Kate Knill | Mark Gales
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

There is a growing demand for automatic assessment of spoken English proficiency. These systems need to handle large variations in input data owing to the wide range of candidate skill levels and L1s, and errors from ASR. Some candidates will be a poor match to the training data set, undermining the validity of the predicted grade. For high stakes tests it is essential for such systems not only to grade well, but also to provide a measure of their uncertainty in their predictions, enabling rejection to human graders. Previous work examined Gaussian Process (GP) graders which, though successful, do not scale well with large data sets. Deep Neural Network (DNN) may also be used to provide uncertainty using Monte-Carlo Dropout (MCD). This paper proposes a novel method to yield uncertainty and compares it to GPs and DNNs with MCD. The proposed approach explicitly teaches a DNN to have low uncertainty on training data and high uncertainty on generated artificial data. On experiments conducted on data from the Business Language Testing Service (BULATS), the proposed approach is found to outperform GPs and DNNs with MCD in uncertainty-based rejection whilst achieving comparable grading performance.


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Off-topic Response Detection for Spontaneous Spoken English Assessment
Andrey Malinin | Rogier Van Dalen | Kate Knill | Yu Wang | Mark Gales
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Towards Using Conversations with Spoken Dialogue Systems in the Automated Assessment of Non-Native Speakers of English
Diane Litman | Steve Young | Mark Gales | Kate Knill | Karen Ottewell | Rogier van Dalen | David Vandyke
Proceedings of the 17th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue