Mayank Kulkarni


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Overcoming Catastrophic Forgetting in Massively Multilingual Continual Learning
Genta Winata | Lingjue Xie | Karthik Radhakrishnan | Shijie Wu | Xisen Jin | Pengxiang Cheng | Mayank Kulkarni | Daniel Preotiuc-Pietro
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Real-life multilingual systems should be able to efficiently incorporate new languages as data distributions fed to the system evolve and shift over time. To do this, systems need to handle the issue of catastrophic forgetting, where the model performance drops for languages or tasks seen further in its past. In this paper, we study catastrophic forgetting, as well as methods to minimize this, in a massively multilingual continual learning framework involving up to 51 languages and covering both classification and sequence labeling tasks. We present LR ADJUST, a learning rate scheduling method that is simple, yet effective in preserving new information without strongly overwriting past knowledge. Furthermore, we show that this method is effective across multiple continual learning approaches. Finally, we provide further insights into the dynamics of catastrophic forgetting in this massively multilingual setup.

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An Empirical Analysis of Leveraging Knowledge for Low-Resource Task-Oriented Semantic Parsing
Mayank Kulkarni | Aoxiao Zhong | Nicolas Guenon des mesnards | Sahar Movaghati | Mukund Sridhar | He Xie | Jianhua Lu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Task-oriented semantic parsing has drawn a lot of interest from the NLP community, and especially the voice assistant industry as it enables representing the meaning of user requests with arbitrarily nested semantics, including multiple intents and compound entities. SOTA models are large seq2seq transformers and require hundreds of thousands of annotated examples to be trained. However annotating such data to bootstrap new domains or languages is expensive and error-prone, especially for requests made of nested semantics. In addition large models easily break the tight latency constraints imposed in a user-facing production environment. As part of this work we explore leveraging external knowledge to improve model accuracy in low-resource and low-compute settings. We demonstrate that using knowledge-enhanced encoders inside seq2seq models does not result in performance gains by itself, but jointly learning to uncover entities in addition to the parse generation is a simple yet effective way of improving performance across the board. We show this is especially true in the low-compute scarce-data setting and for entity-rich domains, with relative gains up to 74.48% on the TOPv2 dataset.

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EntSUMv2: Dataset, Models and Evaluation for More Abstractive Entity-Centric Summarization
Dhruv Mehra | Lingjue Xie | Ella Hofmann-Coyle | Mayank Kulkarni | Daniel Preotiuc-Pietro
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Entity-centric summarization is a form of controllable summarization that aims to generate a summary for a specific entity given a document. Concise summaries are valuable in various real-life applications, as they enable users to quickly grasp the main points of the document focusing on an entity of interest. This paper presents ENTSUMV2, a more abstractive version of the original entity-centric ENTSUM summarization dataset. In ENTSUMV2 the annotated summaries are intentionally made shorter to benefit more specific and useful entity-centric summaries for downstream users. We conduct extensive experiments on this dataset using multiple abstractive summarization approaches that employ supervised fine-tuning or large-scale instruction tuning. Additionally, we perform comprehensive human evaluation that incorporates metrics for measuring crucial facets. These metrics provide a more fine-grained interpretation of the current state-of-the-art systems and highlight areas for future improvement.

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Towards a Unified Multi-Domain Multilingual Named Entity Recognition Model
Mayank Kulkarni | Daniel Preotiuc-Pietro | Karthik Radhakrishnan | Genta Indra Winata | Shijie Wu | Lingjue Xie | Shaohua Yang
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Named Entity Recognition is a key Natural Language Processing task whose performance is sensitive to choice of genre and language. A unified NER model across multiple genres and languages is more practical and efficient by leveraging commonalities across genres or languages. In this paper, we propose a novel setup for NER which includes multi-domain and multilingual training and evaluation across 13 domains and 4 languages. We explore a range of approaches to building a unified model using domain and language adaptation techniques. Our experiments highlight multiple nuances to consider while building a unified model, including that naive data pooling fails to obtain good performance, that domain-specific adaptations are more important than language-specific ones and that including domain-specific adaptations in a unified model nears the performance of training multiple dedicated monolingual models at a fraction of their parameter count.


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Cross-lingual Few-Shot Learning on Unseen Languages
Genta Winata | Shijie Wu | Mayank Kulkarni | Thamar Solorio | Daniel Preotiuc-Pietro
Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 12th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Large pre-trained language models (LMs) have demonstrated the ability to obtain good performance on downstream tasks with limited examples in cross-lingual settings. However, this was mostly studied for relatively resource-rich languages, where at least enough unlabeled data is available to be included in pre-training a multilingual language model. In this paper, we explore the problem of cross-lingual transfer in unseen languages, where no unlabeled data is available for pre-training a model. We use a downstream sentiment analysis task across 12 languages, including 8 unseen languages, to analyze the effectiveness of several few-shot learning strategies across the three major types of model architectures and their learning dynamics. We also compare strategies for selecting languages for transfer and contrast findings across languages seen in pre-training compared to those that are not. Our findings contribute to the body of knowledge on cross-lingual models for low-resource settings that is paramount to increasing coverage, diversity, and equity in access to NLP technology. We show that, in few-shot learning, linguistically similar and geographically similar languages are useful for cross-lingual adaptation, but taking the context from a mixture of random source languages is surprisingly more effective. We also compare different model architectures and show that the encoder-only model, XLM-R, gives the best downstream task performance.

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Extractive Entity-Centric Summarization as Sentence Selection using Bi-Encoders
Ella Hofmann-Coyle | Mayank Kulkarni | Lingjue Xie | Mounica Maddela | Daniel Preotiuc-Pietro
Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 12th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Entity-centric summarization is a type of controllable summarization that aims to produce a summary of a document that is specific to a given target entity. Extractive summaries possess multiple advantages over abstractive ones such as preserving factuality and can be directly used in downstream tasks like target-based sentiment analysis or incorporated into search applications. In this paper, we explore methods to solve this task by recasting it as a sentence selection task, as supported by the EntSUM data set. We use methods inspired by information retrieval, where the input to the model is a pair representing a sentence from the original document and the target entity, in place of the query. We explore different architecture variants and loss functions in this framework with results showing an up to 5.8 F1 improvement over past state-of-the-art and outperforming the competitive entity-centric Lead 3 heuristic by 1.1 F1. In addition, we also demonstrate similarly strong results on the related task of salient sentence selection for an entity.

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EntSUM: A Data Set for Entity-Centric Extractive Summarization
Mounica Maddela | Mayank Kulkarni | Daniel Preotiuc-Pietro
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Controllable summarization aims to provide summaries that take into account user-specified aspects and preferences to better assist them with their information need, as opposed to the standard summarization setup which build a single generic summary of a document. We introduce a human-annotated data set EntSUM for controllable summarization with a focus on named entities as the aspects to control. We conduct an extensive quantitative analysis to motivate the task of entity-centric summarization and show that existing methods for controllable summarization fail to generate entity-centric summaries. We propose extensions to state-of-the-art summarization approaches that achieve substantially better results on our data set. Our analysis and results show the challenging nature of this task and of the proposed data set.

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Learning Rich Representation of Keyphrases from Text
Mayank Kulkarni | Debanjan Mahata | Ravneet Arora | Rajarshi Bhowmik
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

In this work, we explore how to train task-specific language models aimed towards learning rich representation of keyphrases from text documents. We experiment with different masking strategies for pre-training transformer language models (LMs) in discriminative as well as generative settings. In the discriminative setting, we introduce a new pre-training objective - Keyphrase Boundary Infilling with Replacement (KBIR), showing large gains in performance (upto 8.16 points in F1) over SOTA, when the LM pre-trained using KBIR is fine-tuned for the task of keyphrase extraction. In the generative setting, we introduce a new pre-training setup for BART - KeyBART, that reproduces the keyphrases related to the input text in the CatSeq format, instead of the denoised original input. This also led to gains in performance (upto 4.33 points in F1@M) over SOTA for keyphrase generation. Additionally, we also fine-tune the pre-trained language models on named entity recognition (NER), question answering (QA), relation extraction (RE), abstractive summarization and achieve comparable performance with that of the SOTA, showing that learning rich representation of keyphrases is indeed beneficial for many other fundamental NLP tasks.


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Multi-Domain Named Entity Recognition with Genre-Aware and Agnostic Inference
Jing Wang | Mayank Kulkarni | Daniel Preotiuc-Pietro
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Named entity recognition is a key component of many text processing pipelines and it is thus essential for this component to be robust to different types of input. However, domain transfer of NER models with data from multiple genres has not been widely studied. To this end, we conduct NER experiments in three predictive setups on data from: a) multiple domains; b) multiple domains where the genre label is unknown at inference time; c) domains not encountered in training. We introduce a new architecture tailored to this task by using shared and private domain parameters and multi-task learning. This consistently outperforms all other baseline and competitive methods on all three experimental setups, with differences ranging between +1.95 to +3.11 average F1 across multiple genres when compared to standard approaches. These results illustrate the challenges that need to be taken into account when building real-world NLP applications that are robust to various types of text and the methods that can help, at least partially, alleviate these issues.


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Toward Data-Driven Tutorial Question Answering with Deep Learning Conversational Models
Mayank Kulkarni | Kristy Boyer
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications

There has been an increase in popularity of data-driven question answering systems given their recent success. This pa-per explores the possibility of building a tutorial question answering system for Java programming from data sampled from a community-based question answering forum. This paper reports on the creation of a dataset that could support building such a tutorial question answering system and discusses the methodology to create the 106,386 question strong dataset. We investigate how retrieval-based and generative models perform on the given dataset. The work also investigates the usefulness of using hybrid approaches such as combining retrieval-based and generative models. The results indicate that building data-driven tutorial systems using community-based question answering forums holds significant promise.