Martin Fajcik


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Rethinking the Objectives of Extractive Question Answering
Martin Fajcik | Josef Jon | Pavel Smrz
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Machine Reading for Question Answering

This work demonstrates that using the objective with independence assumption for modelling the span probability P (a_s , a_e ) = P (a_s )P (a_e) of span starting at position a_s and ending at position a_e has adverse effects. Therefore we propose multiple approaches to modelling joint probability P (a_s , a_e) directly. Among those, we propose a compound objective, composed from the joint probability while still keeping the objective with independence assumption as an auxiliary objective. We find that the compound objective is consistently superior or equal to other assumptions in exact match. Additionally, we identified common errors caused by the assumption of independence and manually checked the counterpart predictions, demonstrating the impact of the compound objective on the real examples. Our findings are supported via experiments with three extractive QA models (BIDAF, BERT, ALBERT) over six datasets and our code, individual results and manual analysis are available online.

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R2-D2: A Modular Baseline for Open-Domain Question Answering
Martin Fajcik | Martin Docekal | Karel Ondrej | Pavel Smrz
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

This work presents a novel four-stage open-domain QA pipeline R2-D2 (Rank twice, reaD twice). The pipeline is composed of a retriever, passage reranker, extractive reader, generative reader and a mechanism that aggregates the final prediction from all system’s components. We demonstrate its strength across three open-domain QA datasets: NaturalQuestions, TriviaQA and EfficientQA, surpassing state-of-the-art on the first two. Our analysis demonstrates that: (i) combining extractive and generative reader yields absolute improvements up to 5 exact match and it is at least twice as effective as the posterior averaging ensemble of the same models with different parameters, (ii) the extractive reader with fewer parameters can match the performance of the generative reader on extractive QA datasets.


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BUT-FIT at SemEval-2020 Task 4: Multilingual Commonsense
Josef Jon | Martin Fajcik | Martin Docekal | Pavel Smrz
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

We participated in all three subtasks. In subtasks A and B, our submissions are based on pretrained language representation models (namely ALBERT) and data augmentation. We experimented with solving the task for another language, Czech, by means of multilingual models and machine translated dataset, or translated model inputs. We show that with a strong machine translation system, our system can be used in another language with a small accuracy loss. In subtask C, our submission, which is based on pretrained sequence-to-sequence model (BART), ranked 1st in BLEU score ranking, however, we show that the correlation between BLEU and human evaluation, in which our submission ended up 4th, is low. We analyse the metrics used in the evaluation and we propose an additional score based on model from subtask B, which correlates well with our manual ranking, as well as reranking method based on the same principle. We performed an error and dataset analysis for all subtasks and we present our findings.

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BUT-FIT at SemEval-2020 Task 5: Automatic Detection of Counterfactual Statements with Deep Pre-trained Language Representation Models
Martin Fajcik | Josef Jon | Martin Docekal | Pavel Smrz
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper describes BUT-FIT’s submission at SemEval-2020 Task 5: Modelling Causal Reasoning in Language: Detecting Counterfactuals. The challenge focused on detecting whether a given statement contains a counterfactual (Subtask 1) and extracting both antecedent and consequent parts of the counterfactual from the text (Subtask 2). We experimented with various state-of-the-art language representation models (LRMs). We found RoBERTa LRM to perform the best in both subtasks. We achieved the first place in both exact match and F1 for Subtask 2 and ranked second for Subtask 1.

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JokeMeter at SemEval-2020 Task 7: Convolutional Humor
Martin Docekal | Martin Fajcik | Josef Jon | Pavel Smrz
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper describes our system that was designed for Humor evaluation within the SemEval-2020 Task 7. The system is based on convolutional neural network architecture. We investigate the system on the official dataset, and we provide more insight to model itself to see how the learned inner features look.


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BUT-FIT at SemEval-2019 Task 7: Determining the Rumour Stance with Pre-Trained Deep Bidirectional Transformers
Martin Fajcik | Pavel Smrz | Lukas Burget
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper describes our system submitted to SemEval 2019 Task 7: RumourEval 2019: Determining Rumour Veracity and Support for Rumours, Subtask A (Gorrell et al., 2019). The challenge focused on classifying whether posts from Twitter and Reddit support, deny, query, or comment a hidden rumour, truthfulness of which is the topic of an underlying discussion thread. We formulate the problem as a stance classification, determining the rumour stance of a post with respect to the previous thread post and the source thread post. The recent BERT architecture was employed to build an end-to-end system which has reached the F1 score of 61.67 % on the provided test data. Without any hand-crafted feature, the system finished at the 2nd place in the competition, only 0.2 % behind the winner.