Ming Zhong


2023

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Revisiting Cross-Lingual Summarization: A Corpus-based Study and A New Benchmark with Improved Annotation
Yulong Chen | Huajian Zhang | Yijie Zhou | Xuefeng Bai | Yueguan Wang | Ming Zhong | Jianhao Yan | Yafu Li | Judy Li | Xianchao Zhu | Yue Zhang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Most existing cross-lingual summarization (CLS) work constructs CLS corpora by simply and directly translating pre-annotated summaries from one language to another, which can contain errors from both summarization and translation processes. To address this issue, we propose ConvSumX, a cross-lingual conversation summarization benchmark, through a new annotation schema that explicitly considers source input context. ConvSumX consists of 2 sub-tasks under different real-world scenarios, with each covering 3 language directions. We conduct thorough analysis on ConvSumX and 3 widely-used manually annotated CLS corpora and empirically find that ConvSumX is more faithful towards input text. Additionally, based on the same intuition, we propose a 2-Step method, which takes both conversation and summary as input to simulate human annotation process. Experimental results show that 2-Step method surpasses strong baselines on ConvSumX under both automatic and human evaluation. Analysis shows that both source input text and summary are crucial for modeling cross-lingual summaries.

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PREME: Preference-based Meeting Exploration through an Interactive Questionnaire
Negar Arabzadeh | Ali Ahmadvand | Julia Kiseleva | Yang Liu | Ahmed Hassan Awadallah | Ming Zhong | Milad Shokouhi
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2023

The recent increase in the volume of online meetings necessitates automated tools for organizing the material, especially when an attendee has missed the discussion and needs assistance in quickly exploring it. In this work, we propose a novel end-to-end framework for generating interactive questionnaires for preference-based meeting exploration. As a result, users are supplied with a list of suggested questions reflecting their preferences. Since the task is new, we introduce an automatic evaluation strategy by measuring how much the generated questions via questionnaire are answerable to ensure factual correctness and covers the source meeting for the depth of possible exploration.

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ReactIE: Enhancing Chemical Reaction Extraction with Weak Supervision
Ming Zhong | Siru Ouyang | Minhao Jiang | Vivian Hu | Yizhu Jiao | Xuan Wang | Jiawei Han
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Structured chemical reaction information plays a vital role for chemists engaged in laboratory work and advanced endeavors such as computer-aided drug design. Despite the importance of extracting structured reactions from scientific literature, data annotation for this purpose is cost-prohibitive due to the significant labor required from domain experts. Consequently, the scarcity of sufficient training data poses an obstacle to the progress of related models in this domain. In this paper, we propose ReactIE, which combines two weakly supervised approaches for pre-training. Our method utilizes frequent patterns within the text as linguistic cues to identify specific characteristics of chemical reactions. Additionally, we adopt synthetic data from patent records as distant supervision to incorporate domain knowledge into the model. Experiments demonstrate that ReactIE achieves substantial improvements and outperforms all existing baselines.

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The Shifted and The Overlooked: A Task-oriented Investigation of User-GPT Interactions
Siru Ouyang | Shuohang Wang | Yang Liu | Ming Zhong | Yizhu Jiao | Dan Iter | Reid Pryzant | Chenguang Zhu | Heng Ji | Jiawei Han
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent progress in Large Language Models (LLMs) has produced models that exhibit remarkable performance across a variety of NLP tasks. However, it remains unclear whether the existing focus of NLP research accurately captures the genuine requirements of human users. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the divergence between academic research in NLP and the needs of real-world NLP applications via a large-scale collection of user-GPT conversations. We analyze a large-scale collection of real user queries to GPT. We compare these queries against existing NLP benchmark tasks and identify a significant gap between the tasks that users frequently request from LLMs and the tasks that are commonly studied in academic research. For example, we find that tasks such as “design” and “planning” are prevalent in user interactions but largely neglected or different from traditional NLP benchmarks. We investigate these overlooked tasks, dissect the practical challenges, and provide insights toward a roadmap to make LLMs better aligned with user needs.

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Dynosaur: A Dynamic Growth Paradigm for Instruction-Tuning Data Curation
Da Yin | Xiao Liu | Fan Yin | Ming Zhong | Hritik Bansal | Jiawei Han | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Instruction tuning has emerged to enhance the capabilities of large language models (LLMs) to comprehend instructions and generate appropriate responses. Existing methods either manually annotate or employ LLM (e.g., GPT-series) to generate data for instruction tuning. However, they often overlook associating instructions with existing annotated datasets. In this paper, we propose Dynosaur, a dynamic growth paradigm for the automatic curation of instruction-tuning data. Based on the metadata of existing datasets, we use LLMs to automatically construct instruction-tuning data by identifying relevant data fields and generating appropriate instructions. By leveraging the existing annotated datasets, Dynosaur offers several advantages: 1) it reduces the API cost for generating instructions (e.g., it costs less than $12 USD by calling GPT-3.5-turbo for generating 800K instruction tuning samples; 2) it provides high-quality data for instruction tuning (e.g., it performs better than Alpaca and Flan on Super-NI and Longform with comparable data sizes); and 3) it supports the continuous improvement of models by generating instruction-tuning data when a new annotated dataset becomes available. We further investigate a continual learning scheme for learning with the ever-growing instruction-tuning dataset, and demonstrate that replaying tasks with diverse instruction embeddings not only helps mitigate forgetting issues but generalizes to unseen tasks better. Code and data are available at https://github.com/WadeYin9712/Dynosaur.

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Instruct and Extract: Instruction Tuning for On-Demand Information Extraction
Yizhu Jiao | Ming Zhong | Sha Li | Ruining Zhao | Siru Ouyang | Heng Ji | Jiawei Han
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Large language models with instruction-following capabilities open the door to a wider group of users. However, when it comes to information extraction – a classic task in natural language processing – most task-specific systems cannot align well with long-tail ad hoc extraction use cases for non-expert users. To address this, we propose a novel paradigm, termed On-Demand Information Extraction, to fulfill the personalized demands of real-world users. Our task aims to follow the instructions to extract the desired content from the associated text and present it in a structured tabular format. The table headers can either be user-specified or inferred contextually by the model. To facilitate research in this emerging area, we present a benchmark named InstructIE, inclusive of both automatically generated training data, as well as the human-annotated test set. Building on InstructIE, we further develop an On-Demand Information Extractor, ODIE. Comprehensive evaluations on our benchmark reveal that ODIE substantially outperforms the existing open-source models of similar size.

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Reaction Miner: An Integrated System for Chemical Reaction Extraction from Textual Data
Ming Zhong | Siru Ouyang | Yizhu Jiao | Priyanka Kargupta | Leo Luo | Yanzhen Shen | Bobby Zhou | Xianrui Zhong | Xuan Liu | Hongxiang Li | Jinfeng Xiao | Minhao Jiang | Vivian Hu | Xuan Wang | Heng Ji | Martin Burke | Huimin Zhao | Jiawei Han
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

Chemical reactions, as a core entity in the realm of chemistry, hold crucial implications in diverse areas ranging from hands-on laboratory research to advanced computational drug design. Despite a burgeoning interest in employing NLP techniques to extract these reactions, aligning this task with the real-world requirements of chemistry practitioners remains an ongoing challenge. In this paper, we present Reaction Miner, a system specifically designed to interact with raw scientific literature, delivering precise and more informative chemical reactions. Going beyond mere extraction, Reaction Miner integrates a holistic workflow: it accepts PDF files as input, bypassing the need for pre-processing and bolstering user accessibility. Subsequently, a text segmentation module ensures that the refined text encapsulates complete chemical reactions, augmenting the accuracy of extraction. Moreover, Reaction Miner broadens the scope of existing pre-defined reaction roles, including vital attributes previously neglected, thereby offering a more comprehensive depiction of chemical reactions. Evaluations conducted by chemistry domain users highlight the efficacy of each module in our system, demonstrating Reaction Miner as a powerful tool in this field.

2022

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CoLo: A Contrastive Learning Based Re-ranking Framework for One-Stage Summarization
Chenxin An | Ming Zhong | Zhiyong Wu | Qin Zhu | Xuanjing Huang | Xipeng Qiu
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Traditional training paradigms for extractive and abstractive summarization systems always only use token-level or sentence-level training objectives. However, the output summary is always evaluated from summary-level which leads to the inconsistency in training and evaluation. In this paper, we propose a Contrastive Learning based re-ranking framework for one-stage summarization called CoLo. By modeling a contrastive objective, we show that the summarization model is able to directly generate summaries according to the summary-level score without additional modules and parameters. Extensive experiments demonstrate that CoLo boosts the extractive and abstractive results of one-stage systems on CNN/DailyMail benchmark to 44.58 and 46.33 ROUGE-1 score while preserving the parameter efficiency and inference efficiency. Compared with state-of-the-art multi-stage systems, we save more than 100 GPU training hours and obtaining 3x 8x speed-up ratio during inference while maintaining comparable results.

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Improving Abstractive Dialogue Summarization with Speaker-Aware Supervised Contrastive Learning
Zhichao Geng | Ming Zhong | Zhangyue Yin | Xipeng Qiu | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Pre-trained models have brought remarkable success on the text summarization task. For dialogue summarization, the subdomain of text summarization, utterances are concatenated to flat text before being processed. As a result, existing summarization systems based on pre-trained models are unable to recognize the unique format of the speaker-utterance pair well in the dialogue. To investigate this issue, we conduct probing tests and manual analysis, and find that the powerful pre-trained model can not identify different speakers well in the conversation, which leads to various factual errors. Moreover, we propose three speaker-aware supervised contrastive learning (SCL) tasks: Token-level SCL, Turn-level SCL, and Global-level SCL. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that our methods achieve significant performance improvement on two mainstream dialogue summarization datasets. According to detailed human evaluations, pre-trained models equipped with SCL tasks effectively generate summaries with better factual consistency.

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The Cross-lingual Conversation Summarization Challenge
Yulong Chen | Ming Zhong | Xuefeng Bai | Naihao Deng | Jing Li | Xianchao Zhu | Yue Zhang
Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Natural Language Generation: Generation Challenges

We propose the shared task of cross-lingual conversation summarization, ConvSumX Challenge, opening new avenues for researchers to investigate solutions that integrate conversation summarization and machine translation. This task can be particularly useful due to the emergence of online meetings and conferences. We use a new benchmark, covering 2 real-world scenarios and 3 language directions, including a low-resource language, for evaluation. We hope that ConvSumX can motivate research to go beyond English and break the barrier for non-English speakers to benefit from recent advances of conversation summarization.

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UnifiedSKG: Unifying and Multi-Tasking Structured Knowledge Grounding with Text-to-Text Language Models
Tianbao Xie | Chen Henry Wu | Peng Shi | Ruiqi Zhong | Torsten Scholak | Michihiro Yasunaga | Chien-Sheng Wu | Ming Zhong | Pengcheng Yin | Sida I. Wang | Victor Zhong | Bailin Wang | Chengzu Li | Connor Boyle | Ansong Ni | Ziyu Yao | Dragomir Radev | Caiming Xiong | Lingpeng Kong | Rui Zhang | Noah A. Smith | Luke Zettlemoyer | Tao Yu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Structured knowledge grounding (SKG) leverages structured knowledge to complete user requests, such as semantic parsing over databases and question answering over knowledge bases. Since the inputs and outputs of SKG tasks are heterogeneous, they have been studied separately by different communities, which limits systematic and compatible research on SKG. In this paper, we overcome this limitation by proposing the UnifiedSKG framework, which unifies 21 SKG tasks into a text-to-text format, aiming to promote systematic SKG research, instead of being exclusive to a single task, domain, or dataset. We use UnifiedSKG to benchmark T5 with different sizes and show that T5, with simple modifications when necessary, achieves state-of-the-art performance on almost all of the 21 tasks. We further demonstrate that multi-task prefix-tuning improves the performance on most tasks, largely improving the overall performance. UnifiedSKG also facilitates the investigation of zero-shot and few-shot learning, and we show that T0, GPT-3, and Codex struggle in zero-shot and few-shot learning for SKG. We also use UnifiedSKG to conduct a series of controlled experiments on structured knowledge encoding variants across SKG tasks. UnifiedSKG is easily extensible to more tasks, and it is open-sourced at https://github.com/hkunlp/unifiedskg.

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Towards a Unified Multi-Dimensional Evaluator for Text Generation
Ming Zhong | Yang Liu | Da Yin | Yuning Mao | Yizhu Jiao | Pengfei Liu | Chenguang Zhu | Heng Ji | Jiawei Han
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Multi-dimensional evaluation is the dominant paradigm for human evaluation in Natural Language Generation (NLG), i.e., evaluating the generated text from multiple explainable dimensions, such as coherence and fluency. However, automatic evaluation in NLG is still dominated by similarity-based metrics, and we lack a reliable framework for a more comprehensive evaluation of advanced models. In this paper, we propose a unified multi-dimensional evaluator UniEval for NLG. We re-frame NLG evaluation as a Boolean Question Answering (QA) task, and by guiding the model with different questions, we can use one evaluator to evaluate from multiple dimensions. Furthermore, thanks to the unified Boolean QA format, we are able to introduce an intermediate learning phase that enables UniEval to incorporate external knowledge from multiple related tasks and gain further improvement. Experiments on three typical NLG tasks show that UniEval correlates substantially better with human judgments than existing metrics. Specifically, compared to the top-performing unified evaluators, UniEval achieves a 23% higher correlation on text summarization, and over 43% on dialogue response generation. Also, UniEval demonstrates a strong zero-shot learning ability for unseen evaluation dimensions and tasks. Source code, data, and all pre-trained evaluators are available at https://github.com/maszhongming/UniEval.

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CiteSum: Citation Text-guided Scientific Extreme Summarization and Domain Adaptation with Limited Supervision
Yuning Mao | Ming Zhong | Jiawei Han
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Scientific extreme summarization (TLDR) aims to form ultra-short summaries of scientific papers. Previous efforts on curating scientific TLDR datasets failed to scale up due to the heavy human annotation and domain expertise required. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective approach to automatically extracting TLDR summaries for scientific papers from their citation texts. Based on the proposed approach, we create a new benchmark CiteSum without human annotation, which is around 30 times larger than the previous human-curated dataset SciTLDR. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of CiteSum, examining its data characteristics and establishing strong baselines. We further demonstrate the usefulness of CiteSum by adapting models pre-trained on CiteSum (named CITES) to new tasks and domains with limited supervision. For scientific extreme summarization, CITES outperforms most fully-supervised methods on SciTLDR without any fine-tuning and obtains state-of-the-art results with only 128 examples. For news extreme summarization, CITES achieves significant gains on XSum over its base model (not pre-trained on CiteSum), e.g., +7.2 ROUGE-1 zero-shot performance and state-of-the-art few-shot performance. For news headline generation, CITES performs the best among unsupervised and zero-shot methods on Gigaword.

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Unsupervised Multi-Granularity Summarization
Ming Zhong | Yang Liu | Suyu Ge | Yuning Mao | Yizhu Jiao | Xingxing Zhang | Yichong Xu | Chenguang Zhu | Michael Zeng | Jiawei Han
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Text summarization is a user-preference based task, i.e., for one document, users often have different priorities for the summary. As a key aspect of customization in summarization, granularity is used to measure the semantic coverage between the summary and source document. However, developing systems that can generate summaries with customizable semantic coverage is still an under-explored topic. In this paper, we propose the first unsupervised multi-granularity summarization framework, GranuSum. We take events as the basic semantic units of the source documents and propose to rank these events by their salience. We also develop a model to summarize input documents with given events as anchors and hints. By inputting different numbers of events, GranuSum is capable of producing multi-granular summaries in an unsupervised manner. Meanwhile, we annotate a new benchmark GranuDUC that contains multiple summaries at different granularities for each document cluster. Experimental results confirm the substantial superiority of GranuSum on multi-granularity summarization over strong baselines. Furthermore, by exploiting the event information, GranuSum also exhibits state-of-the-art performance under the conventional unsupervised abstractive setting.

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Open-Vocabulary Argument Role Prediction For Event Extraction
Yizhu Jiao | Sha Li | Yiqing Xie | Ming Zhong | Heng Ji | Jiawei Han
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

The argument role in event extraction refers to the relation between an event and an argument participating in it. Despite the great progress in event extraction, existing studies still depend on roles pre-defined by domain experts. These studies expose obvious weakness when extending to emerging event types or new domains without available roles. Therefore, more attention and effort needs to be devoted to automatically customizing argument roles. In this paper, we define this essential but under-explored task: open-vocabulary argument role prediction. The goal of this task is to infer a set of argument roles for a given event type. We propose a novel unsupervised framework, RolePred for this task. Specifically, we formulate the role prediction problem as an in-filling task and construct prompts for a pre-trained language model to generate candidate roles. By extracting and analyzing the candidate arguments, the event-specific roles are further merged and selected. To standardize the research of this task, we collect a new human-annotated event extraction dataset including 143 customized argument roles with rich semantics. On this dataset, RolePred outperforms the existing methods by a large margin.

2021

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QMSum: A New Benchmark for Query-based Multi-domain Meeting Summarization
Ming Zhong | Da Yin | Tao Yu | Ahmad Zaidi | Mutethia Mutuma | Rahul Jha | Ahmed Hassan Awadallah | Asli Celikyilmaz | Yang Liu | Xipeng Qiu | Dragomir Radev
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Meetings are a key component of human collaboration. As increasing numbers of meetings are recorded and transcribed, meeting summaries have become essential to remind those who may or may not have attended the meetings about the key decisions made and the tasks to be completed. However, it is hard to create a single short summary that covers all the content of a long meeting involving multiple people and topics. In order to satisfy the needs of different types of users, we define a new query-based multi-domain meeting summarization task, where models have to select and summarize relevant spans of meetings in response to a query, and we introduce QMSum, a new benchmark for this task. QMSum consists of 1,808 query-summary pairs over 232 meetings in multiple domains. Besides, we investigate a locate-then-summarize method and evaluate a set of strong summarization baselines on the task. Experimental results and manual analysis reveal that QMSum presents significant challenges in long meeting summarization for future research. Dataset is available at https://github.com/Yale-LILY/QMSum.

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GEM: A General Evaluation Benchmark for Multimodal Tasks
Lin Su | Nan Duan | Edward Cui | Lei Ji | Chenfei Wu | Huaishao Luo | Yongfei Liu | Ming Zhong | Taroon Bharti | Arun Sacheti
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

2020

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Extractive Summarization as Text Matching
Ming Zhong | Pengfei Liu | Yiran Chen | Danqing Wang | Xipeng Qiu | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

This paper creates a paradigm shift with regard to the way we build neural extractive summarization systems. Instead of following the commonly used framework of extracting sentences individually and modeling the relationship between sentences, we formulate the extractive summarization task as a semantic text matching problem, in which a source document and candidate summaries will be (extracted from the original text) matched in a semantic space. Notably, this paradigm shift to semantic matching framework is well-grounded in our comprehensive analysis of the inherent gap between sentence-level and summary-level extractors based on the property of the dataset. Besides, even instantiating the framework with a simple form of a matching model, we have driven the state-of-the-art extractive result on CNN/DailyMail to a new level (44.41 in ROUGE-1). Experiments on the other five datasets also show the effectiveness of the matching framework. We believe the power of this matching-based summarization framework has not been fully exploited. To encourage more instantiations in the future, we have released our codes, processed dataset, as well as generated summaries in https://github.com/maszhongming/MatchSum.

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CDEvalSumm: An Empirical Study of Cross-Dataset Evaluation for Neural Summarization Systems
Yiran Chen | Pengfei Liu | Ming Zhong | Zi-Yi Dou | Danqing Wang | Xipeng Qiu | Xuanjing Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Neural network-based models augmented with unsupervised pre-trained knowledge have achieved impressive performance on text summarization. However, most existing evaluation methods are limited to an in-domain setting, where summarizers are trained and evaluated on the same dataset. We argue that this approach can narrow our understanding of the generalization ability for different summarization systems. In this paper, we perform an in-depth analysis of characteristics of different datasets and investigate the performance of different summarization models under a cross-dataset setting, in which a summarizer trained on one corpus will be evaluated on a range of out-of-domain corpora. A comprehensive study of 11 representative summarization systems on 5 datasets from different domains reveals the effect of model architectures and generation ways (i.e. abstractive and extractive) on model generalization ability. Further, experimental results shed light on the limitations of existing summarizers. Brief introduction and supplementary code can be found in https://github.com/zide05/CDEvalSumm.

2019

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Searching for Effective Neural Extractive Summarization: What Works and What’s Next
Ming Zhong | Pengfei Liu | Danqing Wang | Xipeng Qiu | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

The recent years have seen remarkable success in the use of deep neural networks on text summarization. However, there is no clear understanding of why they perform so well, or how they might be improved. In this paper, we seek to better understand how neural extractive summarization systems could benefit from different types of model architectures, transferable knowledge and learning schemas. Besides, we find an effective way to improve the current framework and achieve the state-of-the-art result on CNN/DailyMail by a large margin based on our observations and analysis. Hopefully, our work could provide more hints for future research on extractive summarization.

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A Closer Look at Data Bias in Neural Extractive Summarization Models
Ming Zhong | Danqing Wang | Pengfei Liu | Xipeng Qiu | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on New Frontiers in Summarization

In this paper, we take stock of the current state of summarization datasets and explore how different factors of datasets influence the generalization behaviour of neural extractive summarization models. Specifically, we first propose several properties of datasets, which matter for the generalization of summarization models. Then we build the connection between priors residing in datasets and model designs, analyzing how different properties of datasets influence the choices of model structure design and training methods. Finally, by taking a typical dataset as an example, we rethink the process of the model design based on the experience of the above analysis. We demonstrate that when we have a deep understanding of the characteristics of datasets, a simple approach can bring significant improvements to the existing state-of-the-art model.