Matti Wiegmann


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Trigger Warnings: Bootstrapping a Violence Detector for Fan Fiction
Magdalena Wolska | Matti Wiegmann | Christopher Schröder | Ole Borchardt | Benno Stein | Martin Potthast
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

We present the first dataset and evaluation results on a newly defined task: assigning trigger warnings. We introduce a labeled corpus of narrative fiction from Archive of Our Own (AO3), a popular fan fiction site, and define a document-level classification task to determine whether or not to assign a trigger warning to an English story. We focus on the most commonly assigned trigger type “violence’ using the warning labels provided by AO3 authors as ground-truth labels. We trained SVM, BERT, and Longfomer models on three datasets sampled from the corpus and achieve F1 scores between 0.8 and 0.9, indicating that assigning trigger warnings for violence is feasible.

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Trigger Warning Assignment as a Multi-Label Document Classification Problem
Matti Wiegmann | Magdalena Wolska | Christopher Schröder | Ole Borchardt | Benno Stein | Martin Potthast
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

A trigger warning is used to warn people about potentially disturbing content. We introduce trigger warning assignment as a multi-label classification task, create the Webis Trigger Warning Corpus 2022, and with it the first dataset of 1 million fanfiction works from Archive of our Own with up to 36 different warnings per document. To provide a reliable catalog of trigger warnings, we organized 41 million of free-form tags assigned by fanfiction authors into the first comprehensive taxonomy of trigger warnings by mapping them to the 36 institutionally recommended warnings. To determine the best operationalization of trigger warnings, we explore state-of-the-art multi-label models, examining the trade-off between assigning coarse- and fine-grained warnings, open- and closed-set classification, document length, and label confidence. Our models achieve micro-F1 scores of about 0.5, which reveals the difficulty of the task. Tailored representations, long input sequences, and a higher recall on rare warnings would help.


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Analyzing Persuasion Strategies of Debaters on Social Media
Matti Wiegmann | Khalid Al Khatib | Vishal Khanna | Benno Stein
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Existing studies on the analysis of persuasion in online discussions focus on investigating the effectiveness of comments in discussions and ignore the analysis of the effectiveness of debaters over multiple discussions. In this paper, we propose to quantify debaters effectiveness in the online discussion platform: “ChangeMyView” in order to explore diverse insights into their persuasion strategies. In particular, targeting debaters with different levels of effectiveness (e.g., good vs. bad), various behavioral characteristics (e..g, engagement) and text stylistic features (e.g., used frames) of debaters are carefully examined, leading to several outcomes that can be the backbone of writing assistants and persuasive text generation.

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Language Models as Context-sensitive Word Search Engines
Matti Wiegmann | Michael Völske | Benno Stein | Martin Potthast
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Intelligent and Interactive Writing Assistants (In2Writing 2022)

Context-sensitive word search engines are writing assistants that support word choice, phrasing, and idiomatic language use by indexing large-scale n-gram collections and implementing a wildcard search. However, search results become unreliable with increasing context size (e.g., n>=5), when observations become sparse. This paper proposes two strategies for word search with larger n, based on masked and conditional language modeling. We build such search engines using BERT and BART and compare their capabilities in answering English context queries with those of the n-gram-based word search engine Netspeak. Our proposed strategies score within 5 percentage points MRR of n-gram collections while answering up to 5 times as many queries.


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Celebrity Profiling
Matti Wiegmann | Benno Stein | Martin Potthast
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Celebrities are among the most prolific users of social media, promoting their personas and rallying followers. This activity is closely tied to genuine writing samples, which makes them worthy research subjects in many respects, not least profiling. With this paper we introduce the Webis Celebrity Corpus 2019. For its construction the Twitter feeds of 71,706 verified accounts have been carefully linked with their respective Wikidata items, crawling both. After cleansing, the resulting profiles contain an average of 29,968 words per profile and up to 239 pieces of personal information. A cross-evaluation that checked the correct association of Twitter account and Wikidata item revealed an error rate of only 0.6%, rendering the profiles highly reliable. Our corpus comprises a wide cross-section of local and global celebrities, forming a unique combination of scale, profile comprehensiveness, and label reliability. We further establish the state of the art’s profiling performance by evaluating the winning approaches submitted to the PAN gender prediction tasks in a transfer learning experiment. They are only outperformed by our own deep learning approach, which we also use to exemplify celebrity occupation prediction for the first time.


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Crowdsourcing a Large Corpus of Clickbait on Twitter
Martin Potthast | Tim Gollub | Kristof Komlossy | Sebastian Schuster | Matti Wiegmann | Erika Patricia Garces Fernandez | Matthias Hagen | Benno Stein
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Clickbait has become a nuisance on social media. To address the urging task of clickbait detection, we constructed a new corpus of 38,517 annotated Twitter tweets, the Webis Clickbait Corpus 2017. To avoid biases in terms of publisher and topic, tweets were sampled from the top 27 most retweeted news publishers, covering a period of 150 days. Each tweet has been annotated on 4-point scale by five annotators recruited at Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. The corpus has been employed to evaluate 12 clickbait detectors submitted to the Clickbait Challenge 2017. Download: Challenge: