Miloš Stanojević


2021

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Computing All Quantifier Scopes with CCG
Miloš Stanojević | Mark Steedman
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computational Semantics (IWCS)

We present a method for computing all quantifer scopes that can be extracted from a single CCG derivation. To do that we build on the proposal of Steedman (1999, 2011) where all existential quantifiers are treated as Skolem functions. We extend the approach by introducing a better packed representation of all possible specifications that also includes node addresses where the specifications happen. These addresses are necessary for recovering all, and only, possible readings.

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Modality and Negation in Event Extraction
Sander Bijl de Vroe | Liane Guillou | Miloš Stanojević | Nick McKenna | Mark Steedman
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Challenges and Applications of Automated Extraction of Socio-political Events from Text (CASE 2021)

Language provides speakers with a rich system of modality for expressing thoughts about events, without being committed to their actual occurrence. Modality is commonly used in the political news domain, where both actual and possible courses of events are discussed. NLP systems struggle with these semantic phenomena, often incorrectly extracting events which did not happen, which can lead to issues in downstream applications. We present an open-domain, lexicon-based event extraction system that captures various types of modality. This information is valuable for Question Answering, Knowledge Graph construction and Fact-checking tasks, and our evaluation shows that the system is sufficiently strong to be used in downstream applications.

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Modeling Incremental Language Comprehension in the Brain with Combinatory Categorial Grammar
Miloš Stanojević | Shohini Bhattasali | Donald Dunagan | Luca Campanelli | Mark Steedman | Jonathan Brennan | John Hale
Proceedings of the Workshop on Cognitive Modeling and Computational Linguistics

Hierarchical sentence structure plays a role in word-by-word human sentence comprehension, but it remains unclear how best to characterize this structure and unknown how exactly it would be recognized in a step-by-step process model. With a view towards sharpening this picture, we model the time course of hemodynamic activity within the brain during an extended episode of naturalistic language comprehension using Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG). CCG has well-defined incremental parsing algorithms, surface compositional semantics, and can explain long-range dependencies as well as complicated cases of coordination. We find that CCG-derived predictors improve a regression model of fMRI time course in six language-relevant brain regions, over and above predictors derived from context-free phrase structure. Adding a special Revealing operator to CCG parsing, one designed to handle right-adjunction, improves the fit in three of these regions. This evidence for CCG from neuroimaging bolsters the more general case for mildly context-sensitive grammars in the cognitive science of language.

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A Root of a Problem: Optimizing Single-Root Dependency Parsing
Miloš Stanojević | Shay B. Cohen
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We describe two approaches to single-root dependency parsing that yield significant speed ups in such parsing. One approach has been previously used in dependency parsers in practice, but remains undocumented in the parsing literature, and is considered a heuristic. We show that this approach actually finds the optimal dependency tree. The second approach relies on simple reweighting of the inference graph being input to the dependency parser and has an optimal running time. Here, we again show that this approach is fully correct and identifies the highest-scoring parse tree. Our experiments demonstrate a manyfold speed up compared to a previous graph-based state-of-the-art parser without any loss in accuracy or optimality.

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Formal Basis of a Language Universal
Miloš Stanojević | Mark Steedman
Computational Linguistics, Volume 47, Issue 1 - March 2021

Abstract Steedman (2020) proposes as a formal universal of natural language grammar that grammatical permutations of the kind that have given rise to transformational rules are limited to a class known to mathematicians and computer scientists as the “separable” permutations. This class of permutations is exactly the class that can be expressed in combinatory categorial grammars (CCGs). The excluded non-separable permutations do in fact seem to be absent in a number of studies of crosslinguistic variation in word order in nominal and verbal constructions. The number of permutations that are separable grows in the number n of lexical elements in the construction as the Large Schröder Number Sn−1. Because that number grows much more slowly than the n! number of all permutations, this generalization is also of considerable practical interest for computational applications such as parsing and machine translation. The present article examines the mathematical and computational origins of this restriction, and the reason it is exactly captured in CCG without the imposition of any further constraints.

2020

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Span-Based LCFRS-2 Parsing
Miloš Stanojević | Mark Steedman
Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Parsing Technologies and the IWPT 2020 Shared Task on Parsing into Enhanced Universal Dependencies

The earliest models for discontinuous constituency parsers used mildly context-sensitive grammars, but the fashion has changed in recent years to grammar-less transition-based parsers that use strong neural probabilistic models to greedily predict transitions. We argue that grammar-based approaches still have something to contribute on top of what is offered by transition-based parsers. Concretely, by using a grammar formalism to restrict the space of possible trees we can use dynamic programming parsing algorithms for exact search for the most probable tree. Previous chart-based parsers for discontinuous formalisms used probabilistically weak generative models. We instead use a span-based discriminative neural model that preserves the dynamic programming properties of the chart parsers. Our parser does not use an explicit grammar, but it does use explicit grammar formalism constraints: we generate only trees that are within the LCFRS-2 formalism. These properties allow us to construct a new parsing algorithm that runs in lower worst-case time complexity of O(l nˆ4 +nˆ6), where n is the sentence length and l is the number of unique non-terminal labels. This parser is efficient in practice, provides best results among chart-based parsers, and is competitive with the best transition based parsers. We also show that the main bottleneck for further improvement in performance is in the restriction of fan-out to degree 2. We show that well-nestedness is helpful in speeding up parsing, but lowers accuracy.

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Max-Margin Incremental CCG Parsing
Miloš Stanojević | Mark Steedman
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Incremental syntactic parsing has been an active research area both for cognitive scientists trying to model human sentence processing and for NLP researchers attempting to combine incremental parsing with language modelling for ASR and MT. Most effort has been directed at designing the right transition mechanism, but less has been done to answer the question of what a probabilistic model for those transition parsers should look like. A very incremental transition mechanism of a recently proposed CCG parser when trained in straightforward locally normalised discriminative fashion produces very bad results on English CCGbank. We identify three biases as the causes of this problem: label bias, exposure bias and imbalanced probabilities bias. While known techniques for tackling these biases improve results, they still do not make the parser state of the art. Instead, we tackle all of these three biases at the same time using an improved version of beam search optimisation that minimises all beam search violations instead of minimising only the biggest violation. The new incremental parser gives better results than all previously published incremental CCG parsers, and outperforms even some widely used non-incremental CCG parsers.

2019

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The Active-Filler Strategy in a Move-Eager Left-Corner Minimalist Grammar Parser
Tim Hunter | Miloš Stanojević | Edward Stabler
Proceedings of the Workshop on Cognitive Modeling and Computational Linguistics

Recent psycholinguistic evidence suggests that human parsing of moved elements is ‘active’, and perhaps even ‘hyper-active’: it seems that a leftward-moved object is related to a verbal position rapidly, perhaps even before the transitivity information associated with the verb is available to the listener. This paper presents a formal, sound and complete parser for Minimalist Grammars whose search space contains branching points that we can identify as the locus of the decision to perform this kind of active gap-finding. This brings formal models of parsing into closer contact with recent psycholinguistic theorizing than was previously possible.

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CCG Parsing Algorithm with Incremental Tree Rotation
Miloš Stanojević | Mark Steedman
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

The main obstacle to incremental sentence processing arises from right-branching constituent structures, which are present in the majority of English sentences, as well as optional constituents that adjoin on the right, such as right adjuncts and right conjuncts. In CCG, many right-branching derivations can be replaced by semantically equivalent left-branching incremental derivations. The problem of right-adjunction is more resistant to solution, and has been tackled in the past using revealing-based approaches that often rely either on the higher-order unification over lambda terms (Pareschi and Steedman,1987) or heuristics over dependency representations that do not cover the whole CCGbank (Ambati et al., 2015). We propose a new incremental parsing algorithm for CCG following the same revealing tradition of work but having a purely syntactic approach that does not depend on access to a distinct level of semantic representation. This algorithm can cover the whole CCGbank, with greater incrementality and accuracy than previous proposals.

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Wide-Coverage Neural A* Parsing for Minimalist Grammars
John Torr | Miloš Stanojević | Mark Steedman | Shay B. Cohen
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Minimalist Grammars (Stabler, 1997) are a computationally oriented, and rigorous formalisation of many aspects of Chomsky’s (1995) Minimalist Program. This paper presents the first ever application of this formalism to the task of realistic wide-coverage parsing. The parser uses a linguistically expressive yet highly constrained grammar, together with an adaptation of the A* search algorithm currently used in CCG parsing (Lewis and Steedman, 2014; Lewis et al., 2016), with supertag probabilities provided by a bi-LSTM neural network supertagger trained on MGbank, a corpus of MG derivation trees. We report on some promising initial experimental results for overall dependency recovery as well as on the recovery of certain unbounded long distance dependencies. Finally, although like other MG parsers, ours has a high order polynomial worst case time complexity, we show that in practice its expected time complexity is cubic in the length of the sentence. The parser is publicly available.

2018

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A Sound and Complete Left-Corner Parsing for Minimalist Grammars
Miloš Stanojević | Edward Stabler
Proceedings of the Eight Workshop on Cognitive Aspects of Computational Language Learning and Processing

This paper presents a left-corner parser for minimalist grammars. The relation between the parser and the grammar is transparent in the sense that there is a very simple 1-1 correspondence between derivations and parses. Like left-corner context-free parsers, left-corner minimalist parsers can be non-terminating when the grammar has empty left corners, so an easily computed left-corner oracle is defined to restrict the search.

2017

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Neural Discontinuous Constituency Parsing
Miloš Stanojević | Raquel G. Alhama
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

One of the most pressing issues in discontinuous constituency transition-based parsing is that the relevant information for parsing decisions could be located in any part of the stack or the buffer. In this paper, we propose a solution to this problem by replacing the structured perceptron model with a recursive neural model that computes a global representation of the configuration, therefore allowing even the most remote parts of the configuration to influence the parsing decisions. We also provide a detailed analysis of how this representation should be built out of sub-representations of its core elements (words, trees and stack). Additionally, we investigate how different types of swap oracles influence the results. Our model is the first neural discontinuous constituency parser, and it outperforms all the previously published models on three out of four datasets while on the fourth it obtains second place by a tiny difference.

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Alternative Objective Functions for Training MT Evaluation Metrics
Miloš Stanojević | Khalil Sima’an
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

MT evaluation metrics are tested for correlation with human judgments either at the sentence- or the corpus-level. Trained metrics ignore corpus-level judgments and are trained for high sentence-level correlation only. We show that training only for one objective (sentence or corpus level), can not only harm the performance on the other objective, but it can also be suboptimal for the objective being optimized. To this end we present a metric trained for corpus-level and show empirical comparison against a metric trained for sentence-level exemplifying how their performance may vary per language pair, type and level of judgment. Subsequently we propose a model trained to optimize both objectives simultaneously and show that it is far more stable than–and on average outperforms–both models on both objectives.

2016

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Examining the Relationship between Preordering and Word Order Freedom in Machine Translation
Joachim Daiber | Miloš Stanojević | Wilker Aziz | Khalil Sima’an
Proceedings of the First Conference on Machine Translation: Volume 1, Research Papers

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Results of the WMT16 Metrics Shared Task
Ondřej Bojar | Yvette Graham | Amir Kamran | Miloš Stanojević
Proceedings of the First Conference on Machine Translation: Volume 2, Shared Task Papers

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Results of the WMT16 Tuning Shared Task
Bushra Jawaid | Amir Kamran | Miloš Stanojević | Ondřej Bojar
Proceedings of the First Conference on Machine Translation: Volume 2, Shared Task Papers

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Hierarchical Permutation Complexity for Word Order Evaluation
Miloš Stanojević | Khalil Sima’an
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Existing approaches for evaluating word order in machine translation work with metrics computed directly over a permutation of word positions in system output relative to a reference translation. However, every permutation factorizes into a permutation tree (PET) built of primal permutations, i.e., atomic units that do not factorize any further. In this paper we explore the idea that permutations factorizing into (on average) shorter primal permutations should represent simpler ordering as well. Consequently, we contribute Permutation Complexity, a class of metrics over PETs and their extension to forests, and define tight metrics, a sub-class of metrics implementing this idea. Subsequently we define example tight metrics and empirically test them in word order evaluation. Experiments on the WMT13 data sets for ten language pairs show that a tight metric is more often than not better than the baselines.

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Universal Reordering via Linguistic Typology
Joachim Daiber | Miloš Stanojević | Khalil Sima’an
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

In this paper we explore the novel idea of building a single universal reordering model from English to a large number of target languages. To build this model we exploit typological features of word order for a large number of target languages together with source (English) syntactic features and we train this model on a single combined parallel corpus representing all (22) involved language pairs. We contribute experimental evidence for the usefulness of linguistically defined typological features for building such a model. When the universal reordering model is used for preordering followed by monotone translation (no reordering inside the decoder), our experiments show that this pipeline gives comparable or improved translation performance with a phrase-based baseline for a large number of language pairs (12 out of 22) from diverse language families.

2015

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Results of the WMT15 Metrics Shared Task
Miloš Stanojević | Amir Kamran | Philipp Koehn | Ondřej Bojar
Proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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Results of the WMT15 Tuning Shared Task
Miloš Stanojević | Amir Kamran | Ondřej Bojar
Proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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BEER 1.1: ILLC UvA submission to metrics and tuning task
Miloš Stanojević | Khalil Sima’an
Proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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Reordering Grammar Induction
Miloš Stanojević | Khalil Sima’an
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

2014

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BEER: BEtter Evaluation as Ranking
Miloš Stanojević | Khalil Sima’an
Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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Evaluating Word Order Recursively over Permutation-Forests
Miloš Stanojević | Khalil Sima’an
Proceedings of SSST-8, Eighth Workshop on Syntax, Semantics and Structure in Statistical Translation

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Fitting Sentence Level Translation Evaluation with Many Dense Features
Miloš Stanojević | Khalil Sima’an
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

2012

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Selecting Data for English-to-Czech Machine Translation
Aleš Tamchyna | Petra Galuščáková | Amir Kamran | Miloš Stanojević | Ondřej Bojar
Proceedings of the Seventh Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation