Ming Cai


pdf bib
Enhancing Court View Generation with Knowledge Injection and Guidance
Ang Li | Yiquan Wu | Yifei Liu | Kun Kuang | Fei Wu | Ming Cai
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Court View Generation (CVG) is a challenging task in the field of Legal Artificial Intelligence (LegalAI), which aims to generate court views based on the plaintiff claims and the fact descriptions. While Pretrained Language Models (PLMs) have showcased their prowess in natural language generation, their application to the complex, knowledge-intensive domain of CVG often reveals inherent limitations. In this paper, we present a novel approach, named Knowledge Injection and Guidance (KIG), designed to bolster CVG using PLMs. To efficiently incorporate domain knowledge during the training stage, we introduce a knowledge-injected prompt encoder for prompt tuning, thereby reducing computational overhead. Moreover, to further enhance the model’s ability to utilize domain knowledge, we employ a generating navigator, which dynamically guides the text generation process in the inference stage without altering the model’s architecture, making it readily transferable. Comprehensive experiments on real-world data demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach compared to several established baselines, especially in the responsivity of claims, where it outperforms the best baseline by 11.87%.

pdf bib
From Graph to Word Bag: Introducing Domain Knowledge to Confusing Charge Prediction
Ang Li | Qiangchao Chen | Yiquan Wu | Xiang Zhou | Kun Kuang | Fei Wu | Ming Cai
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Confusing charge prediction is a challenging task in legal AI, which involves predicting confusing charges based on fact descriptions. While existing charge prediction methods have shown impressive performance, they face significant challenges when dealing with confusing charges, such as Snatch and Robbery. In the legal domain, constituent elements play a pivotal role in distinguishing confusing charges. Constituent elements are fundamental behaviors underlying criminal punishment and have subtle distinctions among charges. In this paper, we introduce a novel From Graph to Word Bag (FWGB) approach, which introduces domain knowledge regarding constituent elements to guide the model in making judgments on confusing charges, much like a judge’s reasoning process. Specifically, we first construct a legal knowledge graph containing constituent elements to help select keywords for each charge, forming a word bag. Subsequently, to guide the model’s attention towards the differentiating information for each charge within the context, we expand the attention mechanism and introduce a new loss function with attention supervision through words in the word bag. We construct the confusing charges dataset from real-world judicial documents. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, especially in maintaining exceptional performance in imbalanced label distributions.


pdf bib
Enhancing Language Representation with Constructional Information for Natural Language Understanding
Lvxiaowei Xu | Jianwang Wu | Jiawei Peng | Zhilin Gong | Ming Cai | Tianxiang Wang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Natural language understanding (NLU) is an essential branch of natural language processing, which relies on representations generated by pre-trained language models (PLMs). However, PLMs primarily focus on acquiring lexico-semantic information, while they may be unable to adequately handle the meaning of constructions. To address this issue, we introduce construction grammar (CxG), which highlights the pairings of form and meaning, to enrich language representation. We adopt usage-based construction grammar as the basis of our work, which is highly compatible with statistical models such as PLMs. Then a HyCxG framework is proposed to enhance language representation through a three-stage solution. First, all constructions are extracted from sentences via a slot-constraints approach. As constructions can overlap with each other, bringing redundancy and imbalance, we formulate the conditional max coverage problem for selecting the discriminative constructions. Finally, we propose a relational hypergraph attention network to acquire representation from constructional information by capturing high-order word interactions among constructions. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of the proposed model on a variety of NLU tasks.


pdf bib
FCGEC: Fine-Grained Corpus for Chinese Grammatical Error Correction
Lvxiaowei Xu | Jianwang Wu | Jiawei Peng | Jiayu Fu | Ming Cai
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Grammatical Error Correction (GEC) has been broadly applied in automatic correction and proofreading system recently. However, it is still immature in Chinese GEC due to limited high-quality data from native speakers in terms of category and scale. In this paper, we present FCGEC, a fine-grained corpus to detect, identify and correct the grammatical errors. FCGEC is a human-annotated corpus with multiple references, consisting of 41,340 sentences collected mainly from multi-choice questions in public school Chinese examinations. Furthermore, we propose a Switch-Tagger-Generator (STG) baseline model to correct the grammatical errors in low-resource settings. Compared to other GEC benchmark models, experimental results illustrate that STG outperforms them on our FCGEC. However, there exists a significant gap between benchmark models and humans that encourages future models to bridge it.