Meng Jiang


2022

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Knowledge-Augmented Methods for Natural Language Processing
Chenguang Zhu | Yichong Xu | Xiang Ren | Bill Lin | Meng Jiang | Wenhao Yu
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Tutorial Abstracts

Knowledge in natural language processing (NLP) has been a rising trend especially after the advent of large scale pre-trained models. NLP models with attention to knowledge can i) access unlimited amount of external information; ii) delegate the task of storing knowledge from its parameter space to knowledge sources; iii) obtain up-to-date information; iv) make prediction results more explainable via selected knowledge. In this tutorial, we will introduce the key steps in integrating knowledge into NLP, including knowledge grounding from text, knowledge representation and fusing. In addition, we will introduce recent state-of-the-art applications in fusing knowledge into language understanding, language generation and commonsense reasoning.

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Diversifying Content Generation for Commonsense Reasoning with Mixture of Knowledge Graph Experts
Wenhao Yu | Chenguang Zhu | Lianhui Qin | Zhihan Zhang | Tong Zhao | Meng Jiang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Generative commonsense reasoning (GCR) in natural language is to reason about the commonsense while generating coherent text. Recent years have seen a surge of interest in improving the generation quality of commonsense reasoning tasks. Nevertheless, these approaches have seldom investigated diversity in the GCR tasks, which aims to generate alternative explanations for a real-world situation or predict all possible outcomes. Diversifying GCR is challenging as it expects to generate multiple outputs that are not only semantically different but also grounded in commonsense knowledge. In this paper, we propose MoKGE, a novel method that diversifies the generative reasoning by a mixture of expert (MoE) strategy on commonsense knowledge graphs (KG). A set of knowledge experts seek diverse reasoning on KG to encourage various generation outputs. Empirical experiments demonstrated that MoKGE can significantly improve the diversity while achieving on par performance on accuracy on two GCR benchmarks, based on both automatic and human evaluations.

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Dict-BERT: Enhancing Language Model Pre-training with Dictionary
Wenhao Yu | Chenguang Zhu | Yuwei Fang | Donghan Yu | Shuohang Wang | Yichong Xu | Michael Zeng | Meng Jiang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Pre-trained language models (PLMs) aim to learn universal language representations by conducting self-supervised training tasks on large-scale corpora. Since PLMs capture word semantics in different contexts, the quality of word representations highly depends on word frequency, which usually follows a heavy-tailed distributions in the pre-training corpus. Therefore, the embeddings of rare words on the tail are usually poorly optimized. In this work, we focus on enhancing language model pre-training by leveraging definitions of the rare words in dictionaries (e.g., Wiktionary). To incorporate a rare word definition as a part of input, we fetch its definition from the dictionary and append it to the end of the input text sequence. In addition to training with the masked language modeling objective, we propose two novel self-supervised pre-training tasks on word and sentence-level alignment between input text sequence and rare word definitions to enhance language modeling representation with dictionary. We evaluate the proposed Dict-BERT model on the language understanding benchmark GLUE and eight specialized domain benchmark datasets. Extensive experiments demonstrate that Dict-BERT can significantly improve the understanding of rare words and boost model performance on various NLP downstream tasks.

2021

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Validating Label Consistency in NER Data Annotation
Qingkai Zeng | Mengxia Yu | Wenhao Yu | Tianwen Jiang | Meng Jiang
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Evaluation and Comparison of NLP Systems

Data annotation plays a crucial role in ensuring your named entity recognition (NER) projects are trained with the right information to learn from. Producing the most accurate labels is a challenge due to the complexity involved with annotation. Label inconsistency between multiple subsets of data annotation (e.g., training set and test set, or multiple training subsets) is an indicator of label mistakes. In this work, we present an empirical method to explore the relationship between label (in-)consistency and NER model performance. It can be used to validate the label consistency (or catches the inconsistency) in multiple sets of NER data annotation. In experiments, our method identified the label inconsistency of test data in SCIERC and CoNLL03 datasets (with 26.7% and 5.4% label mistakes). It validated the consistency in the corrected version of both datasets.

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Injecting Entity Types into Entity-Guided Text Generation
Xiangyu Dong | Wenhao Yu | Chenguang Zhu | Meng Jiang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent successes in deep generative modeling have led to significant advances in natural language generation (NLG). Incorporating entities into neural generation models has demonstrated great improvements by assisting to infer the summary topic and to generate coherent content. To enhance the role of entity in NLG, in this paper, we aim to model the entity type in the decoding phase to generate contextual words accurately. We develop a novel NLG model to produce a target sequence based on a given list of entities. Our model has a multi-step decoder that injects the entity types into the process of entity mention generation. Experiments on two public news datasets demonstrate type injection performs better than existing type embedding concatenation baselines.

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Sentence-Permuted Paragraph Generation
Wenhao Yu | Chenguang Zhu | Tong Zhao | Zhichun Guo | Meng Jiang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Generating paragraphs of diverse contents is important in many applications. Existing generation models produce similar contents from homogenized contexts due to the fixed left-to-right sentence order. Our idea is permuting the sentence orders to improve the content diversity of multi-sentence paragraph. We propose a novel framework PermGen whose objective is to maximize the expected log-likelihood of output paragraph distributions with respect to all possible sentence orders. PermGen uses hierarchical positional embedding and designs new procedures for training, and decoding in the sentence-permuted generation. Experiments on three paragraph generation benchmarks demonstrate PermGen generates more diverse outputs with a higher quality than existing models.

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Knowledge-Enriched Natural Language Generation
Wenhao Yu | Meng Jiang | Zhiting Hu | Qingyun Wang | Heng Ji | Nazneen Rajani
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: Tutorial Abstracts

Knowledge-enriched text generation poses unique challenges in modeling and learning, driving active research in several core directions, ranging from integrated modeling of neural representations and symbolic information in the sequential/hierarchical/graphical structures, learning without direct supervisions due to the cost of structured annotation, efficient optimization and inference with massive and global constraints, to language grounding on multiple modalities, and generative reasoning with implicit commonsense knowledge and background knowledge. In this tutorial we will present a roadmap to line up the state-of-the-art methods to tackle these challenges on this cutting-edge problem. We will dive deep into various technical components: how to represent knowledge, how to feed knowledge into a generation model, how to evaluate generation results, and what are the remaining challenges?

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Enhancing Factual Consistency of Abstractive Summarization
Chenguang Zhu | William Hinthorn | Ruochen Xu | Qingkai Zeng | Michael Zeng | Xuedong Huang | Meng Jiang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Automatic abstractive summaries are found to often distort or fabricate facts in the article. This inconsistency between summary and original text has seriously impacted its applicability. We propose a fact-aware summarization model FASum to extract and integrate factual relations into the summary generation process via graph attention. We then design a factual corrector model FC to automatically correct factual errors from summaries generated by existing systems. Empirical results show that the fact-aware summarization can produce abstractive summaries with higher factual consistency compared with existing systems, and the correction model improves the factual consistency of given summaries via modifying only a few keywords.

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Technical Question Answering across Tasks and Domains
Wenhao Yu | Lingfei Wu | Yu Deng | Qingkai Zeng | Ruchi Mahindru | Sinem Guven | Meng Jiang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Industry Papers

Building automatic technical support system is an important yet challenge task. Conceptually, to answer a user question on a technical forum, a human expert has to first retrieve relevant documents, and then read them carefully to identify the answer snippet. Despite huge success the researchers have achieved in coping with general domain question answering (QA), much less attentions have been paid for investigating technical QA. Specifically, existing methods suffer from several unique challenges (i) the question and answer rarely overlaps substantially and (ii) very limited data size. In this paper, we propose a novel framework of deep transfer learning to effectively address technical QA across tasks and domains. To this end, we present an adjustable joint learning approach for document retrieval and reading comprehension tasks. Our experiments on the TechQA demonstrates superior performance compared with state-of-the-art methods.

2020

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Crossing Variational Autoencoders for Answer Retrieval
Wenhao Yu | Lingfei Wu | Qingkai Zeng | Shu Tao | Yu Deng | Meng Jiang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Answer retrieval is to find the most aligned answer from a large set of candidates given a question. Learning vector representations of questions/answers is the key factor. Question-answer alignment and question/answer semantics are two important signals for learning the representations. Existing methods learned semantic representations with dual encoders or dual variational auto-encoders. The semantic information was learned from language models or question-to-question (answer-to-answer) generative processes. However, the alignment and semantics were too separate to capture the aligned semantics between question and answer. In this work, we propose to cross variational auto-encoders by generating questions with aligned answers and generating answers with aligned questions. Experiments show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art answer retrieval method on SQuAD.

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A Technical Question Answering System with Transfer Learning
Wenhao Yu | Lingfei Wu | Yu Deng | Ruchi Mahindru | Qingkai Zeng | Sinem Guven | Meng Jiang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

In recent years, the need for community technical question-answering sites has increased significantly. However, it is often expensive for human experts to provide timely and helpful responses on those forums. We develop TransTQA, which is a novel system that offers automatic responses by retrieving proper answers based on correctly answered similar questions in the past. TransTQA is built upon a siamese ALBERT network, which enables it to respond quickly and accurately. Furthermore, TransTQA adopts a standard deep transfer learning strategy to improve its capability of supporting multiple technical domains.

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Few-Shot Multi-Hop Relation Reasoning over Knowledge Bases
Chuxu Zhang | Lu Yu | Mandana Saebi | Meng Jiang | Nitesh Chawla
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Multi-hop relation reasoning over knowledge base is to generate effective and interpretable relation prediction through reasoning paths. The current methods usually require sufficient training data (fact triples) for each query relation, impairing their performances over few-shot relations (with limited triples) which are common in knowledge base. To this end, we propose FIRE, a novel few-shot multi-hop relation learning model. FIRE applies reinforcement learning to model the sequential steps of multi-hop reasoning, besides performs heterogeneous structure encoding and knowledge-aware search space pruning. The meta-learning technique is employed to optimize model parameters that could quickly adapt to few-shot relations. Empirical study on two datasets demonstrate that FIRE outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

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Tri-Train: Automatic Pre-Fine Tuning between Pre-Training and Fine-Tuning for SciNER
Qingkai Zeng | Wenhao Yu | Mengxia Yu | Tianwen Jiang | Tim Weninger | Meng Jiang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

The training process of scientific NER models is commonly performed in two steps: i) Pre-training a language model by self-supervised tasks on huge data and ii) fine-tune training with small labelled data. The success of the strategy depends on the relevance between the data domains and between the tasks. However, gaps are found in practice when the target domains are specific and small. We propose a novel framework to introduce a “pre-fine tuning” step between pre-training and fine-tuning. It constructs a corpus by selecting sentences from unlabeled documents that are the most relevant with the labelled training data. Instead of predicting tokens in random spans, the pre-fine tuning task is to predict tokens in entity candidates identified by text mining methods. Pre-fine tuning is automatic and light-weight because the corpus size can be much smaller than pre-training data to achieve a better performance. Experiments on seven benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness.

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A Probabilistic Model with Commonsense Constraints for Pattern-based Temporal Fact Extraction
Yang Zhou | Tong Zhao | Meng Jiang
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Fact Extraction and VERification (FEVER)

Textual patterns (e.g., Country’s president Person) are specified and/or generated for extracting factual information from unstructured data. Pattern-based information extraction methods have been recognized for their efficiency and transferability. However, not every pattern is reliable: A major challenge is to derive the most complete and accurate facts from diverse and sometimes conflicting extractions. In this work, we propose a probabilistic graphical model which formulates fact extraction in a generative process. It automatically infers true facts and pattern reliability without any supervision. It has two novel designs specially for temporal facts: (1) it models pattern reliability on two types of time signals, including temporal tag in text and text generation time; (2) it models commonsense constraints as observable variables. Experimental results demonstrate that our model significantly outperforms existing methods on extracting true temporal facts from news data.

2019

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Multi-Input Multi-Output Sequence Labeling for Joint Extraction of Fact and Condition Tuples from Scientific Text
Tianwen Jiang | Tong Zhao | Bing Qin | Ting Liu | Nitesh Chawla | Meng Jiang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Condition is essential in scientific statement. Without the conditions (e.g., equipment, environment) that were precisely specified, facts (e.g., observations) in the statements may no longer be valid. Existing ScienceIE methods, which aim at extracting factual tuples from scientific text, do not consider the conditions. In this work, we propose a new sequence labeling framework (as well as a new tag schema) to jointly extract the fact and condition tuples from statement sentences. The framework has (1) a multi-output module to generate one or multiple tuples and (2) a multi-input module to feed in multiple types of signals as sequences. It improves F1 score relatively by 4.2% on BioNLP2013 and by 6.2% on a new bio-text dataset for tuple extraction.

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Faceted Hierarchy: A New Graph Type to Organize Scientific Concepts and a Construction Method
Qingkai Zeng | Mengxia Yu | Wenhao Yu | JinJun Xiong | Yiyu Shi | Meng Jiang
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Workshop on Graph-Based Methods for Natural Language Processing (TextGraphs-13)

On a scientific concept hierarchy, a parent concept may have a few attributes, each of which has multiple values being a group of child concepts. We call these attributes facets: classification has a few facets such as application (e.g., face recognition), model (e.g., svm, knn), and metric (e.g., precision). In this work, we aim at building faceted concept hierarchies from scientific literature. Hierarchy construction methods heavily rely on hypernym detection, however, the faceted relations are parent-to-child links but the hypernym relation is a multi-hop, i.e., ancestor-to-descendent link with a specific facet “type-of”. We use information extraction techniques to find synonyms, sibling concepts, and ancestor-descendent relations from a data science corpus. And we propose a hierarchy growth algorithm to infer the parent-child links from the three types of relationships. It resolves conflicts by maintaining the acyclic structure of a hierarchy.

2017

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Life-iNet: A Structured Network-Based Knowledge Exploration and Analytics System for Life Sciences
Xiang Ren | Jiaming Shen | Meng Qu | Xuan Wang | Zeqiu Wu | Qi Zhu | Meng Jiang | Fangbo Tao | Saurabh Sinha | David Liem | Peipei Ping | Richard Weinshilboum | Jiawei Han
Proceedings of ACL 2017, System Demonstrations