Michele Bevilacqua


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Nibbling at the Hard Core of Word Sense Disambiguation
Marco Maru | Simone Conia | Michele Bevilacqua | Roberto Navigli
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

With state-of-the-art systems having finally attained estimated human performance, Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) has now joined the array of Natural Language Processing tasks that have seemingly been solved, thanks to the vast amounts of knowledge encoded into Transformer-based pre-trained language models. And yet, if we look below the surface of raw figures, it is easy to realize that current approaches still make trivial mistakes that a human would never make. In this work, we provide evidence showing why the F1 score metric should not simply be taken at face value and present an exhaustive analysis of the errors that seven of the most representative state-of-the-art systems for English all-words WSD make on traditional evaluation benchmarks.In addition, we produce and release a collection of test sets featuring (a) an amended version of the standard evaluation benchmark that fixes its lexical and semantic inaccuracies, (b) 42D, a challenge set devised to assess the resilience of systems with respect to least frequent word senses and senses not seen at training time, and (c) hardEN, a challenge set made up solely of instances which none of the investigated state-of-the-art systems can solve. We make all of the test sets and model predictions available to the research community at https://github.com/SapienzaNLP/wsd-hard-benchmark.


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Integrating Personalized PageRank into Neural Word Sense Disambiguation
Ahmed El Sheikh | Michele Bevilacqua | Roberto Navigli
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Neural Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) has recently been shown to benefit from the incorporation of pre-existing knowledge, such as that coming from the WordNet graph. However, state-of-the-art approaches have been successful in exploiting only the local structure of the graph, with only close neighbors of a given synset influencing the prediction. In this work, we improve a classification model by recomputing logits as a function of both the vanilla independently produced logits and the global WordNet graph. We achieve this by incorporating an online neural approximated PageRank, which enables us to refine edge weights as well. This method exploits the global graph structure while keeping space requirements linear in the number of edges. We obtain strong improvements, matching the current state of the art. Code is available at https://github.com/SapienzaNLP/neural-pagerank-wsd

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SPRING Goes Online: End-to-End AMR Parsing and Generation
Rexhina Blloshmi | Michele Bevilacqua | Edoardo Fabiano | Valentina Caruso | Roberto Navigli
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

In this paper we present SPRING Online Services, a Web interface and RESTful APIs for our state-of-the-art AMR parsing and generation system, SPRING (Symmetric PaRsIng aNd Generation). The Web interface has been developed to be easily used by the Natural Language Processing community, as well as by the general public. It provides, among other things, a highly interactive visualization platform and a feedback mechanism to obtain user suggestions for further improvements of the system’s output. Moreover, our RESTful APIs enable easy integration of SPRING in downstream applications where AMR structures are needed. Finally, we make SPRING Online Services freely available at http://nlp.uniroma1.it/spring and, in addition, we release extra model checkpoints to be used with the original SPRING Python code.


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Breaking Through the 80% Glass Ceiling: Raising the State of the Art in Word Sense Disambiguation by Incorporating Knowledge Graph Information
Michele Bevilacqua | Roberto Navigli
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Neural architectures are the current state of the art in Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD). However, they make limited use of the vast amount of relational information encoded in Lexical Knowledge Bases (LKB). We present Enhanced WSD Integrating Synset Embeddings and Relations (EWISER), a neural supervised architecture that is able to tap into this wealth of knowledge by embedding information from the LKB graph within the neural architecture, and to exploit pretrained synset embeddings, enabling the network to predict synsets that are not in the training set. As a result, we set a new state of the art on almost all the evaluation settings considered, also breaking through, for the first time, the 80% ceiling on the concatenation of all the standard all-words English WSD evaluation benchmarks. On multilingual all-words WSD, we report state-of-the-art results by training on nothing but English.

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Fatality Killed the Cat or: BabelPic, a Multimodal Dataset for Non-Concrete Concepts
Agostina Calabrese | Michele Bevilacqua | Roberto Navigli
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Thanks to the wealth of high-quality annotated images available in popular repositories such as ImageNet, multimodal language-vision research is in full bloom. However, events, feelings and many other kinds of concepts which can be visually grounded are not well represented in current datasets. Nevertheless, we would expect a wide-coverage language understanding system to be able to classify images depicting recess and remorse, not just cats, dogs and bridges. We fill this gap by presenting BabelPic, a hand-labeled dataset built by cleaning the image-synset association found within the BabelNet Lexical Knowledge Base (LKB). BabelPic explicitly targets non-concrete concepts, thus providing refreshing new data for the community. We also show that pre-trained language-vision systems can be used to further expand the resource by exploiting natural language knowledge available in the LKB. BabelPic is available for download at http://babelpic.org.

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Generationary or “How We Went beyond Word Sense Inventories and Learned to Gloss”
Michele Bevilacqua | Marco Maru | Roberto Navigli
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Mainstream computational lexical semantics embraces the assumption that word senses can be represented as discrete items of a predefined inventory. In this paper we show this needs not be the case, and propose a unified model that is able to produce contextually appropriate definitions. In our model, Generationary, we employ a novel span-based encoding scheme which we use to fine-tune an English pre-trained Encoder-Decoder system to generate glosses. We show that, even though we drop the need of choosing from a predefined sense inventory, our model can be employed effectively: not only does Generationary outperform previous approaches in the generative task of Definition Modeling in many settings, but it also matches or surpasses the state of the art in discriminative tasks such as Word Sense Disambiguation and Word-in-Context. Finally, we show that Generationary benefits from training on data from multiple inventories, with strong gains on various zero-shot benchmarks, including a novel dataset of definitions for free adjective-noun phrases. The software and reproduction materials are available at http://generationary.org.


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Quasi Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers for Word Sense Disambiguation
Michele Bevilacqua | Roberto Navigli
Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP 2019)

While contextualized embeddings have produced performance breakthroughs in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks, Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) has not benefited from them yet. In this paper, we introduce QBERT, a Transformer-based architecture for contextualized embeddings which makes use of a co-attentive layer to produce more deeply bidirectional representations, better-fitting for the WSD task. As a result, we are able to train a WSD system that beats the state of the art on the concatenation of all evaluation datasets by over 3 points, also outperforming a comparable model using ELMo.