Min Zhang


2022

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Diformer: Directional Transformer for Neural Machine Translation
Minghan Wang | Jiaxin Guo | Yuxia Wang | Daimeng Wei | Hengchao Shang | Yinglu Li | Chang Su | Yimeng Chen | Min Zhang | Shimin Tao | Hao Yang
Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

Autoregressive (AR) and Non-autoregressive (NAR) models have their own superiority on the performance and latency, combining them into one model may take advantage of both. Current combination frameworks focus more on the integration of multiple decoding paradigms with a unified generative model, e.g. Masked Language Model. However, the generalization can be harmful on the performance due to the gap between training objective and inference. In this paper, we aim to close the gap by preserving the original objective of AR and NAR under a unified framework. Specifically, we propose the Directional Transformer (Diformer) by jointly modelling AR and NAR into three generation directions (left-to-right, right-to-left and straight) with a newly introduced direction variable, which works by controlling the prediction of each token to have specific dependencies under that direction. The unification achieved by direction successfully preserves the original dependency assumption used in AR and NAR, retaining both generalization and performance. Experiments on 4 WMT benchmarks demonstrate that Diformer outperforms current united-modelling works with more than 1.5 BLEU points for both AR and NAR decoding, and is also competitive to the state-of-the-art independent AR and NAR models.

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HW-TSC at SemEval-2022 Task 3: A Unified Approach Fine-tuned on Multilingual Pretrained Model for PreTENS
Yinglu Li | Min Zhang | Xiaosong Qiao | Minghan Wang
Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2022)

In the paper, we describe a unified system for task 3 of SemEval-2022. The task aims to recognize the semantic structures of sentences by providing two nominal arguments and to evaluate the degree of taxonomic relations. We utilise the strategy that adding language prefix tag in the training set, which is effective for the model. We split the training set to avoid the translation information to be learnt by the model. For the task, we propose a unified model fine-tuned on the multilingual pretrained model, XLM-RoBERTa. The model performs well in subtask 1 (the binary classification subtask). In order to verify whether our model could also perform better in subtask 2 (the regression subtask), the ranking score is transformed into classification labels by an up-sampling strategy. With the ensemble strategy, the performance of our model can be also improved. As a result, the model obtained the second place for subtask 1 and subtask 2 in the competition evaluation.

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HW-TSC at SemEval-2022 Task 7: Ensemble Model Based on Pretrained Models for Identifying Plausible Clarifications
Xiaosong Qiao | Yinglu Li | Min Zhang | Minghan Wang | Hao Yang | Shimin Tao | Qin Ying
Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2022)

This paper describes the system for the identifying Plausible Clarifications of Implicit and Underspecified Phrases. This task was set up as an English cloze task, in which clarifications are presented as possible fillers and systems have to score how well each filler plausibly fits in a given context. For this shared task, we propose our own solutions, including supervised proaches, unsupervised approaches with pretrained models, and then we use these models to build an ensemble model. Finally we get the 2nd best result in the subtask1 which is a classification task, and the 3rd best result in the subtask2 which is a regression task.

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MuCPAD: A Multi-Domain Chinese Predicate-Argument Dataset
Yahui Liu | Haoping Yang | Chen Gong | Qingrong Xia | Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

During the past decade, neural network models have made tremendous progress on in-domain semantic role labeling (SRL). However, performance drops dramatically under the out-of-domain setting. In order to facilitate research on cross-domain SRL, this paper presents MuCPAD, a multi-domain Chinese predicate-argument dataset, which consists of 30,897 sentences and 92,051 predicates from six different domains. MuCPAD exhibits three important features. 1) Based on a frame-free annotation methodology, we avoid writing complex frames for new predicates. 2) We explicitly annotate omitted core arguments to recover more complete semantic structure, considering that omission of content words is ubiquitous in multi-domain Chinese texts. 3) We compile 53 pages of annotation guidelines and adopt strict double annotation for improving data quality. This paper describes in detail the annotation methodology and annotation process of MuCPAD, and presents in-depth data analysis. We also give benchmark results on cross-domain SRL based on MuCPAD.

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MuCGEC: a Multi-Reference Multi-Source Evaluation Dataset for Chinese Grammatical Error Correction
Yue Zhang | Zhenghua Li | Zuyi Bao | Jiacheng Li | Bo Zhang | Chen Li | Fei Huang | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

This paper presents MuCGEC, a multi-reference multi-source evaluation dataset for Chinese Grammatical Error Correction (CGEC), consisting of 7,063 sentences collected from three Chinese-as-a-Second-Language (CSL) learner sources. Each sentence is corrected by three annotators, and their corrections are carefully reviewed by a senior annotator, resulting in 2.3 references per sentence. We conduct experiments with two mainstream CGEC models, i.e., the sequence-to-sequence model and the sequence-to-edit model, both enhanced with large pretrained language models, achieving competitive benchmark performance on previous and our datasets. We also discuss CGEC evaluation methodologies, including the effect of multiple references and using a char-based metric. Our annotation guidelines, data, and code are available at https://github.com/HillZhang1999/MuCGEC.

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Robust Self-Augmentation for Named Entity Recognition with Meta Reweighting
Linzhi Wu | Pengjun Xie | Jie Zhou | Meishan Zhang | Ma Chunping | Guangwei Xu | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Self-augmentation has received increasing research interest recently to improve named entity recognition (NER) performance in low-resource scenarios. Token substitution and mixup are two feasible heterogeneous self-augmentation techniques for NER that can achieve effective performance with certain specialized efforts. Noticeably, self-augmentation may introduce potentially noisy augmented data. Prior research has mainly resorted to heuristic rule-based constraints to reduce the noise for specific self-augmentation methods individually. In this paper, we revisit these two typical self-augmentation methods for NER, and propose a unified meta-reweighting strategy for them to achieve a natural integration. Our method is easily extensible, imposing little effort on a specific self-augmentation method. Experiments on different Chinese and English NER benchmarks show that our token substitution and mixup method, as well as their integration, can achieve effective performance improvement. Based on the meta-reweighting mechanism, we can enhance the advantages of the self-augmentation techniques without much extra effort.

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The HW-TSC’s Offline Speech Translation System for IWSLT 2022 Evaluation
Yinglu Li | Minghan Wang | Jiaxin Guo | Xiaosong Qiao | Yuxia Wang | Daimeng Wei | Chang Su | Yimeng Chen | Min Zhang | Shimin Tao | Hao Yang | Ying Qin
Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 2022)

This paper describes the HW-TSC’s designation of the Offline Speech Translation System submitted for IWSLT 2022 Evaluation. We explored both cascade and end-to-end system on three language tracks (en-de, en-zh and en-ja), and we chose the cascade one as our primary submission. For the automatic speech recognition (ASR) model of cascade system, there are three ASR models including Conformer, S2T-Transformer and U2 trained on the mixture of five datasets. During inference, transcripts are generated with the help of domain controlled generation strategy. Context-aware reranking and ensemble based anti-interference strategy are proposed to produce better ASR outputs. For machine translation part, we pretrained three translation models on WMT21 dataset and fine-tuned them on in-domain corpora. Our cascade system shows competitive performance than the known offline systems in the industry and academia.

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The HW-TSC’s Simultaneous Speech Translation System for IWSLT 2022 Evaluation
Minghan Wang | Jiaxin Guo | Yinglu Li | Xiaosong Qiao | Yuxia Wang | Zongyao Li | Chang Su | Yimeng Chen | Min Zhang | Shimin Tao | Hao Yang | Ying Qin
Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 2022)

This paper presents our work in the participation of IWSLT 2022 simultaneous speech translation evaluation. For the track of text-to-text (T2T), we participate in three language pairs and build wait-k based simultaneous MT (SimulMT) model for the task. The model was pretrained on WMT21 news corpora, and was further improved with in-domain fine-tuning and self-training. For the speech-to-text (S2T) track, we designed both cascade and end-to-end form in three language pairs. The cascade system is composed of a chunking-based streaming ASR model and the SimulMT model used in the T2T track. The end-to-end system is a simultaneous speech translation (SimulST) model based on wait-k strategy, which is directly trained on a synthetic corpus produced by translating all texts of ASR corpora into specific target language with an offline MT model. It also contains a heuristic sentence breaking strategy, preventing it from finishing the translation before the the end of the speech. We evaluate our systems on the MUST-C tst-COMMON dataset and show that the end-to-end system is competitive to the cascade one. Meanwhile, we also demonstrate that the SimulMT model can be efficiently optimized by these approaches, resulting in the improvements of 1-2 BLEU points.

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The HW-TSC’s Speech to Speech Translation System for IWSLT 2022 Evaluation
Jiaxin Guo | Yinglu Li | Minghan Wang | Xiaosong Qiao | Yuxia Wang | Hengchao Shang | Chang Su | Yimeng Chen | Min Zhang | Shimin Tao | Hao Yang | Ying Qin
Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 2022)

The paper presents the HW-TSC’s pipeline and results of Offline Speech to Speech Translation for IWSLT 2022. We design a cascade system consisted of an ASR model, machine translation model and TTS model to convert the speech from one language into another language(en-de). For the ASR part, we find that better performance can be obtained by ensembling multiple heterogeneous ASR models and performing reranking on beam candidates. And we find that the combination of context-aware reranking strategy and MT model fine-tuned on the in-domain dataset is helpful to improve the performance. Because it can mitigate the problem that the inconsistency in transcripts caused by the lack of context. Finally, we use VITS model provided officially to reproduce audio files from the translation hypothesis.

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Semi-supervised Domain Adaptation for Dependency Parsing with Dynamic Matching Network
Ying Li | Shuaike Li | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Supervised parsing models have achieved impressive results on in-domain texts. However, their performances drop drastically on out-of-domain texts due to the data distribution shift. The shared-private model has shown its promising advantages for alleviating this problem via feature separation, whereas prior works pay more attention to enhance shared features but neglect the in-depth relevance of specific ones. To address this issue, we for the first time apply a dynamic matching network on the shared-private model for semi-supervised cross-domain dependency parsing. Meanwhile, considering the scarcity of target-domain labeled data, we leverage unlabeled data from two aspects, i.e., designing a new training strategy to improve the capability of the dynamic matching network and fine-tuning BERT to obtain domain-related contextualized representations. Experiments on benchmark datasets show that our proposed model consistently outperforms various baselines, leading to new state-of-the-art results on all domains. Detailed analysis on different matching strategies demonstrates that it is essential to learn suitable matching weights to emphasize useful features and ignore useless or even harmful ones. Besides, our proposed model can be directly extended to multi-source domain adaptation and achieves best performances among various baselines, further verifying the effectiveness and robustness.

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Identifying Chinese Opinion Expressions with Extremely-Noisy Crowdsourcing Annotations
Xin Zhang | Guangwei Xu | Yueheng Sun | Meishan Zhang | Xiaobin Wang | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recent works of opinion expression identification (OEI) rely heavily on the quality and scale of the manually-constructed training corpus, which could be extremely difficult to satisfy. Crowdsourcing is one practical solution for this problem, aiming to create a large-scale but quality-unguaranteed corpus. In this work, we investigate Chinese OEI with extremely-noisy crowdsourcing annotations, constructing a dataset at a very low cost. Following Zhang el al. (2021), we train the annotator-adapter model by regarding all annotations as gold-standard in terms of crowd annotators, and test the model by using a synthetic expert, which is a mixture of all annotators. As this annotator-mixture for testing is never modeled explicitly in the training phase, we propose to generate synthetic training samples by a pertinent mixup strategy to make the training and testing highly consistent. The simulation experiments on our constructed dataset show that crowdsourcing is highly promising for OEI, and our proposed annotator-mixup can further enhance the crowdsourcing modeling.

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Confidence Based Bidirectional Global Context Aware Training Framework for Neural Machine Translation
Chulun Zhou | Fandong Meng | Jie Zhou | Min Zhang | Hongji Wang | Jinsong Su
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Most dominant neural machine translation (NMT) models are restricted to make predictions only according to the local context of preceding words in a left-to-right manner. Although many previous studies try to incorporate global information into NMT models, there still exist limitations on how to effectively exploit bidirectional global context. In this paper, we propose a Confidence Based Bidirectional Global Context Aware (CBBGCA) training framework for NMT, where the NMT model is jointly trained with an auxiliary conditional masked language model (CMLM). The training consists of two stages: (1) multi-task joint training; (2) confidence based knowledge distillation. At the first stage, by sharing encoder parameters, the NMT model is additionally supervised by the signal from the CMLM decoder that contains bidirectional global contexts. Moreover, at the second stage, using the CMLM as teacher, we further pertinently incorporate bidirectional global context to the NMT model on its unconfidently-predicted target words via knowledge distillation. Experimental results show that our proposed CBBGCA training framework significantly improves the NMT model by +1.02, +1.30 and +0.57 BLEU scores on three large-scale translation datasets, namely WMT’14 English-to-German, WMT’19 Chinese-to-English and WMT’14 English-to-French, respectively.

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RST Discourse Parsing with Second-Stage EDU-Level Pre-training
Nan Yu | Meishan Zhang | Guohong Fu | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Pre-trained language models (PLMs) have shown great potentials in natural language processing (NLP) including rhetorical structure theory (RST) discourse parsing.Current PLMs are obtained by sentence-level pre-training, which is different from the basic processing unit, i.e. element discourse unit (EDU).To this end, we propose a second-stage EDU-level pre-training approach in this work, which presents two novel tasks to learn effective EDU representations continually based on well pre-trained language models.Concretely, the two tasks are (1) next EDU prediction (NEP) and (2) discourse marker prediction (DMP).We take a state-of-the-art transition-based neural parser as baseline, and adopt it with a light bi-gram EDU modification to effectively explore the EDU-level pre-trained EDU representation.Experimental results on a benckmark dataset show that our method is highly effective,leading a 2.1-point improvement in F1-score.All codes and pre-trained models will be released publicly to facilitate future studies.

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Prediction Difference Regularization against Perturbation for Neural Machine Translation
Dengji Guo | Zhengrui Ma | Min Zhang | Yang Feng
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Regularization methods applying input perturbation have drawn considerable attention and have been frequently explored for NMT tasks in recent years. Despite their simplicity and effectiveness, we argue that these methods are limited by the under-fitting of training data. In this paper, we utilize prediction difference for ground-truth tokens to analyze the fitting of token-level samples and find that under-fitting is almost as common as over-fitting. We introduce prediction difference regularization (PD-R), a simple and effective method that can reduce over-fitting and under-fitting at the same time. For all token-level samples, PD-R minimizes the prediction difference between the original pass and the input-perturbed pass, making the model less sensitive to small input changes, thus more robust to both perturbations and under-fitted training data. Experiments on three widely used WMT translation tasks show that our approach can significantly improve over existing perturbation regularization methods. On WMT16 En-De task, our model achieves 1.80 SacreBLEU improvement over vanilla transformer.

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ODE Transformer: An Ordinary Differential Equation-Inspired Model for Sequence Generation
Bei Li | Quan Du | Tao Zhou | Yi Jing | Shuhan Zhou | Xin Zeng | Tong Xiao | JingBo Zhu | Xuebo Liu | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Residual networks are an Euler discretization of solutions to Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE). This paper explores a deeper relationship between Transformer and numerical ODE methods. We first show that a residual block of layers in Transformer can be described as a higher-order solution to ODE. Inspired by this, we design a new architecture, ODE Transformer, which is analogous to the Runge-Kutta method that is well motivated in ODE. As a natural extension to Transformer, ODE Transformer is easy to implement and efficient to use. Experimental results on the large-scale machine translation, abstractive summarization, and grammar error correction tasks demonstrate the high genericity of ODE Transformer. It can gain large improvements in model performance over strong baselines (e.g., 30.77 and 44.11 BLEU scores on the WMT’14 English-German and English-French benchmarks) at a slight cost in inference efficiency.

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Towards Unifying the Label Space for Aspect- and Sentence-based Sentiment Analysis
Yiming Zhang | Min Zhang | Sai Wu | Junbo Zhao
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

The aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) is a fine-grained task that aims to determine the sentiment polarity towards targeted aspect terms occurring in the sentence. The development of the ABSA task is very much hindered by the lack of annotated data. To tackle this, the prior works have studied the possibility of utilizing the sentiment analysis (SA) datasets to assist in training the ABSA model, primarily via pretraining or multi-task learning. In this article, we follow this line, and for the first time, we manage to apply the Pseudo-Label (PL) method to merge the two homogeneous tasks. While it seems straightforward to use generated pseudo labels to handle this case of label granularity unification for two highly related tasks, we identify its major challenge in this paper and propose a novel framework, dubbed as Dual-granularity Pseudo Labeling (DPL). Further, similar to PL, we regard the DPL as a general framework capable of combining other prior methods in the literature. Through extensive experiments, DPL has achieved state-of-the-art performance on standard benchmarks surpassing the prior work significantly.

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Capture Human Disagreement Distributions by Calibrated Networks for Natural Language Inference
Yuxia Wang | Minghan Wang | Yimeng Chen | Shimin Tao | Jiaxin Guo | Chang Su | Min Zhang | Hao Yang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Natural Language Inference (NLI) datasets contain examples with highly ambiguous labels due to its subjectivity. Several recent efforts have been made to acknowledge and embrace the existence of ambiguity, and explore how to capture the human disagreement distribution. In contrast with directly learning from gold ambiguity labels, relying on special resource, we argue that the model has naturally captured the human ambiguity distribution as long as it’s calibrated, i.e. the predictive probability can reflect the true correctness likelihood. Our experiments show that when model is well-calibrated, either by label smoothing or temperature scaling, it can obtain competitive performance as prior work, on both divergence scores between predictive probability and the true human opinion distribution, and the accuracy. This reveals the overhead of collecting gold ambiguity labels can be cut, by broadly solving how to calibrate the NLI network.

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Synchronous Refinement for Neural Machine Translation
Kehai Chen | Masao Utiyama | Eiichiro Sumita | Rui Wang | Min Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Machine translation typically adopts an encoder-to-decoder framework, in which the decoder generates the target sentence word-by-word in an auto-regressive manner. However, the auto-regressive decoder faces a deep-rooted one-pass issue whereby each generated word is considered as one element of the final output regardless of whether it is correct or not. These generated wrong words further constitute the target historical context to affect the generation of subsequent target words. This paper proposes a novel synchronous refinement method to revise potential errors in the generated words by considering part of the target future context. Particularly, the proposed approach allows the auto-regressive decoder to refine the previously generated target words and generate the next target word synchronously. The experimental results on three widely-used machine translation tasks demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

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Bridging Pre-trained Language Models and Hand-crafted Features for Unsupervised POS Tagging
Houquan Zhou | Yang Li | Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

In recent years, large-scale pre-trained language models (PLMs) have made extraordinary progress in most NLP tasks. But, in the unsupervised POS tagging task, works utilizing PLMs are few and fail to achieve state-of-the-art (SOTA) performance. The recent SOTA performance is yielded by a Guassian HMM variant proposed by He et al. (2018). However, as a generative model, HMM makes very strong independence assumptions, making it very challenging to incorporate contexualized word representations from PLMs. In this work, we for the first time propose a neural conditional random field autoencoder (CRF-AE) model for unsupervised POS tagging. The discriminative encoder of CRF-AE can straightforwardly incorporate ELMo word representations. Moreover, inspired by feature-rich HMM, we reintroduce hand-crafted features into the decoder of CRF-AE. Finally, experiments clearly show that our model outperforms previous state-of-the-art models by a large margin on Penn Treebank and multilingual Universal Dependencies treebank v2.0.

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Bridging the Gap between Training and Inference: Multi-Candidate Optimization for Diverse Neural Machine Translation
Huan Lin | Baosong Yang | Liang Yao | Dayiheng Liu | Haibo Zhang | Jun Xie | Min Zhang | Jinsong Su
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Diverse NMT aims at generating multiple diverse yet faithful translations given a source sentence. In this paper, we investigate a common shortcoming in existing diverse NMT studies: the model is usually trained with single reference, while expected to generate multiple candidate translations in inference. The discrepancy between training and inference enlarges the confidence variance and quality gap among candidate translations and thus hinders model performance. To deal with this defect, we propose a multi-candidate optimization framework for diverse NMT. Specifically, we define assessments to score the diversity and the quality of candidate translations during training, and optimize the diverse NMT model with two strategies based on reinforcement learning, namely hard constrained training and soft constrained training. We conduct experiments on NIST Chinese-English and WMT14 English-German translation tasks. The results illustrate that our framework is transparent to basic diverse NMT models, and universally makes better trade-off between diversity and quality. Our source codeis available at https://github.com/DeepLearnXMU/MultiCanOptim.

2021

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HW-TSC’s Participation in the WMT 2021 News Translation Shared Task
Daimeng Wei | Zongyao Li | Zhanglin Wu | Zhengzhe Yu | Xiaoyu Chen | Hengchao Shang | Jiaxin Guo | Minghan Wang | Lizhi Lei | Min Zhang | Hao Yang | Ying Qin
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper presents the submission of Huawei Translate Services Center (HW-TSC) to the WMT 2021 News Translation Shared Task. We participate in 7 language pairs, including Zh/En, De/En, Ja/En, Ha/En, Is/En, Hi/Bn, and Xh/Zu in both directions under the constrained condition. We use Transformer architecture and obtain the best performance via multiple variants with larger parameter sizes. We perform detailed pre-processing and filtering on the provided large-scale bilingual and monolingual datasets. Several commonly used strategies are used to train our models, such as Back Translation, Forward Translation, Multilingual Translation, Ensemble Knowledge Distillation, etc. Our submission obtains competitive results in the final evaluation.

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HW-TSC’s Participation in the WMT 2021 Triangular MT Shared Task
Zongyao Li | Daimeng Wei | Hengchao Shang | Xiaoyu Chen | Zhanglin Wu | Zhengzhe Yu | Jiaxin Guo | Minghan Wang | Lizhi Lei | Min Zhang | Hao Yang | Ying Qin
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper presents the submission of Huawei Translation Service Center (HW-TSC) to WMT 2021 Triangular MT Shared Task. We participate in the Russian-to-Chinese task under the constrained condition. We use Transformer architecture and obtain the best performance via a variant with larger parameter sizes. We perform detailed data pre-processing and filtering on the provided large-scale bilingual data. Several strategies are used to train our models, such as Multilingual Translation, Back Translation, Forward Translation, Data Denoising, Average Checkpoint, Ensemble, Fine-tuning, etc. Our system obtains 32.5 BLEU on the dev set and 27.7 BLEU on the test set, the highest score among all submissions.

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HW-TSC’s Participation in the WMT 2021 Large-Scale Multilingual Translation Task
Zhengzhe Yu | Daimeng Wei | Zongyao Li | Hengchao Shang | Xiaoyu Chen | Zhanglin Wu | Jiaxin Guo | Minghan Wang | Lizhi Lei | Min Zhang | Hao Yang | Ying Qin
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper presents the submission of Huawei Translation Services Center (HW-TSC) to the WMT 2021 Large-Scale Multilingual Translation Task. We participate in Samll Track #2, including 6 languages: Javanese (Jv), Indonesian (Id), Malay (Ms), Tagalog (Tl), Tamil (Ta) and English (En) with 30 directions under the constrained condition. We use Transformer architecture and obtain the best performance via multiple variants with larger parameter sizes. We train a single multilingual model to translate all the 30 directions. We perform detailed pre-processing and filtering on the provided large-scale bilingual and monolingual datasets. Several commonly used strategies are used to train our models, such as Back Translation, Forward Translation, Ensemble Knowledge Distillation, Adapter Fine-tuning. Our model obtains competitive results in the end.

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HW-TSC’s Submissions to the WMT21 Biomedical Translation Task
Hao Yang | Zhanglin Wu | Zhengzhe Yu | Xiaoyu Chen | Daimeng Wei | Zongyao Li | Hengchao Shang | Minghan Wang | Jiaxin Guo | Lizhi Lei | Chuanfei Xu | Min Zhang | Ying Qin
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper describes the submission of Huawei Translation Service Center (HW-TSC) to WMT21 biomedical translation task in two language pairs: Chinese↔English and German↔English (Our registered team name is HuaweiTSC). Technical details are introduced in this paper, including model framework, data pre-processing method and model enhancement strategies. In addition, using the wmt20 OK-aligned biomedical test set, we compare and analyze system performances under different strategies. On WMT21 biomedical translation task, Our systems in English→Chinese and English→German directions get the highest BLEU scores among all submissions according to the official evaluation results.

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HW-TSC’s Participation at WMT 2021 Quality Estimation Shared Task
Yimeng Chen | Chang Su | Yingtao Zhang | Yuxia Wang | Xiang Geng | Hao Yang | Shimin Tao | Guo Jiaxin | Wang Minghan | Min Zhang | Yujia Liu | Shujian Huang
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper presents our work in WMT 2021 Quality Estimation (QE) Shared Task. We participated in all of the three sub-tasks, including Sentence-Level Direct Assessment (DA) task, Word and Sentence-Level Post-editing Effort task and Critical Error Detection task, in all language pairs. Our systems employ the framework of Predictor-Estimator, concretely with a pre-trained XLM-Roberta as Predictor and task-specific classifier or regressor as Estimator. For all tasks, we improve our systems by incorporating post-edit sentence or additional high-quality translation sentence in the way of multitask learning or encoding it with predictors directly. Moreover, in zero-shot setting, our data augmentation strategy based on Monte-Carlo Dropout brings up significant improvement on DA sub-task. Notably, our submissions achieve remarkable results over all tasks.

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How Length Prediction Influence the Performance of Non-Autoregressive Translation?
Minghan Wang | Guo Jiaxin | Yuxia Wang | Yimeng Chen | Su Chang | Hengchao Shang | Min Zhang | Shimin Tao | Hao Yang
Proceedings of the Fourth BlackboxNLP Workshop on Analyzing and Interpreting Neural Networks for NLP

Length prediction is a special task in a series of NAT models where target length has to be determined before generation. However, the performance of length prediction and its influence on translation quality has seldom been discussed. In this paper, we present comprehensive analyses on length prediction task of NAT, aiming to find the factors that influence performance, as well as how it associates with translation quality. We mainly perform experiments based on Conditional Masked Language Model (CMLM) (Ghazvininejad et al., 2019), a representative NAT model, and evaluate it on two language pairs, En-De and En-Ro. We draw two conclusions: 1) The performance of length prediction is mainly influenced by properties of language pairs such as alignment pattern, word order or intrinsic length ratio, and is also affected by the usage of knowledge distilled data. 2) There is a positive correlation between the performance of the length prediction and the BLEU score.

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XLPT-AMR: Cross-Lingual Pre-Training via Multi-Task Learning for Zero-Shot AMR Parsing and Text Generation
Dongqin Xu | Junhui Li | Muhua Zhu | Min Zhang | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Due to the scarcity of annotated data, Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) research is relatively limited and challenging for languages other than English. Upon the availability of English AMR dataset and English-to- X parallel datasets, in this paper we propose a novel cross-lingual pre-training approach via multi-task learning (MTL) for both zeroshot AMR parsing and AMR-to-text generation. Specifically, we consider three types of relevant tasks, including AMR parsing, AMR-to-text generation, and machine translation. We hope that knowledge gained while learning for English AMR parsing and text generation can be transferred to the counterparts of other languages. With properly pretrained models, we explore four different finetuning methods, i.e., vanilla fine-tuning with a single task, one-for-all MTL fine-tuning, targeted MTL fine-tuning, and teacher-studentbased MTL fine-tuning. Experimental results on AMR parsing and text generation of multiple non-English languages demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms a strong baseline of pre-training approach, and greatly advances the state of the art. In detail, on LDC2020T07 we have achieved 70.45%, 71.76%, and 70.80% in Smatch F1 for AMR parsing of German, Spanish, and Italian, respectively, while for AMR-to-text generation of the languages, we have obtained 25.69, 31.36, and 28.42 in BLEU respectively. We make our code available on github https://github.com/xdqkid/XLPT-AMR.

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LayoutLMv2: Multi-modal Pre-training for Visually-rich Document Understanding
Yang Xu | Yiheng Xu | Tengchao Lv | Lei Cui | Furu Wei | Guoxin Wang | Yijuan Lu | Dinei Florencio | Cha Zhang | Wanxiang Che | Min Zhang | Lidong Zhou
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Pre-training of text and layout has proved effective in a variety of visually-rich document understanding tasks due to its effective model architecture and the advantage of large-scale unlabeled scanned/digital-born documents. We propose LayoutLMv2 architecture with new pre-training tasks to model the interaction among text, layout, and image in a single multi-modal framework. Specifically, with a two-stream multi-modal Transformer encoder, LayoutLMv2 uses not only the existing masked visual-language modeling task but also the new text-image alignment and text-image matching tasks, which make it better capture the cross-modality interaction in the pre-training stage. Meanwhile, it also integrates a spatial-aware self-attention mechanism into the Transformer architecture so that the model can fully understand the relative positional relationship among different text blocks. Experiment results show that LayoutLMv2 outperforms LayoutLM by a large margin and achieves new state-of-the-art results on a wide variety of downstream visually-rich document understanding tasks, including FUNSD (0.7895 to 0.8420), CORD (0.9493 to 0.9601), SROIE (0.9524 to 0.9781), Kleister-NDA (0.8340 to 0.8520), RVL-CDIP (0.9443 to 0.9564), and DocVQA (0.7295 to 0.8672).

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Breaking the Corpus Bottleneck for Context-Aware Neural Machine Translation with Cross-Task Pre-training
Linqing Chen | Junhui Li | Zhengxian Gong | Boxing Chen | Weihua Luo | Min Zhang | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Context-aware neural machine translation (NMT) remains challenging due to the lack of large-scale document-level parallel corpora. To break the corpus bottleneck, in this paper we aim to improve context-aware NMT by taking the advantage of the availability of both large-scale sentence-level parallel dataset and source-side monolingual documents. To this end, we propose two pre-training tasks. One learns to translate a sentence from source language to target language on the sentence-level parallel dataset while the other learns to translate a document from deliberately noised to original on the monolingual documents. Importantly, the two pre-training tasks are jointly and simultaneously learned via the same model, thereafter fine-tuned on scale-limited parallel documents from both sentence-level and document-level perspectives. Experimental results on four translation tasks show that our approach significantly improves translation performance. One nice property of our approach is that the fine-tuned model can be used to translate both sentences and documents.

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An In-depth Study on Internal Structure of Chinese Words
Chen Gong | Saihao Huang | Houquan Zhou | Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang | Zhefeng Wang | Baoxing Huai | Nicholas Jing Yuan
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Unlike English letters, Chinese characters have rich and specific meanings. Usually, the meaning of a word can be derived from its constituent characters in some way. Several previous works on syntactic parsing propose to annotate shallow word-internal structures for better utilizing character-level information. This work proposes to model the deep internal structures of Chinese words as dependency trees with 11 labels for distinguishing syntactic relationships. First, based on newly compiled annotation guidelines, we manually annotate a word-internal structure treebank (WIST) consisting of over 30K multi-char words from Chinese Penn Treebank. To guarantee quality, each word is independently annotated by two annotators and inconsistencies are handled by a third senior annotator. Second, we present detailed and interesting analysis on WIST to reveal insights on Chinese word formation. Third, we propose word-internal structure parsing as a new task, and conduct benchmark experiments using a competitive dependency parser. Finally, we present two simple ways to encode word-internal structures, leading to promising gains on the sentence-level syntactic parsing task.

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Bridging Subword Gaps in Pretrain-Finetune Paradigm for Natural Language Generation
Xin Liu | Baosong Yang | Dayiheng Liu | Haibo Zhang | Weihua Luo | Min Zhang | Haiying Zhang | Jinsong Su
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

A well-known limitation in pretrain-finetune paradigm lies in its inflexibility caused by the one-size-fits-all vocabulary.This potentially weakens the effect when applying pretrained models into natural language generation (NLG) tasks, especially for the subword distributions between upstream and downstream tasks with significant discrepancy. Towards approaching this problem, we extend the vanilla pretrain-finetune pipeline with an extra embedding transfer step. Specifically, a plug-and-play embedding generator is introduced to produce the representation of any input token, according to pre-trained embeddings of its morphologically similar ones.Thus, embeddings of mismatch tokens in downstream tasks can also be efficiently initialized.We conduct experiments on a variety of NLG tasks under the pretrain-finetune fashion. Experimental results and extensive analyses show that the proposed strategy offers us opportunities to feel free to transfer the vocabulary, leading to more efficient and better performed downstream NLG models.

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Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: Tutorial Abstracts
David Chiang | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: Tutorial Abstracts

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Code Summarization with Structure-induced Transformer
Hongqiu Wu | Hai Zhao | Min Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Combining Static Word Embeddings and Contextual Representations for Bilingual Lexicon Induction
Jinpeng Zhang | Baijun Ji | Nini Xiao | Xiangyu Duan | Min Zhang | Yangbin Shi | Weihua Luo
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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APGN: Adversarial and Parameter Generation Networks for Multi-Source Cross-Domain Dependency Parsing
Ying Li | Meishan Zhang | Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang | Zhefeng Wang | Baoxing Huai | Nicholas Jing Yuan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Thanks to the strong representation learning capability of deep learning, especially pre-training techniques with language model loss, dependency parsing has achieved great performance boost in the in-domain scenario with abundant labeled training data for target domains. However, the parsing community has to face the more realistic setting where the parsing performance drops drastically when labeled data only exists for several fixed out-domains. In this work, we propose a novel model for multi-source cross-domain dependency parsing. The model consists of two components, i.e., a parameter generation network for distinguishing domain-specific features, and an adversarial network for learning domain-invariant representations. Experiments on a recently released NLPCC-2019 dataset for multi-domain dependency parsing show that our model can consistently improve cross-domain parsing performance by about 2 points in averaged labeled attachment accuracy (LAS) over strong BERT-enhanced baselines. Detailed analysis is conducted to gain more insights on contributions of the two components.

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Stacked AMR Parsing with Silver Data
Qingrong Xia | Zhenghua Li | Rui Wang | Min Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Lacking sufficient human-annotated data is one main challenge for abstract meaning representation (AMR) parsing. To alleviate this problem, previous works usually make use of silver data or pre-trained language models. In particular, one recent seq-to-seq work directly fine-tunes AMR graph sequences on the encoder-decoder pre-trained language model and achieves new state-of-the-art results, outperforming previous works by a large margin. However, it makes the decoding relatively slower. In this work, we investigate alternative approaches to achieve competitive performance at faster speeds. We propose a simplified AMR parser and a pre-training technique for the effective usage of silver data. We conduct extensive experiments on the widely used AMR2.0 dataset and the results demonstrate that our Transformer-based AMR parser achieves the best performance among the seq2graph-based models. Furthermore, with silver data, our model achieves competitive results with the SOTA model, and the speed is an order of magnitude faster. Detailed analyses are conducted to gain more insights into our proposed model and the effectiveness of the pre-training technique.

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Make the Blind Translator See The World: A Novel Transfer Learning Solution for Multimodal Machine Translation
Minghan Wang | Jiaxin Guo | Yimeng Chen | Chang Su | Min Zhang | Shimin Tao | Hao Yang
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit XVIII: Research Track

Based on large-scale pretrained networks and the liability to be easily overfitting with limited labelled training data of multimodal translation (MMT) is a critical issue in MMT. To this end and we propose a transfer learning solution. Specifically and 1) A vanilla Transformer is pre-trained on massive bilingual text-only corpus to obtain prior knowledge; 2) A multimodal Transformer named VLTransformer is proposed with several components incorporated visual contexts; and 3) The parameters of VLTransformer are initialized with the pre-trained vanilla Transformer and then being fine-tuned on MMT tasks with a newly proposed method named cross-modal masking which forces the model to learn from both modalities. We evaluated on the Multi30k en-de and en-fr dataset and improving up to 8% BLEU score compared with the SOTA performance. The experimental result demonstrates that performing transfer learning with monomodal pre-trained NMT model on multimodal NMT tasks can obtain considerable boosts.

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数据标注方法比较研究:以依存句法树标注为例(Comparison Study on Data Annotation Approaches: Dependency Tree Annotation as Case Study)
Mingyue Zhou (周明月) | Chen Gong (龚晨) | Zhenghua Li (李正华) | Min Zhang (张民)
Proceedings of the 20th Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics

数据标注最重要的考虑因素是数据的质量和标注代价。我们调研发现自然语言处理领域的数据标注工作通常采用机标人校的标注方法以降低代价;同时,很少有工作严格对比不同标注方法,以探讨标注方法对标注质量和代价的影响。该文借助一个成熟的标注团队,以依存句法数据标注为案例,实验对比了机标人校、双人独立标注、及本文通过融合前两种方法所新提出的人机独立标注方法,得到了一些初步的结论。

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A Coarse-to-Fine Labeling Framework for Joint Word Segmentation, POS Tagging, and Constituent Parsing
Yang Hou | Houquan Zhou | Zhenghua Li | Yu Zhang | Min Zhang | Zhefeng Wang | Baoxing Huai | Nicholas Jing Yuan
Proceedings of the 25th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

The most straightforward approach to joint word segmentation (WS), part-of-speech (POS) tagging, and constituent parsing is converting a word-level tree into a char-level tree, which, however, leads to two severe challenges. First, a larger label set (e.g., ≥ 600) and longer inputs both increase computational costs. Second, it is difficult to rule out illegal trees containing conflicting production rules, which is important for reliable model evaluation. If a POS tag (like VV) is above a phrase tag (like VP) in the output tree, it becomes quite complex to decide word boundaries. To deal with both challenges, this work proposes a two-stage coarse-to-fine labeling framework for joint WS-POS-PAR. In the coarse labeling stage, the joint model outputs a bracketed tree, in which each node corresponds to one of four labels (i.e., phrase, subphrase, word, subword). The tree is guaranteed to be legal via constrained CKY decoding. In the fine labeling stage, the model expands each coarse label into a final label (such as VP, VP*, VV, VV*). Experiments on Chinese Penn Treebank 5.1 and 7.0 show that our joint model consistently outperforms the pipeline approach on both settings of w/o and w/ BERT, and achieves new state-of-the-art performance.

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A Unified Span-Based Approach for Opinion Mining with Syntactic Constituents
Qingrong Xia | Bo Zhang | Rui Wang | Zhenghua Li | Yue Zhang | Fei Huang | Luo Si | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Fine-grained opinion mining (OM) has achieved increasing attraction in the natural language processing (NLP) community, which aims to find the opinion structures of “Who expressed what opinions towards what” in one sentence. In this work, motivated by its span-based representations of opinion expressions and roles, we propose a unified span-based approach for the end-to-end OM setting. Furthermore, inspired by the unified span-based formalism of OM and constituent parsing, we explore two different methods (multi-task learning and graph convolutional neural network) to integrate syntactic constituents into the proposed model to help OM. We conduct experiments on the commonly used MPQA 2.0 dataset. The experimental results show that our proposed unified span-based approach achieves significant improvements over previous works in the exact F1 score and reduces the number of wrongly-predicted opinion expressions and roles, showing the effectiveness of our method. In addition, incorporating the syntactic constituents achieves promising improvements over the strong baseline enhanced by contextualized word representations.

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Encouraging Lexical Translation Consistency for Document-Level Neural Machine Translation
Xinglin Lyu | Junhui Li | Zhengxian Gong | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recently a number of approaches have been proposed to improve translation performance for document-level neural machine translation (NMT). However, few are focusing on the subject of lexical translation consistency. In this paper we apply “one translation per discourse” in NMT, and aim to encourage lexical translation consistency for document-level NMT. This is done by first obtaining a word link for each source word in a document, which tells the positions where the source word appears. Then we encourage the translation of those words within a link to be consistent in two ways. On the one hand, when encoding sentences within a document we properly share context information of those words. On the other hand, we propose an auxiliary loss function to better constrain that their translation should be consistent. Experimental results on Chinese↔English and English→French translation tasks show that our approach not only achieves state-of-the-art performance in BLEU scores, but also greatly improves lexical consistency in translation.

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Joint Multi-modal Aspect-Sentiment Analysis with Auxiliary Cross-modal Relation Detection
Xincheng Ju | Dong Zhang | Rong Xiao | Junhui Li | Shoushan Li | Min Zhang | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Aspect terms extraction (ATE) and aspect sentiment classification (ASC) are two fundamental and fine-grained sub-tasks in aspect-level sentiment analysis (ALSA). In the textual analysis, joint extracting both aspect terms and sentiment polarities has been drawn much attention due to the better applications than individual sub-task. However, in the multi-modal scenario, the existing studies are limited to handle each sub-task independently, which fails to model the innate connection between the above two objectives and ignores the better applications. Therefore, in this paper, we are the first to jointly perform multi-modal ATE (MATE) and multi-modal ASC (MASC), and we propose a multi-modal joint learning approach with auxiliary cross-modal relation detection for multi-modal aspect-level sentiment analysis (MALSA). Specifically, we first build an auxiliary text-image relation detection module to control the proper exploitation of visual information. Second, we adopt the hierarchical framework to bridge the multi-modal connection between MATE and MASC, as well as separately visual guiding for each sub module. Finally, we can obtain all aspect-level sentiment polarities dependent on the jointly extracted specific aspects. Extensive experiments show the effectiveness of our approach against the joint textual approaches, pipeline and collapsed multi-modal approaches.

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Data Augmentation with Hierarchical SQL-to-Question Generation for Cross-domain Text-to-SQL Parsing
Kun Wu | Lijie Wang | Zhenghua Li | Ao Zhang | Xinyan Xiao | Hua Wu | Min Zhang | Haifeng Wang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Data augmentation has attracted a lot of research attention in the deep learning era for its ability in alleviating data sparseness. The lack of labeled data for unseen evaluation databases is exactly the major challenge for cross-domain text-to-SQL parsing. Previous works either require human intervention to guarantee the quality of generated data, or fail to handle complex SQL queries. This paper presents a simple yet effective data augmentation framework. First, given a database, we automatically produce a large number of SQL queries based on an abstract syntax tree grammar. For better distribution matching, we require that at least 80% of SQL patterns in the training data are covered by generated queries. Second, we propose a hierarchical SQL-to-question generation model to obtain high-quality natural language questions, which is the major contribution of this work. Finally, we design a simple sampling strategy that can greatly improve training efficiency given large amounts of generated data. Experiments on three cross-domain datasets, i.e., WikiSQL and Spider in English, and DuSQL in Chinese, show that our proposed data augmentation framework can consistently improve performance over strong baselines, and the hierarchical generation component is the key for the improvement.

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HI-CMLM: Improve CMLM with Hybrid Decoder Input
Minghan Wang | Guo Jiaxin | Yuxia Wang | Yimeng Chen | Su Chang | Daimeng Wei | Min Zhang | Shimin Tao | Hao Yang
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Natural Language Generation

Mask-predict CMLM (Ghazvininejad et al.,2019) has achieved stunning performance among non-autoregressive NMT models, but we find that the mechanism of predicting all of the target words only depending on the hidden state of [MASK] is not effective and efficient in initial iterations of refinement, resulting in ungrammatical repetitions and slow convergence. In this work, we mitigate this problem by combining copied source with embeddings of [MASK] in decoder. Notably. it’s not a straightforward copying that is shown to be useless, but a novel heuristic hybrid strategy — fence-mask. Experimental results show that it gains consistent boosts on both WMT14 En<->De and WMT16 En<->Ro corpus by 0.5 BLEU on average, and 1 BLEU for less-informative short sentences. This reveals that incorporating additional information by proper strategies is beneficial to improve CMLM, particularly translation quality of short texts and speeding up early-stage convergence.

2020

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Improving AMR Parsing with Sequence-to-Sequence Pre-training
Dongqin Xu | Junhui Li | Muhua Zhu | Min Zhang | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

In the literature, the research on abstract meaning representation (AMR) parsing is much restricted by the size of human-curated dataset which is critical to build an AMR parser with good performance. To alleviate such data size restriction, pre-trained models have been drawing more and more attention in AMR parsing. However, previous pre-trained models, like BERT, are implemented for general purpose which may not work as expected for the specific task of AMR parsing. In this paper, we focus on sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) AMR parsing and propose a seq2seq pre-training approach to build pre-trained models in both single and joint way on three relevant tasks, i.e., machine translation, syntactic parsing, and AMR parsing itself. Moreover, we extend the vanilla fine-tuning method to a multi-task learning fine-tuning method that optimizes for the performance of AMR parsing while endeavors to preserve the response of pre-trained models. Extensive experimental results on two English benchmark datasets show that both the single and joint pre-trained models significantly improve the performance (e.g., from 71.5 to 80.2 on AMR 2.0), which reaches the state of the art. The result is very encouraging since we achieve this with seq2seq models rather than complex models. We make our code and model available at https:// github.com/xdqkid/S2S-AMR-Parser.

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DuSQL: A Large-Scale and Pragmatic Chinese Text-to-SQL Dataset
Lijie Wang | Ao Zhang | Kun Wu | Ke Sun | Zhenghua Li | Hua Wu | Min Zhang | Haifeng Wang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Due to the lack of labeled data, previous research on text-to-SQL parsing mainly focuses on English. Representative English datasets include ATIS, WikiSQL, Spider, etc. This paper presents DuSQL, a larges-scale and pragmatic Chinese dataset for the cross-domain text-to-SQL task, containing 200 databases, 813 tables, and 23,797 question/SQL pairs. Our new dataset has three major characteristics. First, by manually analyzing questions from several representative applications, we try to figure out the true distribution of SQL queries in real-life needs. Second, DuSQL contains a considerable proportion of SQL queries involving row or column calculations, motivated by our analysis on the SQL query distributions. Finally, we adopt an effective data construction framework via human-computer collaboration. The basic idea is automatically generating SQL queries based on the SQL grammar and constrained by the given database. This paper describes in detail the construction process and data statistics of DuSQL. Moreover, we present and compare performance of several open-source text-to-SQL parsers with minor modification to accommodate Chinese, including a simple yet effective extension to IRNet for handling calculation SQL queries.

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Improving Relation Extraction with Relational Paraphrase Sentences
Junjie Yu | Tong Zhu | Wenliang Chen | Wei Zhang | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Supervised models for Relation Extraction (RE) typically require human-annotated training data. Due to the limited size, the human-annotated data is usually incapable of covering diverse relation expressions, which could limit the performance of RE. To increase the coverage of relation expressions, we may enlarge the labeled data by hiring annotators or applying Distant Supervision (DS). However, the human-annotated data is costly and non-scalable while the distantly supervised data contains many noises. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach to improve RE systems via enriching diverse expressions by relational paraphrase sentences. Based on an existing labeled data, we first automatically build a task-specific paraphrase data. Then, we propose a novel model to learn the information of diverse relation expressions. In our model, we try to capture this information on the paraphrases via a joint learning framework. Finally, we conduct experiments on a widely used dataset and the experimental results show that our approach is effective to improve the performance on relation extraction, even compared with a strong baseline.

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Multi-grained Chinese Word Segmentation with Weakly Labeled Data
Chen Gong | Zhenghua Li | Bowei Zou | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

In contrast with the traditional single-grained word segmentation (SWS), where a sentence corresponds to a single word sequence, multi-grained Chinese word segmentation (MWS) aims to segment a sentence into multiple word sequences to preserve all words of different granularities. Due to the lack of manually annotated MWS data, previous work train and tune MWS models only on automatically generated pseudo MWS data. In this work, we further take advantage of the rich word boundary information in existing SWS data and naturally annotated data from dictionary example (DictEx) sentences, to advance the state-of-the-art MWS model based on the idea of weak supervision. Particularly, we propose to accommodate two types of weakly labeled data for MWS, i.e., SWS data and DictEx data by employing a simple yet competitive graph-based parser with local loss. Besides, we manually annotate a high-quality MWS dataset according to our newly compiled annotation guideline, consisting of over 9,000 sentences from two types of texts, i.e., canonical newswire (NEWS) and non-canonical web (BAIKE) data for better evaluation. Detailed evaluation shows that our proposed model with weakly labeled data significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art MWS model by 1.12 and 5.97 on NEWS and BAIKE data in F1.

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Semantic Role Labeling with Heterogeneous Syntactic Knowledge
Qingrong Xia | Rui Wang | Zhenghua Li | Yue Zhang | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Recently, due to the interplay between syntax and semantics, incorporating syntactic knowledge into neural semantic role labeling (SRL) has achieved much attention. Most of the previous syntax-aware SRL works focus on explicitly modeling homogeneous syntactic knowledge over tree outputs. In this work, we propose to encode heterogeneous syntactic knowledge for SRL from both explicit and implicit representations. First, we introduce graph convolutional networks to explicitly encode multiple heterogeneous dependency parse trees. Second, we extract the implicit syntactic representations from syntactic parser trained with heterogeneous treebanks. Finally, we inject the two types of heterogeneous syntax-aware representations into the base SRL model as extra inputs. We conduct experiments on two widely-used benchmark datasets, i.e., Chinese Proposition Bank 1.0 and English CoNLL-2005 dataset. Experimental results show that incorporating heterogeneous syntactic knowledge brings significant improvements over strong baselines. We further conduct detailed analysis to gain insights on the usefulness of heterogeneous (vs. homogeneous) syntactic knowledge and the effectiveness of our proposed approaches for modeling such knowledge.

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Interactively-Propagative Attention Learning for Implicit Discourse Relation Recognition
Huibin Ruan | Yu Hong | Yang Xu | Zhen Huang | Guodong Zhou | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

We tackle implicit discourse relation recognition. Both self-attention and interactive-attention mechanisms have been applied for attention-aware representation learning, which improves the current discourse analysis models. To take advantages of the two attention mechanisms simultaneously, we develop a propagative attention learning model using a cross-coupled two-channel network. We experiment on Penn Discourse Treebank. The test results demonstrate that our model yields substantial improvements over the baselines (BiLSTM and BERT).

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Semi-supervised Domain Adaptation for Dependency Parsing via Improved Contextualized Word Representations
Ying Li | Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

In recent years, parsing performance is dramatically improved on in-domain texts thanks to the rapid progress of deep neural network models. The major challenge for current parsing research is to improve parsing performance on out-of-domain texts that are very different from the in-domain training data when there is only a small-scale out-domain labeled data. To deal with this problem, we propose to improve the contextualized word representations via adversarial learning and fine-tuning BERT processes. Concretely, we apply adversarial learning to three representative semi-supervised domain adaption methods, i.e., direct concatenation (CON), feature augmentation (FA), and domain embedding (DE) with two useful strategies, i.e., fused target-domain word representations and orthogonality constraints, thus enabling to model more pure yet effective domain-specific and domain-invariant representations. Simultaneously, we utilize a large-scale target-domain unlabeled data to fine-tune BERT with only the language model loss, thus obtaining reliable contextualized word representations that benefit for the cross-domain dependency parsing. Experiments on a benchmark dataset show that our proposed adversarial approaches achieve consistent improvement, and fine-tuning BERT further boosts parsing accuracy by a large margin. Our single model achieves the same state-of-the-art performance as the top submitted system in the NLPCC-2019 shared task, which uses ensemble models and BERT.

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Token Drop mechanism for Neural Machine Translation
Huaao Zhang | Shigui Qiu | Xiangyu Duan | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Neural machine translation with millions of parameters is vulnerable to unfamiliar inputs. We propose Token Drop to improve generalization and avoid overfitting for the NMT model. Similar to word dropout, whereas we replace dropped token with a special token instead of setting zero to words. We further introduce two self-supervised objectives: Replaced Token Detection and Dropped Token Prediction. Our method aims to force model generating target translation with less information, in this way the model can learn textual representation better. Experiments on Chinese-English and English-Romanian benchmark demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach and our model achieves significant improvements over a strong Transformer baseline.

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Towards Accurate and Consistent Evaluation: A Dataset for Distantly-Supervised Relation Extraction
Tong Zhu | Haitao Wang | Junjie Yu | Xiabing Zhou | Wenliang Chen | Wei Zhang | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

In recent years, distantly-supervised relation extraction has achieved a certain success by using deep neural networks. Distant Supervision (DS) can automatically generate large-scale annotated data by aligning entity pairs from Knowledge Bases (KB) to sentences. However, these DS-generated datasets inevitably have wrong labels that result in incorrect evaluation scores during testing, which may mislead the researchers. To solve this problem, we build a new dataset NYTH, where we use the DS-generated data as training data and hire annotators to label test data. Compared with the previous datasets, NYT-H has a much larger test set and then we can perform more accurate and consistent evaluation. Finally, we present the experimental results of several widely used systems on NYT-H. The experimental results show that the ranking lists of the comparison systems on the DS-labelled test data and human-annotated test data are different. This indicates that our human-annotated data is necessary for evaluation of distantly-supervised relation extraction.

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Bilingual Dictionary Based Neural Machine Translation without Using Parallel Sentences
Xiangyu Duan | Baijun Ji | Hao Jia | Min Tan | Min Zhang | Boxing Chen | Weihua Luo | Yue Zhang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In this paper, we propose a new task of machine translation (MT), which is based on no parallel sentences but can refer to a ground-truth bilingual dictionary. Motivated by the ability of a monolingual speaker learning to translate via looking up the bilingual dictionary, we propose the task to see how much potential an MT system can attain using the bilingual dictionary and large scale monolingual corpora, while is independent on parallel sentences. We propose anchored training (AT) to tackle the task. AT uses the bilingual dictionary to establish anchoring points for closing the gap between source language and target language. Experiments on various language pairs show that our approaches are significantly better than various baselines, including dictionary-based word-by-word translation, dictionary-supervised cross-lingual word embedding transformation, and unsupervised MT. On distant language pairs that are hard for unsupervised MT to perform well, AT performs remarkably better, achieving performances comparable to supervised SMT trained on more than 4M parallel sentences.

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Syntax-Aware Opinion Role Labeling with Dependency Graph Convolutional Networks
Bo Zhang | Yue Zhang | Rui Wang | Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Opinion role labeling (ORL) is a fine-grained opinion analysis task and aims to answer “who expressed what kind of sentiment towards what?”. Due to the scarcity of labeled data, ORL remains challenging for data-driven methods. In this work, we try to enhance neural ORL models with syntactic knowledge by comparing and integrating different representations. We also propose dependency graph convolutional networks (DEPGCN) to encode parser information at different processing levels. In order to compensate for parser inaccuracy and reduce error propagation, we introduce multi-task learning (MTL) to train the parser and the ORL model simultaneously. We verify our methods on the benchmark MPQA corpus. The experimental results show that syntactic information is highly valuable for ORL, and our final MTL model effectively boosts the F1 score by 9.29 over the syntax-agnostic baseline. In addition, we find that the contributions from syntactic knowledge do not fully overlap with contextualized word representations (BERT). Our best model achieves 4.34 higher F1 score than the current state-ofthe-art.

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Efficient Second-Order TreeCRF for Neural Dependency Parsing
Yu Zhang | Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In the deep learning (DL) era, parsing models are extremely simplified with little hurt on performance, thanks to the remarkable capability of multi-layer BiLSTMs in context representation. As the most popular graph-based dependency parser due to its high efficiency and performance, the biaffine parser directly scores single dependencies under the arc-factorization assumption, and adopts a very simple local token-wise cross-entropy training loss. This paper for the first time presents a second-order TreeCRF extension to the biaffine parser. For a long time, the complexity and inefficiency of the inside-outside algorithm hinder the popularity of TreeCRF. To address this issue, we propose an effective way to batchify the inside and Viterbi algorithms for direct large matrix operation on GPUs, and to avoid the complex outside algorithm via efficient back-propagation. Experiments and analysis on 27 datasets from 13 languages clearly show that techniques developed before the DL era, such as structural learning (global TreeCRF loss) and high-order modeling are still useful, and can further boost parsing performance over the state-of-the-art biaffine parser, especially for partially annotated training data. We release our code at https://github.com/yzhangcs/crfpar.

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Aspect Sentiment Classification with Document-level Sentiment Preference Modeling
Xiao Chen | Changlong Sun | Jingjing Wang | Shoushan Li | Luo Si | Min Zhang | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In the literature, existing studies always consider Aspect Sentiment Classification (ASC) as an independent sentence-level classification problem aspect by aspect, which largely ignore the document-level sentiment preference information, though obviously such information is crucial for alleviating the information deficiency problem in ASC. In this paper, we explore two kinds of sentiment preference information inside a document, i.e., contextual sentiment consistency w.r.t. the same aspect (namely intra-aspect sentiment consistency) and contextual sentiment tendency w.r.t. all the related aspects (namely inter-aspect sentiment tendency). On the basis, we propose a Cooperative Graph Attention Networks (CoGAN) approach for cooperatively learning the aspect-related sentence representation. Specifically, two graph attention networks are leveraged to model above two kinds of document-level sentiment preference information respectively, followed by an interactive mechanism to integrate the two-fold preference. Detailed evaluation demonstrates the great advantage of the proposed approach to ASC over the state-of-the-art baselines. This justifies the importance of the document-level sentiment preference information to ASC and the effectiveness of our approach capturing such information.

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Multi-Turn Dialogue Generation in E-Commerce Platform with the Context of Historical Dialogue
WeiSheng Zhang | Kaisong Song | Yangyang Kang | Zhongqing Wang | Changlong Sun | Xiaozhong Liu | Shoushan Li | Min Zhang | Luo Si
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

As an important research topic, customer service dialogue generation tends to generate generic seller responses by leveraging current dialogue information. In this study, we propose a novel and extensible dialogue generation method by leveraging sellers’ historical dialogue information, which can be both accessible and informative. By utilizing innovative historical dialogue representation learning and historical dialogue selection mechanism, the proposed model is capable of detecting most related responses from sellers’ historical dialogues, which can further enhance the current dialogue generation quality. Unlike prior dialogue generation efforts, we treat each seller’s historical dialogues as a list of Customer-Seller utterance pairs and allow the model to measure their different importance, and copy words directly from most relevant pairs. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed approach can generate high-quality responses that cater to specific sellers’ characteristics and exhibit consistent superiority over baselines on a real-world multi-turn customer service dialogue dataset.

2019

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Code-Switching for Enhancing NMT with Pre-Specified Translation
Kai Song | Yue Zhang | Heng Yu | Weihua Luo | Kun Wang | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Leveraging user-provided translation to constrain NMT has practical significance. Existing methods can be classified into two main categories, namely the use of placeholder tags for lexicon words and the use of hard constraints during decoding. Both methods can hurt translation fidelity for various reasons. We investigate a data augmentation method, making code-switched training data by replacing source phrases with their target translations. Our method does not change the MNT model or decoding algorithm, allowing the model to learn lexicon translations by copying source-side target words. Extensive experiments show that our method achieves consistent improvements over existing approaches, improving translation of constrained words without hurting unconstrained words.

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Syntax-Enhanced Neural Machine Translation with Syntax-Aware Word Representations
Meishan Zhang | Zhenghua Li | Guohong Fu | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Syntax has been demonstrated highly effective in neural machine translation (NMT). Previous NMT models integrate syntax by representing 1-best tree outputs from a well-trained parsing system, e.g., the representative Tree-RNN and Tree-Linearization methods, which may suffer from error propagation. In this work, we propose a novel method to integrate source-side syntax implicitly for NMT. The basic idea is to use the intermediate hidden representations of a well-trained end-to-end dependency parser, which are referred to as syntax-aware word representations (SAWRs). Then, we simply concatenate such SAWRs with ordinary word embeddings to enhance basic NMT models. The method can be straightforwardly integrated into the widely-used sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) NMT models. We start with a representative RNN-based Seq2Seq baseline system, and test the effectiveness of our proposed method on two benchmark datasets of the Chinese-English and English-Vietnamese translation tasks, respectively. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to bring significant BLEU score improvements on the two datasets compared with the baseline, 1.74 points for Chinese-English translation and 0.80 point for English-Vietnamese translation, respectively. In addition, the approach also outperforms the explicit Tree-RNN and Tree-Linearization methods.

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HLT@SUDA at SemEval-2019 Task 1: UCCA Graph Parsing as Constituent Tree Parsing
Wei Jiang | Zhenghua Li | Yu Zhang | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper describes a simple UCCA semantic graph parsing approach. The key idea is to convert a UCCA semantic graph into a constituent tree, in which extra labels are deliberately designed to mark remote edges and discontinuous nodes for future recovery. In this way, we can make use of existing syntactic parsing techniques. Based on the data statistics, we recover discontinuous nodes directly according to the output labels of the constituent parser and use a biaffine classification model to recover the more complex remote edges. The classification model and the constituent parser are simultaneously trained under the multi-task learning framework. We use the multilingual BERT as extra features in the open tracks. Our system ranks the first place in the six English/German closed/open tracks among seven participating systems. For the seventh cross-lingual track, where there is little training data for French, we propose a language embedding approach to utilize English and German training data, and our result ranks the second place.

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Contrastive Attention Mechanism for Abstractive Sentence Summarization
Xiangyu Duan | Hongfei Yu | Mingming Yin | Min Zhang | Weihua Luo | Yue Zhang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

We propose a contrastive attention mechanism to extend the sequence-to-sequence framework for abstractive sentence summarization task, which aims to generate a brief summary of a given source sentence. The proposed contrastive attention mechanism accommodates two categories of attention: one is the conventional attention that attends to relevant parts of the source sentence, the other is the opponent attention that attends to irrelevant or less relevant parts of the source sentence. Both attentions are trained in an opposite way so that the contribution from the conventional attention is encouraged and the contribution from the opponent attention is discouraged through a novel softmax and softmin functionality. Experiments on benchmark datasets show that, the proposed contrastive attention mechanism is more focused on the relevant parts for the summary than the conventional attention mechanism, and greatly advances the state-of-the-art performance on the abstractive sentence summarization task. We release the code at https://github.com/travel-go/ Abstractive-Text-Summarization.

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A Syntax-aware Multi-task Learning Framework for Chinese Semantic Role Labeling
Qingrong Xia | Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Semantic role labeling (SRL) aims to identify the predicate-argument structure of a sentence. Inspired by the strong correlation between syntax and semantics, previous works pay much attention to improve SRL performance on exploiting syntactic knowledge, achieving significant results. Pipeline methods based on automatic syntactic trees and multi-task learning (MTL) approaches using standard syntactic trees are two common research orientations. In this paper, we adopt a simple unified span-based model for both span-based and word-based Chinese SRL as a strong baseline. Besides, we present a MTL framework that includes the basic SRL module and a dependency parser module. Different from the commonly used hard parameter sharing strategy in MTL, the main idea is to extract implicit syntactic representations from the dependency parser as external inputs for the basic SRL model. Experiments on the benchmarks of Chinese Proposition Bank 1.0 and CoNLL-2009 Chinese datasets show that our proposed framework can effectively improve the performance over the strong baselines. With the external BERT representations, our framework achieves new state-of-the-art 87.54 and 88.5 F1 scores on the two test data of the two benchmarks, respectively. In-depth analysis are conducted to gain more insights on the proposed framework and the effectiveness of syntax.

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Modeling Graph Structure in Transformer for Better AMR-to-Text Generation
Jie Zhu | Junhui Li | Muhua Zhu | Longhua Qian | Min Zhang | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Recent studies on AMR-to-text generation often formalize the task as a sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) learning problem by converting an Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) graph into a word sequences. Graph structures are further modeled into the seq2seq framework in order to utilize the structural information in the AMR graphs. However, previous approaches only consider the relations between directly connected concepts while ignoring the rich structure in AMR graphs. In this paper we eliminate such a strong limitation and propose a novel structure-aware self-attention approach to better model the relations between indirectly connected concepts in the state-of-the-art seq2seq model, i.e. the Transformer. In particular, a few different methods are explored to learn structural representations between two concepts. Experimental results on English AMR benchmark datasets show that our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art with 29.66 and 31.82 BLEU scores on LDC2015E86 and LDC2017T10, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, these are the best results achieved so far by supervised models on the benchmarks.

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Emotion Detection with Neural Personal Discrimination
Xiabing Zhou | Zhongqing Wang | Shoushan Li | Guodong Zhou | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

There have been a recent line of works to automatically predict the emotions of posts in social media. Existing approaches consider the posts individually and predict their emotions independently. Different from previous researches, we explore the dependence among relevant posts via the authors’ backgrounds, since the authors with similar backgrounds, e.g., gender, location, tend to express similar emotions. However, such personal attributes are not easy to obtain in most social media websites, and it is hard to capture attributes-aware words to connect similar people. Accordingly, we propose a Neural Personal Discrimination (NPD) approach to address above challenges by determining personal attributes from posts, and connecting relevant posts with similar attributes to jointly learn their emotions. In particular, we employ adversarial discriminators to determine the personal attributes, with attention mechanisms to aggregate attributes-aware words. In this way, social correlationship among different posts can be better addressed. Experimental results show the usefulness of personal attributes, and the effectiveness of our proposed NPD approach in capturing such personal attributes with significant gains over the state-of-the-art models.

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Human-Like Decision Making: Document-level Aspect Sentiment Classification via Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning
Jingjing Wang | Changlong Sun | Shoushan Li | Jiancheng Wang | Luo Si | Min Zhang | Xiaozhong Liu | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Recently, neural networks have shown promising results on Document-level Aspect Sentiment Classification (DASC). However, these approaches often offer little transparency w.r.t. their inner working mechanisms and lack interpretability. In this paper, to simulating the steps of analyzing aspect sentiment in a document by human beings, we propose a new Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning (HRL) approach to DASC. This approach incorporates clause selection and word selection strategies to tackle the data noise problem in the task of DASC. First, a high-level policy is proposed to select aspect-relevant clauses and discard noisy clauses. Then, a low-level policy is proposed to select sentiment-relevant words and discard noisy words inside the selected clauses. Finally, a sentiment rating predictor is designed to provide reward signals to guide both clause and word selection. Experimental results demonstrate the impressive effectiveness of the proposed approach to DASC over the state-of-the-art baselines.

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SUDA-Alibaba at MRP 2019: Graph-Based Models with BERT
Yue Zhang | Wei Jiang | Qingrong Xia | Junjie Cao | Rui Wang | Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the Shared Task on Cross-Framework Meaning Representation Parsing at the 2019 Conference on Natural Language Learning

In this paper, we describe our participating systems in the shared task on Cross- Framework Meaning Representation Parsing (MRP) at the 2019 Conference for Computational Language Learning (CoNLL). The task includes five frameworks for graph-based meaning representations, i.e., DM, PSD, EDS, UCCA, and AMR. One common characteristic of our systems is that we employ graph-based methods instead of transition-based methods when predicting edges between nodes. For SDP, we jointly perform edge prediction, frame tagging, and POS tagging via multi-task learning (MTL). For UCCA, we also jointly model a constituent tree parsing and a remote edge recovery task. For both EDS and AMR, we produce nodes first and edges second in a pipeline fashion. External resources like BERT are found helpful for all frameworks except AMR. Our final submission ranks the third on the overall MRP evaluation metric, the first on EDS and the second on UCCA.

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Semi-supervised Domain Adaptation for Dependency Parsing
Zhenghua Li | Xue Peng | Min Zhang | Rui Wang | Luo Si
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

During the past decades, due to the lack of sufficient labeled data, most studies on cross-domain parsing focus on unsupervised domain adaptation, assuming there is no target-domain training data. However, unsupervised approaches make limited progress so far due to the intrinsic difficulty of both domain adaptation and parsing. This paper tackles the semi-supervised domain adaptation problem for Chinese dependency parsing, based on two newly-annotated large-scale domain-aware datasets. We propose a simple domain embedding approach to merge the source- and target-domain training data, which is shown to be more effective than both direct corpus concatenation and multi-task learning. In order to utilize unlabeled target-domain data, we employ the recent contextualized word representations and show that a simple fine-tuning procedure can further boost cross-domain parsing accuracy by large margin.

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Sentence-Level Agreement for Neural Machine Translation
Mingming Yang | Rui Wang | Kehai Chen | Masao Utiyama | Eiichiro Sumita | Min Zhang | Tiejun Zhao
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

The training objective of neural machine translation (NMT) is to minimize the loss between the words in the translated sentences and those in the references. In NMT, there is a natural correspondence between the source sentence and the target sentence. However, this relationship has only been represented using the entire neural network and the training objective is computed in word-level. In this paper, we propose a sentence-level agreement module to directly minimize the difference between the representation of source and target sentence. The proposed agreement module can be integrated into NMT as an additional training objective function and can also be used to enhance the representation of the source sentences. Empirical results on the NIST Chinese-to-English and WMT English-to-German tasks show the proposed agreement module can significantly improve the NMT performance.

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Zero-Shot Cross-Lingual Abstractive Sentence Summarization through Teaching Generation and Attention
Xiangyu Duan | Mingming Yin | Min Zhang | Boxing Chen | Weihua Luo
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Abstractive Sentence Summarization (ASSUM) targets at grasping the core idea of the source sentence and presenting it as the summary. It is extensively studied using statistical models or neural models based on the large-scale monolingual source-summary parallel corpus. But there is no cross-lingual parallel corpus, whose source sentence language is different to the summary language, to directly train a cross-lingual ASSUM system. We propose to solve this zero-shot problem by using resource-rich monolingual ASSUM system to teach zero-shot cross-lingual ASSUM system on both summary word generation and attention. This teaching process is along with a back-translation process which simulates source-summary pairs. Experiments on cross-lingual ASSUM task show that our proposed method is significantly better than pipeline baselines and previous works, and greatly enhances the cross-lingual performances closer to the monolingual performances.

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Aspect Sentiment Classification Towards Question-Answering with Reinforced Bidirectional Attention Network
Jingjing Wang | Changlong Sun | Shoushan Li | Xiaozhong Liu | Luo Si | Min Zhang | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In the literature, existing studies on aspect sentiment classification (ASC) focus on individual non-interactive reviews. This paper extends the research to interactive reviews and proposes a new research task, namely Aspect Sentiment Classification towards Question-Answering (ASC-QA), for real-world applications. This new task aims to predict sentiment polarities for specific aspects from interactive QA style reviews. In particular, a high-quality annotated corpus is constructed for ASC-QA to facilitate corresponding research. On this basis, a Reinforced Bidirectional Attention Network (RBAN) approach is proposed to address two inherent challenges in ASC-QA, i.e., semantic matching between question and answer, and data noise. Experimental results demonstrate the great advantage of the proposed approach to ASC-QA against several state-of-the-art baselines.

2018

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Supervised Treebank Conversion: Data and Approaches
Xinzhou Jiang | Zhenghua Li | Bo Zhang | Min Zhang | Sheng Li | Luo Si
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Treebank conversion is a straightforward and effective way to exploit various heterogeneous treebanks for boosting parsing performance. However, previous work mainly focuses on unsupervised treebank conversion and has made little progress due to the lack of manually labeled data where each sentence has two syntactic trees complying with two different guidelines at the same time, referred as bi-tree aligned data. In this work, we for the first time propose the task of supervised treebank conversion. First, we manually construct a bi-tree aligned dataset containing over ten thousand sentences. Then, we propose two simple yet effective conversion approaches (pattern embedding and treeLSTM) based on the state-of-the-art deep biaffine parser. Experimental results show that 1) the two conversion approaches achieve comparable conversion accuracy, and 2) treebank conversion is superior to the widely used multi-task learning framework in multi-treebank exploitation and leads to significantly higher parsing accuracy.

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M-CNER: A Corpus for Chinese Named Entity Recognition in Multi-Domains
Qi Lu | YaoSheng Yang | Zhenghua Li | Wenliang Chen | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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Proceedings of the Seventh Named Entities Workshop
Nancy Chen | Rafael E. Banchs | Xiangyu Duan | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the Seventh Named Entities Workshop

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NEWS 2018 Whitepaper
Nancy Chen | Xiangyu Duan | Min Zhang | Rafael E. Banchs | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the Seventh Named Entities Workshop

Transliteration is defined as phonetic translation of names across languages. Transliteration of Named Entities (NEs) is necessary in many applications, such as machine translation, corpus alignment, cross-language IR, information extraction and automatic lexicon acquisition. All such systems call for high-performance transliteration, which is the focus of shared task in the NEWS 2018 workshop. The objective of the shared task is to promote machine transliteration research by providing a common benchmarking platform for the community to evaluate the state-of-the-art technologies.

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Report of NEWS 2018 Named Entity Transliteration Shared Task
Nancy Chen | Rafael E. Banchs | Min Zhang | Xiangyu Duan | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the Seventh Named Entities Workshop

This report presents the results from the Named Entity Transliteration Shared Task conducted as part of The Seventh Named Entities Workshop (NEWS 2018) held at ACL 2018 in Melbourne, Australia. Similar to previous editions of NEWS, the Shared Task featured 19 tasks on proper name transliteration, including 13 different languages and two different Japanese scripts. A total of 6 teams from 8 different institutions participated in the evaluation, submitting 424 runs, involving different transliteration methodologies. Four performance metrics were used to report the evaluation results. The NEWS shared task on machine transliteration has successfully achieved its objectives by providing a common ground for the research community to conduct comparative evaluations of state-of-the-art technologies that will benefit the future research and development in this area.

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Improving the Transformer Translation Model with Document-Level Context
Jiacheng Zhang | Huanbo Luan | Maosong Sun | Feifei Zhai | Jingfang Xu | Min Zhang | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Although the Transformer translation model (Vaswani et al., 2017) has achieved state-of-the-art performance in a variety of translation tasks, how to use document-level context to deal with discourse phenomena problematic for Transformer still remains a challenge. In this work, we extend the Transformer model with a new context encoder to represent document-level context, which is then incorporated into the original encoder and decoder. As large-scale document-level parallel corpora are usually not available, we introduce a two-step training method to take full advantage of abundant sentence-level parallel corpora and limited document-level parallel corpora. Experiments on the NIST Chinese-English datasets and the IWSLT French-English datasets show that our approach improves over Transformer significantly.

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Using active learning to expand training data for implicit discourse relation recognition
Yang Xu | Yu Hong | Huibin Ruan | Jianmin Yao | Min Zhang | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We tackle discourse-level relation recognition, a problem of determining semantic relations between text spans. Implicit relation recognition is challenging due to the lack of explicit relational clues. The increasingly popular neural network techniques have been proven effective for semantic encoding, whereby widely employed to boost semantic relation discrimination. However, learning to predict semantic relations at a deep level heavily relies on a great deal of training data, but the scale of the publicly available data in this field is limited. In this paper, we follow Rutherford and Xue (2015) to expand the training data set using the corpus of explicitly-related arguments, by arbitrarily dropping the overtly presented discourse connectives. On the basis, we carry out an experiment of sampling, in which a simple active learning approach is used, so as to take the informative instances for data expansion. The goal is to verify whether the selective use of external data not only reduces the time consumption of retraining but also ensures a better system performance. Using the expanded training data, we retrain a convolutional neural network (CNN) based classifer which is a simplified version of Qin et al. (2016)’s stacking gated relation recognizer. Experimental results show that expanding the training set with small-scale carefully-selected external data yields substantial performance gain, with the improvements of about 4% for accuracy and 3.6% for F-score. This allows a weak classifier to achieve a comparable performance against the state-of-the-art systems.

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Sentiment Classification towards Question-Answering with Hierarchical Matching Network
Chenlin Shen | Changlong Sun | Jingjing Wang | Yangyang Kang | Shoushan Li | Xiaozhong Liu | Luo Si | Min Zhang | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In an e-commerce environment, user-oriented question-answering (QA) text pair could carry rich sentiment information. In this study, we propose a novel task/method to address QA sentiment analysis. In particular, we create a high-quality annotated corpus with specially-designed annotation guidelines for QA-style sentiment classification. On the basis, we propose a three-stage hierarchical matching network to explore deep sentiment information in a QA text pair. First, we segment both the question and answer text into sentences and construct a number of [Q-sentence, A-sentence] units in each QA text pair. Then, by leveraging a QA bidirectional matching layer, the proposed approach can learn the matching vectors of each [Q-sentence, A-sentence] unit. Finally, we characterize the importance of the generated matching vectors via a self-matching attention layer. Experimental results, comparing with a number of state-of-the-art baselines, demonstrate the impressive effectiveness of the proposed approach for QA-style sentiment classification.

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Distantly Supervised NER with Partial Annotation Learning and Reinforcement Learning
Yaosheng Yang | Wenliang Chen | Zhenghua Li | Zhengqiu He | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

A bottleneck problem with Chinese named entity recognition (NER) in new domains is the lack of annotated data. One solution is to utilize the method of distant supervision, which has been widely used in relation extraction, to automatically populate annotated training data without humancost. The distant supervision assumption here is that if a string in text is included in a predefined dictionary of entities, the string might be an entity. However, this kind of auto-generated data suffers from two main problems: incomplete and noisy annotations, which affect the performance of NER models. In this paper, we propose a novel approach which can partially solve the above problems of distant supervision for NER. In our approach, to handle the incomplete problem, we apply partial annotation learning to reduce the effect of unknown labels of characters. As for noisy annotation, we design an instance selector based on reinforcement learning to distinguish positive sentences from auto-generated annotations. In experiments, we create two datasets for Chinese named entity recognition in two domains with the help of distant supervision. The experimental results show that the proposed approach obtains better performance than the comparison systems on both two datasets.

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One vs. Many QA Matching with both Word-level and Sentence-level Attention Network
Lu Wang | Shoushan Li | Changlong Sun | Luo Si | Xiaozhong Liu | Min Zhang | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Question-Answer (QA) matching is a fundamental task in the Natural Language Processing community. In this paper, we first build a novel QA matching corpus with informal text which is collected from a product reviewing website. Then, we propose a novel QA matching approach, namely One vs. Many Matching, which aims to address the novel scenario where one question sentence often has an answer with multiple sentences. Furthermore, we improve our matching approach by employing both word-level and sentence-level attentions for solving the noisy problem in the informal text. Empirical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach to question-answer matching.

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Adaptive Weighting for Neural Machine Translation
Yachao Li | Junhui Li | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

In the popular sequence to sequence (seq2seq) neural machine translation (NMT), there exist many weighted sum models (WSMs), each of which takes a set of input and generates one output. However, the weights in a WSM are independent of each other and fixed for all inputs, suggesting that by ignoring different needs of inputs, the WSM lacks effective control on the influence of each input. In this paper, we propose adaptive weighting for WSMs to control the contribution of each input. Specifically, we apply adaptive weighting for both GRU and the output state in NMT. Experimentation on Chinese-to-English translation and English-to-German translation demonstrates that the proposed adaptive weighting is able to much improve translation accuracy by achieving significant improvement of 1.49 and 0.92 BLEU points for the two translation tasks. Moreover, we discuss in-depth on what type of information is encoded in the encoder and how information influences the generation of target words in the decoder.

2017

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Multi-Grained Chinese Word Segmentation
Chen Gong | Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang | Xinzhou Jiang
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Traditionally, word segmentation (WS) adopts the single-grained formalism, where a sentence corresponds to a single word sequence. However, Sproat et al. (1997) show that the inter-native-speaker consistency ratio over Chinese word boundaries is only 76%, indicating single-grained WS (SWS) imposes unnecessary challenges on both manual annotation and statistical modeling. Moreover, WS results of different granularities can be complementary and beneficial for high-level applications. This work proposes and addresses multi-grained WS (MWS). We build a large-scale pseudo MWS dataset for model training and tuning by leveraging the annotation heterogeneity of three SWS datasets. Then we manually annotate 1,500 test sentences with true MWS annotations. Finally, we propose three benchmark approaches by casting MWS as constituent parsing and sequence labeling. Experiments and analysis lead to many interesting findings.

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Translating Phrases in Neural Machine Translation
Xing Wang | Zhaopeng Tu | Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Phrases play an important role in natural language understanding and machine translation (Sag et al., 2002; Villavicencio et al., 2005). However, it is difficult to integrate them into current neural machine translation (NMT) which reads and generates sentences word by word. In this work, we propose a method to translate phrases in NMT by integrating a phrase memory storing target phrases from a phrase-based statistical machine translation (SMT) system into the encoder-decoder architecture of NMT. At each decoding step, the phrase memory is first re-written by the SMT model, which dynamically generates relevant target phrases with contextual information provided by the NMT model. Then the proposed model reads the phrase memory to make probability estimations for all phrases in the phrase memory. If phrase generation is carried on, the NMT decoder selects an appropriate phrase from the memory to perform phrase translation and updates its decoding state by consuming the words in the selected phrase. Otherwise, the NMT decoder generates a word from the vocabulary as the general NMT decoder does. Experiment results on the Chinese to English translation show that the proposed model achieves significant improvements over the baseline on various test sets.

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Dependency Parsing with Partial Annotations: An Empirical Comparison
Yue Zhang | Zhenghua Li | Jun Lang | Qingrong Xia | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

This paper describes and compares two straightforward approaches for dependency parsing with partial annotations (PA). The first approach is based on a forest-based training objective for two CRF parsers, i.e., a biaffine neural network graph-based parser (Biaffine) and a traditional log-linear graph-based parser (LLGPar). The second approach is based on the idea of constrained decoding for three parsers, i.e., a traditional linear graph-based parser (LGPar), a globally normalized neural network transition-based parser (GN3Par) and a traditional linear transition-based parser (LTPar). For the test phase, constrained decoding is also used for completing partial trees. We conduct experiments on Penn Treebank under three different settings for simulating PA, i.e., random, most uncertain, and divergent outputs from the five parsers. The results show that LLGPar is most effective in directly learning from PA, and other parsers can achieve best performance when PAs are completed into full trees by LLGPar.

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Modeling Source Syntax for Neural Machine Translation
Junhui Li | Deyi Xiong | Zhaopeng Tu | Muhua Zhu | Min Zhang | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Even though a linguistics-free sequence to sequence model in neural machine translation (NMT) has certain capability of implicitly learning syntactic information of source sentences, this paper shows that source syntax can be explicitly incorporated into NMT effectively to provide further improvements. Specifically, we linearize parse trees of source sentences to obtain structural label sequences. On the basis, we propose three different sorts of encoders to incorporate source syntax into NMT: 1) Parallel RNN encoder that learns word and label annotation vectors parallelly; 2) Hierarchical RNN encoder that learns word and label annotation vectors in a two-level hierarchy; and 3) Mixed RNN encoder that stitchingly learns word and label annotation vectors over sequences where words and labels are mixed. Experimentation on Chinese-to-English translation demonstrates that all the three proposed syntactic encoders are able to improve translation accuracy. It is interesting to note that the simplest RNN encoder, i.e., Mixed RNN encoder yields the best performance with an significant improvement of 1.4 BLEU points. Moreover, an in-depth analysis from several perspectives is provided to reveal how source syntax benefits NMT.

2016

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Finding Arguments as Sequence Labeling in Discourse Parsing
Ziwei Fan | Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the CoNLL-16 shared task

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Active Learning for Dependency Parsing with Partial Annotation
Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang | Yue Zhang | Zhanyi Liu | Wenliang Chen | Hua Wu | Haifeng Wang
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Variational Neural Discourse Relation Recognizer
Biao Zhang | Deyi Xiong | Jinsong Su | Qun Liu | Rongrong Ji | Hong Duan | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Variational Neural Machine Translation
Biao Zhang | Deyi Xiong | Jinsong Su | Hong Duan | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Fast Coupled Sequence Labeling on Heterogeneous Annotations via Context-aware Pruning
Zhenghua Li | Jiayuan Chao | Min Zhang | Jiwen Yang
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Proceedings of the Sixth Named Entity Workshop
Xiangyu Duan | Rafael E. Banchs | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li | A Kumaran
Proceedings of the Sixth Named Entity Workshop

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Whitepaper of NEWS 2016 Shared Task on Machine Transliteration
Xiangyu Duan | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li | Rafael Banchs | A Kumaran
Proceedings of the Sixth Named Entity Workshop

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Report of NEWS 2016 Machine Transliteration Shared Task
Xiangyu Duan | Rafael Banchs | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li | A. Kumaran
Proceedings of the Sixth Named Entity Workshop

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Learning Event Expressions via Bilingual Structure Projection
Fangyuan Li | Ruihong Huang | Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Identifying events of a specific type is a challenging task as events in texts are described in numerous and diverse ways. Aiming to resolve high complexities of event descriptions, previous work (Huang and Riloff, 2013) proposes multi-faceted event recognition and a bootstrapping method to automatically acquire both event facet phrases and event expressions from unannotated texts. However, to ensure high quality of learned phrases, this method is constrained to only learn phrases that match certain syntactic structures. In this paper, we propose a bilingual structure projection algorithm that explores linguistic divergences between two languages (Chinese and English) and mines new phrases with new syntactic structures, which have been ignored in the previous work. Experiments show that our approach can successfully find novel event phrases and structures, e.g., phrases headed by nouns. Furthermore, the newly mined phrases are capable of recognizing additional event descriptions and increasing the recall of event recognition.

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Distributed Representations for Building Profiles of Users and Items from Text Reviews
Wenliang Chen | Zhenjie Zhang | Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

In this paper, we propose an approach to learn distributed representations of users and items from text comments for recommendation systems. Traditional recommendation algorithms, e.g. collaborative filtering and matrix completion, are not designed to exploit the key information hidden in the text comments, while existing opinion mining methods do not provide direct support to recommendation systems with useful features on users and items. Our approach attempts to construct vectors to represent profiles of users and items under a unified framework to maximize word appearance likelihood. Then, the vector representations are used for a recommendation task in which we predict scores on unobserved user-item pairs without given texts. The recommendation-aware distributed representation approach is fully supported by effective and efficient learning algorithms over massive text archive. Our empirical evaluations on real datasets show that our system outperforms the state-of-the-art baseline systems.

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Improving Statistical Machine Translation with Selectional Preferences
Haiqing Tang | Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang | Zhengxian Gong
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Long-distance semantic dependencies are crucial for lexical choice in statistical machine translation. In this paper, we study semantic dependencies between verbs and their arguments by modeling selectional preferences in the context of machine translation. We incorporate preferences that verbs impose on subjects and objects into translation. In addition, bilingual selectional preferences between source-side verbs and target-side arguments are also investigated. Our experiments on Chinese-to-English translation tasks with large-scale training data demonstrate that statistical machine translation using verbal selectional preferences can achieve statistically significant improvements over a state-of-the-art baseline.

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Bilingual Autoencoders with Global Descriptors for Modeling Parallel Sentences
Biao Zhang | Deyi Xiong | Jinsong Su | Hong Duan | Min Zhang
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Parallel sentence representations are important for bilingual and cross-lingual tasks in natural language processing. In this paper, we explore a bilingual autoencoder approach to model parallel sentences. We extract sentence-level global descriptors (e.g. min, max) from word embeddings, and construct two monolingual autoencoders over these descriptors on the source and target language. In order to tightly connect the two autoencoders with bilingual correspondences, we force them to share the same decoding parameters and minimize a corpus-level semantic distance between the two languages. Being optimized towards a joint objective function of reconstruction and semantic errors, our bilingual antoencoder is able to learn continuous-valued latent representations for parallel sentences. Experiments on both intrinsic and extrinsic evaluations on statistical machine translation tasks show that our autoencoder achieves substantial improvements over the baselines.

2015

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Bilingual Correspondence Recursive Autoencoder for Statistical Machine Translation
Jinsong Su | Deyi Xiong | Biao Zhang | Yang Liu | Junfeng Yao | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Learning Semantic Representations for Nonterminals in Hierarchical Phrase-Based Translation
Xing Wang | Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Learning bilingual distributed phrase represenations for statistical machine translation
Chaochao Wang | Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang | Chunyu Kit
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit XV: Papers

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Document-Level Machine Translation Evaluation with Gist Consistency and Text Cohesion
Zhengxian Gong | Min Zhang | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Discourse in Machine Translation

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Proceedings of the Fifth Named Entity Workshop
Xiangyu Duan | Rafael E. Banchs | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li | A Kumaran
Proceedings of the Fifth Named Entity Workshop

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Whitepaper of NEWS 2015 Shared Task on Machine Transliteration
Min Zhang | Haizhou Li | Rafael E. Banchs | A Kumaran
Proceedings of the Fifth Named Entity Workshop

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Report of NEWS 2015 Machine Transliteration Shared Task
Rafael E. Banchs | Min Zhang | Xiangyu Duan | Haizhou Li | A. Kumaran
Proceedings of the Fifth Named Entity Workshop

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A Context-Aware Topic Model for Statistical Machine Translation
Jinsong Su | Deyi Xiong | Yang Liu | Xianpei Han | Hongyu Lin | Junfeng Yao | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Coupled Sequence Labeling on Heterogeneous Annotations: POS Tagging as a Case Study
Zhenghua Li | Jiayuan Chao | Min Zhang | Wenliang Chen
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2014

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Ambiguity-aware Ensemble Training for Semi-supervised Dependency Parsing
Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang | Wenliang Chen
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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A Sense-Based Translation Model for Statistical Machine Translation
Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Semantics, Discourse and Statistical Machine Translation
Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Tutorials

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Proceedings of The Third CIPS-SIGHAN Joint Conference on Chinese Language Processing
Le Sun | Chengqing Zong | Min Zhang | Gina-Anne Levow
Proceedings of The Third CIPS-SIGHAN Joint Conference on Chinese Language Processing

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Word Sense Induction for Machine Translation
Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 28th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computing

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Soft Cross-lingual Syntax Projection for Dependency Parsing
Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang | Wenliang Chen
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

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Feature Embedding for Dependency Parsing
Wenliang Chen | Yue Zhang | Min Zhang
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

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Synchronous Constituent Context Model for Inducing Bilingual Synchronous Structures
Xiangyu Duan | Min Zhang | Qiaoming Zhu
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

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Dependency Parsing: Past, Present, and Future
Wenliang Chen | Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Tutorial Abstracts

2013

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Semi-Supervised Feature Transformation for Dependency Parsing
Wenliang Chen | Min Zhang | Yue Zhang
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Lexical Chain Based Cohesion Models for Document-Level Statistical Machine Translation
Deyi Xiong | Yang Ding | Min Zhang | Chew Lim Tan
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Feature-Rich Segment-Based News Event Detection on Twitter
Yanxia Qin | Yue Zhang | Min Zhang | Dequan Zheng
Proceedings of the Sixth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

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Fast and Accurate Shift-Reduce Constituent Parsing
Muhua Zhu | Yue Zhang | Wenliang Chen | Min Zhang | Jingbo Zhu
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2012

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Improved Combinatory Categorial Grammar Induction with Boundary Words and Bayesian Inference
Yun Huang | Min Zhang | Chew-Lim Tan
Proceedings of COLING 2012

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A Separately Passive-Aggressive Training Algorithm for Joint POS Tagging and Dependency Parsing
Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang | Wanxiang Che | Ting Liu
Proceedings of COLING 2012

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Classifier-Based Tense Model for SMT
ZhengXian Gong | Min Zhang | ChewLim Tan | GuoDong Zhou
Proceedings of COLING 2012: Posters

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Proceedings of the 4th Named Entity Workshop (NEWS) 2012
Min Zhang | Haizhou Li | A Kumaran
Proceedings of the 4th Named Entity Workshop (NEWS) 2012

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Whitepaper of NEWS 2012 Shared Task on Machine Transliteration
Min Zhang | Haizhou Li | A Kumaran | Ming Liu
Proceedings of the 4th Named Entity Workshop (NEWS) 2012

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Report of NEWS 2012 Machine Transliteration Shared Task
Min Zhang | Haizhou Li | A Kumaran | Ming Liu
Proceedings of the 4th Named Entity Workshop (NEWS) 2012

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Utilizing Dependency Language Models for Graph-based Dependency Parsing Models
Wenliang Chen | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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A Topic Similarity Model for Hierarchical Phrase-based Translation
Xinyan Xiao | Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang | Qun Liu | Shouxun Lin
Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Modeling the Translation of Predicate-Argument Structure for SMT
Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Proceedings of the ACL 2012 System Demonstrations
Min Zhang
Proceedings of the ACL 2012 System Demonstrations

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N-gram-based Tense Models for Statistical Machine Translation
Zhengxian Gong | Min Zhang | Chew Lim Tan | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning

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Improved Constituent Context Model with Features
Yun Huang | Min Zhang | Chew Lim Tan
Proceedings of the 26th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information, and Computation

2011

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CLGVSM: Adapting Generalized Vector Space Model to Cross-lingual Document Clustering
Guoyu Tang | Yunqing Xia | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li | Fang Zheng
Proceedings of 5th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

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Joint Alignment and Artificial Data Generation: An Empirical Study of Pivot-based Machine Transliteration
Min Zhang | Xiangyu Duan | Ming Liu | Yunqing Xia | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of 5th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

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Proceedings of the 3rd Named Entities Workshop (NEWS 2011)
Min Zhang | Haizhou Li | A Kumaran
Proceedings of the 3rd Named Entities Workshop (NEWS 2011)

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Report of NEWS 2011 Machine Transliteration Shared Task
Min Zhang | Haizhou Li | A Kumaran | Ming Liu
Proceedings of the 3rd Named Entities Workshop (NEWS 2011)

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Whitepaper of NEWS 2011 Shared Task on Machine Transliteration
Min Zhang | A Kumaran | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the 3rd Named Entities Workshop (NEWS 2011)

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Enhancing Language Models in Statistical Machine Translation with Backward N-grams and Mutual Information Triggers
Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Nonparametric Bayesian Machine Transliteration with Synchronous Adaptor Grammars
Yun Huang | Min Zhang | Chew Lim Tan
Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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SMT Helps Bitext Dependency Parsing
Wenliang Chen | Jun’ichi Kazama | Min Zhang | Yoshimasa Tsuruoka | Yujie Zhang | Yiou Wang | Kentaro Torisawa | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Cache-based Document-level Statistical Machine Translation
Zhengxian Gong | Min Zhang | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Joint Models for Chinese POS Tagging and Dependency Parsing
Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang | Wanxiang Che | Ting Liu | Wenliang Chen | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

2010

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Non-Isomorphic Forest Pair Translation
Hui Zhang | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li | Eng Siong Chng
Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Discriminative Induction of Sub-Tree Alignment using Limited Labeled Data
Jun Sun | Min Zhang | Chew Lim Tan
Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Coling 2010)

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EM-based Hybrid Model for Bilingual Terminology Extraction from Comparable Corpora
Lianhau Lee | Aiti Aw | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li
Coling 2010: Posters

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Head-modifier Relation based Non-lexical Reordering Model for Phrase-Based Translation
Shui Liu | Sheng Li | Tiejun Zhao | Min Zhang | Pengyuan Liu
Coling 2010: Posters

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Improving Name Origin Recognition with Context Features and Unlabelled Data
Vladimir Pervouchine | Min Zhang | Ming Liu | Haizhou Li
Coling 2010: Posters

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Machine Transliteration: Leveraging on Third Languages
Min Zhang | Xiangyu Duan | Vladimir Pervouchine | Haizhou Li
Coling 2010: Posters

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Pseudo-Word for Phrase-Based Machine Translation
Xiangyu Duan | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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Exploring Syntactic Structural Features for Sub-Tree Alignment Using Bilingual Tree Kernels
Jun Sun | Min Zhang | Chew Lim Tan
Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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Error Detection for Statistical Machine Translation Using Linguistic Features
Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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Convolution Kernel over Packed Parse Forest
Min Zhang | Hui Zhang | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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I2R’s machine translation system for IWSLT 2010
Xiangyu Duan | Rafael Banchs | Jun Lang | Deyi Xiong | Aiti Aw | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

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Report of NEWS 2010 Transliteration Generation Shared Task
Haizhou Li | A Kumaran | Min Zhang | Vladimir Pervouchine
Proceedings of the 2010 Named Entities Workshop

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Whitepaper of NEWS 2010 Shared Task on Transliteration Generation
Haizhou Li | A Kumaran | Min Zhang | Vladimir Pervouchine
Proceedings of the 2010 Named Entities Workshop

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Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Cross Lingual Information Access
Sudeshna Sarkar | Min Zhang | Adam Lopez | Raghavendra Udupa
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Cross Lingual Information Access

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Linguistically Annotated Reordering: Evaluation and Analysis
Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang | Aiti Aw | Haizhou Li
Computational Linguistics, Volume 36, Issue 3 - September 2010

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Book Review: Introduction to Chinese Natural Language Processing by Kam-Fai Wong, Wenjie Li, Ruifeng Xu, and Zheng-sheng Zhang
Min Zhang
Computational Linguistics, Volume 36, Issue 4 - December 2010

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Learning Translation Boundaries for Phrase-Based Decoding
Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li
Human Language Technologies: The 2010 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

2009

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Feature-Based Method for Document Alignment in Comparable News Corpora
Thuy Vu | Ai Ti Aw | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 12th Conference of the European Chapter of the ACL (EACL 2009)

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Tree Kernel-based SVM with Structured Syntactic Knowledge for BTG-based Phrase Reordering
Min Zhang | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Fast Translation Rule Matching for Syntax-based Statistical Machine Translation
Hui Zhang | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li | Chew Lim Tan
Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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K-Best Combination of Syntactic Parsers
Hui Zhang | Min Zhang | Chew Lim Tan | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Efficient Beam Thresholding for Statistical Machine Translation
Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang | Aiti Aw | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit XII: Posters

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A Source Dependency Model for Statistical Machine Translation
Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang | Aiti Aw | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit XII: Posters

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Report of NEWS 2009 Machine Transliteration Shared Task
Haizhou Li | A Kumaran | Vladimir Pervouchine | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2009 Named Entities Workshop: Shared Task on Transliteration (NEWS 2009)

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Whitepaper of NEWS 2009 Machine Transliteration Shared Task
Haizhou Li | A Kumaran | Min Zhang | Vladimir Pervouchine
Proceedings of the 2009 Named Entities Workshop: Shared Task on Transliteration (NEWS 2009)

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I2R’s machine translation system for IWSLT 2009
Xiangyu Duan | Deyi Xiong | Hui Zhang | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

In this paper, we describe the system and approach used by the Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R) for the IWSLT 2009 spoken language translation evaluation campaign. Two kinds of machine translation systems are applied, namely, phrase-based machine translation system and syntax-based machine translation system. To test syntax-based machine translation system on spoken language translation, variational systems are explored. On top of both phrase-based and syntax-based single systems, we further use rescoring method to improve the individual system performance and use system combination method to combine the strengths of the different individual systems. Rescoring is applied on each single system output, and system combination is applied on all rescoring outputs. Finally, our system combination framework shows better performance in Chinese-English BTEC task.

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Forest-based Tree Sequence to String Translation Model
Hui Zhang | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li | Aiti Aw | Chew Lim Tan
Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the 47th Annual Meeting of the ACL and the 4th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing of the AFNLP

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A Syntax-Driven Bracketing Model for Phrase-Based Translation
Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang | Aiti Aw | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the 47th Annual Meeting of the ACL and the 4th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing of the AFNLP

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A non-contiguous Tree Sequence Alignment-based Model for Statistical Machine Translation
Jun Sun | Min Zhang | Chew Lim Tan
Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the 47th Annual Meeting of the ACL and the 4th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing of the AFNLP

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A Comparative Study of Hypothesis Alignment and its Improvement for Machine Translation System Combination
Boxing Chen | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li | Aiti Aw
Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the 47th Annual Meeting of the ACL and the 4th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing of the AFNLP

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MARS: Multilingual Access and Retrieval System with Enhanced Query Translation and Document Retrieval
Lianhau Lee | Aiti Aw | Thuy Vu | Sharifah Aljunied Mahani | Min Zhang | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the ACL-IJCNLP 2009 Software Demonstrations

2008

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Name Origin Recognition Using Maximum Entropy Model and Diverse Features
Min Zhang | Chengjie Sun | Haizhou Li | AiTi Aw | Chew Lim Tan | Xiaolong Wang
Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: Volume-I

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Identify Temporal Websites Based on User Behavior Analysis
Yong Wang | Yiqun Liu | Min Zhang | Shaoping Ma | Liyun Ru
Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: Volume-I

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Refinements in BTG-based Statistical Machine Translation
Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang | AiTi Aw | Haitao Mi | Qun Liu | Shouxun Lin
Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: Volume-I

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Term Extraction Through Unithood and Termhood Unification
Thuy Vu | Ai Ti Aw | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: Volume-II

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Fast Computing Grammar-driven Convolution Tree Kernel for Semantic Role Labeling
Wanxiang Che | Min Zhang | Ai Ti Aw | Chew Lim Tan | Ting Liu | Sheng Li
Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: Volume-II

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A Tree Sequence Alignment-based Tree-to-Tree Translation Model
Min Zhang | Hongfei Jiang | Aiti Aw | Haizhou Li | Chew Lim Tan | Sheng Li
Proceedings of ACL-08: HLT

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A Linguistically Annotated Reordering Model for BTG-based Statistical Machine Translation
Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang | Aiti Aw | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of ACL-08: HLT, Short Papers

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Exploiting N-best Hypotheses for SMT Self-Enhancement
Boxing Chen | Min Zhang | Aiti Aw | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of ACL-08: HLT, Short Papers

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I2R multi-pass machine translation system for IWSLT 2008.
Boxing Chen | Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang | Aiti Aw | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

In this paper, we describe the system and approach used by the Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R) for the IWSLT 2008 spoken language translation evaluation campaign. In the system, we integrate various decoding algorithms into a multi-pass translation framework. The multi-pass approach enables us to utilize various decoding algorithm and to explore much more hypotheses. This paper reports our design philosophy, overall architecture, each individual system and various system combination methods that we have explored. The performance on development and test sets are reported in detail in the paper. The system has shown competitive performance with respect to the BLEU and METEOR measures in Chinese-English Challenge and BTEC tasks.

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The TALP&I2R SMT systems for IWSLT 2008.
Maxim Khalilov | Maria R. Costa-jussà | Carlos A. Henríquez Q. | José A. R. Fonollosa | Adolfo Hernández H. | José B. Mariño | Rafael E. Banchs | Chen Boxing | Min Zhang | Aiti Aw | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

This paper gives a description of the statistical machine translation (SMT) systems developed at the TALP Research Center of the UPC (Universitat Polite`cnica de Catalunya) for our participation in the IWSLT’08 evaluation campaign. We present Ngram-based (TALPtuples) and phrase-based (TALPphrases) SMT systems. The paper explains the 2008 systems’ architecture and outlines translation schemes we have used, mainly focusing on the new techniques that are challenged to improve speech-to-speech translation quality. The novelties we have introduced are: improved reordering method, linear combination of translation and reordering models and new technique dealing with punctuation marks insertion for a phrase-based SMT system. This year we focus on the Arabic-English, Chinese-Spanish and pivot Chinese-(English)-Spanish translation tasks.

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Regenerating Hypotheses for Statistical Machine Translation
Boxing Chen | Min Zhang | Aiti Aw | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Coling 2008)

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Linguistically Annotated BTG for Statistical Machine Translation
Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang | Aiti Aw | Haizhou Li
Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Coling 2008)

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Grammar Comparison Study for Translational Equivalence Modeling and Statistical Machine Translation
Min Zhang | Hongfei Jiang | Haizhou Li | Aiti Aw | Sheng Li
Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Coling 2008)

2007

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I2R Chinese-English translation system for IWSLT 2007
Boxing Chen | Jun Sun | Hongfei Jiang | Min Zhang | Ai Ti Aw
Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation

In this paper, we describe the system and approach used by Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R) for the IWSLT 2007 spoken language evaluation campaign. A multi-pass approach is exploited to generate and select best translation. First, we use two decoders namely the open source Moses and an in-home syntax-based decoder to generate N-best lists. Next we spawn new translation entries through a word-based n-gram language model estimated on the former N-best entries. Finally, we join the N-best lists from the previous two passes, and select the best translation by rescoring them with additional feature functions. In particular, this paper reports our effort on new translation entry generation and system combination. The performance on development and test sets are reported. The system was ranked first with respect to the BLEU measure in Chinese-to-English open data track.

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A Grammar-driven Convolution Tree Kernel for Semantic Role Classification
Min Zhang | Wanxiang Che | Aiti Aw | Chew Lim Tan | Guodong Zhou | Ting Liu | Sheng Li
Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting of the Association of Computational Linguistics

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Tree Kernel-Based Relation Extraction with Context-Sensitive Structured Parse Tree Information
GuoDong Zhou | Min Zhang | Dong Hong Ji | QiaoMing Zhu
Proceedings of the 2007 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning (EMNLP-CoNLL)

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A tree-to-tree alignment-based model for statistical machine translation
Min Zhang | Hongfei Jiang | Ai Ti Aw | Jun Sun | Sheng Li | Chew Lim Tan
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit XI: Papers

2006

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Chinese Word Segmentation and Named Entity Recognition Based on a Context-Dependent Mutual Information Independence Model
Min Zhang | GuoDong Zhou | LingPeng Yang | DongHong Ji
Proceedings of the Fifth SIGHAN Workshop on Chinese Language Processing

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Exploring Syntactic Features for Relation Extraction using a Convolution Tree Kernel
Min Zhang | Jie Zhang | Jian Su
Proceedings of the Human Language Technology Conference of the NAACL, Main Conference

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Modeling Commonality among Related Classes in Relation Extraction
GuoDong Zhou | Jian Su | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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A Composite Kernel to Extract Relations between Entities with Both Flat and Structured Features
Min Zhang | Jie Zhang | Jian Su | GuoDong Zhou
Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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A Phrase-Based Statistical Model for SMS Text Normalization
AiTi Aw | Min Zhang | Juan Xiao | Jian Su
Proceedings of the COLING/ACL 2006 Main Conference Poster Sessions

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A Hybrid Convolution Tree Kernel for Semantic Role Labeling
Wanxiang Che | Min Zhang | Ting Liu | Sheng Li
Proceedings of the COLING/ACL 2006 Main Conference Poster Sessions

2005

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Learning Phrase Translation using Level of Detail Approach
Hendra Setiawan | Haizhou Li | Min Zhang
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit X: Papers

We propose a simplified Level Of Detail (LOD) algorithm to learn phrase translation for statistical machine translation. In particular, LOD learns unknown phrase translations from parallel texts without linguistic knowledge. LOD uses an agglomerative method to attack the combinatorial explosion that results when generating candidate phrase translations. Although LOD was previously proposed by (Setiawan et al., 2005), we improve the original algorithm in two ways: simplifying the algorithm and using a simpler translation model. Experimental results show that our algorithm provides comparable performance while demonstrating a significant reduction in computation time.

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Exploring Various Knowledge in Relation Extraction
GuoDong Zhou | Jian Su | Jie Zhang | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL’05)

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Discovering Relations Between Named Entities from a Large Raw Corpus Using Tree Similarity-Based Clustering
Min Zhang | Jian Su | Danmei Wang | Guodong Zhou | Chew Lim Tan
Second International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: Full Papers

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Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation: A Level of Detail Approach
Hendra Setiawan | Haizhou Li | Min Zhang | Beng Chin Ooi
Second International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: Full Papers

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A Phrase-Based Context-Dependent Joint Probability Model for Named Entity Translation
Min Zhang | Haizhou Li | Jian Su | Hendra Setiawan
Second International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: Full Papers

2004

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A Joint Source-Channel Model for Machine Transliteration
Haizhou Li | Min Zhang | Jian Su
Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL-04)

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Direct Orthographical Mapping for Machine Transliteration
Min Zhang | Haizhou Li | Jian Su
COLING 2004: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

2002

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Self-Organizing Chinese and Japanese Semantic Maps
Qing Ma | Min Zhang | Masaki Murata | Ming Zhou | Hitoshi Isahara
COLING 2002: The 19th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

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Improving Language Model Size Reduction using Better Pruning Criteria
Jianfeng Gao | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

1999

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A pipelined multi-engine approach to Chinese-to-Korean machine translation: MATES/CK
Min Zhang | Key-Sun Choi
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit VII

This paper presents MATES/CK, a Chinese-to-Korean machine translation system. We introduce the design philosophy, component modules, implementation and some other aspects of MATES/CK system in this paper.

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Pipelined multi-engine Machine Translation: accomplishment of MATES/CK system
Min Zhang | Key-Sun Choi
Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Languages

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