Minghui Qiu


2023

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DocAsRef: An Empirical Study on Repurposing Reference-based Summary Quality Metrics as Reference-free Metrics
Forrest Bao | Ruixuan Tu | Ge Luo | Yinfei Yang | Hebi Li | Minghui Qiu | Youbiao He | Cen Chen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Automated summary quality assessment falls into two categories: reference-based and reference-free. Reference-based metrics, historically deemed more accurate due to the additional information provided by human-written references, are limited by their reliance on human input. In this paper, we hypothesize that the comparison methodologies used by some reference-based metrics to evaluate a system summary against its corresponding reference can be effectively adapted to assess it against its source document, thereby transforming these metrics into reference-free ones. Experimental results support this hypothesis. After being repurposed reference-freely, the zero-shot BERTScore using the pretrained DeBERTa-large-MNLI model of <0.5B parameters consistently outperforms its original reference-based version across various aspects on the SummEval and Newsroom datasets. It also excels in comparison to most existing reference-free metrics and closely competes with zero-shot summary evaluators based on GPT-3.5.

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Learning Knowledge-Enhanced Contextual Language Representations for Domain Natural Language Understanding
Taolin Zhang | Ruyao Xu | Chengyu Wang | Zhongjie Duan | Cen Chen | Minghui Qiu | Dawei Cheng | Xiaofeng He | Weining Qian
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Knowledge-Enhanced Pre-trained Language Models (KEPLMs) improve the performance of various downstream NLP tasks by injecting knowledge facts from large-scale Knowledge Graphs (KGs). However, existing methods for pre-training KEPLMs with relational triples are difficult to be adapted to close domains due to the lack of sufficient domain graph semantics. In this paper, we propose a Knowledge-enhanced language representation learning framework for various closed domains (KANGAROO) via capturing the implicit graph structure among the entities. Specifically, since the entity coverage rates of closed-domain KGs can be relatively low and may exhibit the global sparsity phenomenon for knowledge injection, we consider not only the shallow relational representations of triples but also the hyperbolic embeddings of deep hierarchical entity-class structures for effective knowledge fusion. Moreover, as two closed-domain entities under the same entity-class often havel locally dense neighbor subgraphs counted by max point biconnected component, we further propose a data augmentation strategy based on contrastive learning over subgraphs to construct hard negative samples of higher quality. It makes the underlying KELPMs better distinguish the semantics of these neighboring entities to further complement the global semantic sparsity. In the experiments, we evaluate KANGAROO over various knowledge-aware and general NLP tasks in both full and few-shot learning settings, outperforming various KEPLM training paradigms performance in closed-domains significantly.

2022

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KECP: Knowledge Enhanced Contrastive Prompting for Few-shot Extractive Question Answering
Jianing Wang | Chengyu Wang | Minghui Qiu | Qiuhui Shi | Hongbin Wang | Jun Huang | Ming Gao
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Extractive Question Answering (EQA) is one of the most essential tasks in Machine Reading Comprehension (MRC), which can be solved by fine-tuning the span selecting heads of Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs). However, most existing approaches for MRC may perform poorly in the few-shot learning scenario. To solve this issue, we propose a novel framework named Knowledge Enhanced Contrastive Prompt-tuning (KECP). Instead of adding pointer heads to PLMs, we introduce a seminal paradigm for EQA that transforms the task into a non-autoregressive Masked Language Modeling (MLM) generation problem. Simultaneously, rich semantics from the external knowledge base (KB) and the passage context support enhancing the query’s representations. In addition, to boost the performance of PLMs, we jointly train the model by the MLM and contrastive learning objectives. Experiments on multiple benchmarks demonstrate that our method consistently outperforms state-of-the-art approaches in few-shot settings by a large margin.

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Knowledge Prompting in Pre-trained Language Model for Natural Language Understanding
Jianing Wang | Wenkang Huang | Minghui Qiu | Qiuhui Shi | Hongbin Wang | Xiang Li | Ming Gao
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Knowledge-enhanced Pre-trained Language Model (PLM) has recently received significant attention, which aims to incorporate factual knowledge into PLMs. However, most existing methods modify the internal structures of fixed types of PLMs by stacking complicated modules, and introduce redundant and irrelevant factual knowledge from knowledge bases (KBs). In this paper, to address these problems, we introduce a seminal knowledge prompting paradigm and further propose a knowledge-prompting-based PLM framework KP-PLM. This framework can be flexibly combined with existing mainstream PLMs. Specifically, we first construct a knowledge sub-graph from KBs for each context. Then we design multiple continuous prompts rules and transform the knowledge sub-graph into natural language prompts. To further leverage the factual knowledge from these prompts, we propose two novel knowledge-aware self-supervised tasks including prompt relevance inspection and masked prompt modeling. Extensive experiments on multiple natural language understanding (NLU) tasks show the superiority of KP-PLM over other state-of-the-art methods in both full-resource and low-resource settings. Our source codes will be released upon the acceptance of the paper.

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SpanProto: A Two-stage Span-based Prototypical Network for Few-shot Named Entity Recognition
Jianing Wang | Chengyu Wang | Chuanqi Tan | Minghui Qiu | Songfang Huang | Jun Huang | Ming Gao
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Few-shot Named Entity Recognition (NER) aims to identify named entities with very little annotated data. Previous methods solve this problem based on token-wise classification, which ignores the information of entity boundaries, and inevitably the performance is affected by the massive non-entity tokens. To this end, we propose a seminal span-based prototypical network (SpanProto) that tackles few-shot NER via a two-stage approach, including span extraction and mention classification. In the span extraction stage, we transform the sequential tags into a global boundary matrix, enabling the model to focus on the explicit boundary information. For mention classification, we leverage prototypical learning to capture the semantic representations for each labeled span and make the model better adapt to novel-class entities. To further improve the model performance, we split out the false positives generated by the span extractor but not labeled in the current episode set, and then present a margin-based loss to separate them from each prototype region. Experiments over multiple benchmarks demonstrate that our model outperforms strong baselines by a large margin.

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EasyNLP: A Comprehensive and Easy-to-use Toolkit for Natural Language Processing
Chengyu Wang | Minghui Qiu | Taolin Zhang | Tingting Liu | Lei Li | Jianing Wang | Ming Wang | Jun Huang | Wei Lin
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

Pre-Trained Models (PTMs) have reshaped the development of Natural Language Processing (NLP) and achieved significant improvement in various benchmarks. Yet, it is not easy for industrial practitioners to obtain high-performing PTM-based models without a large amount of labeled training data and deploy them online with fast inference speed. To bridge this gap, EasyNLP is designed to make it easy to build NLP applications, which supports a comprehensive suite of NLP algorithms. It further features knowledge-enhanced pre-training, knowledge distillation and few-shot learning functionalities, and provides a unified framework of model training, inference and deployment for real-world applications. EasyNLP has powered over ten business units within Alibaba Group and is seamlessly integrated to the Platform of AI (PAI) products on Alibaba Cloud. The source code of EasyNLP is released at GitHub (https://github.com/alibaba/EasyNLP).

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Towards Unified Prompt Tuning for Few-shot Text Classification
Jianing Wang | Chengyu Wang | Fuli Luo | Chuanqi Tan | Minghui Qiu | Fei Yang | Qiuhui Shi | Songfang Huang | Ming Gao
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Prompt-based fine-tuning has boosted the performance of Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) on few-shot text classification by employing task-specific prompts. Yet, PLMs are unfamiliar with prompt-style expressions during pre-training, which limits the few-shot learning performance on downstream tasks.It would be desirable if the models can acquire some prompting knowledge before adapting to specific NLP tasks. We present the Unified Prompt Tuning (UPT) framework, leading to better few-shot text classification for BERT-style models by explicitly capturing prompting semantics from non-target NLP datasets. In UPT, a novel paradigm Prompt-Options-Verbalizer is proposed for joint prompt learning across different NLP tasks, forcing PLMs to capture task-invariant prompting knowledge. We further design a self-supervised task named Knowledge-enhanced Selective Masked Language Modeling to improve the PLM’s generalization abilities for accurate adaptation to previously unseen tasks. After multi-task learning across multiple tasks, the PLM can be better prompt-tuned towards any dissimilar target tasks in low-resourced settings. Experiments over a variety of NLP tasks show that UPT consistently outperforms state-of-the-arts for prompt-based fine-tuning.

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ARTIST: A Transformer-based Chinese Text-to-Image Synthesizer Digesting Linguistic and World Knowledge
Tingting Liu | Chengyu Wang | Xiangru Zhu | Lei Li | Minghui Qiu | Jun Huang | Ming Gao | Yanghua Xiao
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Text-to-Image Synthesis (TIS) is a popular task to convert natural language texts into realistic images. Recently, transformer-based TIS models (such as DALL-E) have been proposed using the encoder-decoder architectures. Yet, these billion-scale TIS models are difficult to tune and deploy in resource-constrained environments. In addition, there is a lack of language-specific TIS benchmarks for Chinese, together with high-performing models with moderate sizes. In this work, we present ARTIST, A tRansformer-based Chinese Text-to-Image SynThesizer for high-resolution image generation. In ARTIST, the rich linguistic and relational knowledge facts are injected into the model to ensure better model performance without the usage of ultra-large models. We further establish a large-scale Chinese TIS benchmark with the re-production results of state-of-the-art transformer-based TIS models.Results show ARTIST outperforms previous approaches.

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SueNes: A Weakly Supervised Approach to Evaluating Single-Document Summarization via Negative Sampling
Forrest Bao | Ge Luo | Hebi Li | Minghui Qiu | Yinfei Yang | Youbiao He | Cen Chen
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Canonical automatic summary evaluation metrics, such as ROUGE, focus on lexical similarity which cannot well capture semantics nor linguistic quality and require a reference summary which is costly to obtain. Recently, there have been a growing number of efforts to alleviate either or both of the two drawbacks. In this paper, we present a proof-of-concept study to a weakly supervised summary evaluation approach without the presence of reference summaries. Massive data in existing summarization datasets are transformed for training by pairing documents with corrupted reference summaries. In cross-domain tests, our strategy outperforms baselines with promising improvements, and show a great advantage in gauging linguistic qualities over all metrics.

2021

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Meta-Learning Adversarial Domain Adaptation Network for Few-Shot Text Classification
Chengcheng Han | Zeqiu Fan | Dongxiang Zhang | Minghui Qiu | Ming Gao | Aoying Zhou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Knowledge-Empowered Representation Learning for Chinese Medical Reading Comprehension: Task, Model and Resources
Taolin Zhang | Chengyu Wang | Minghui Qiu | Bite Yang | Zerui Cai | Xiaofeng He | Jun Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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UnClE: Explicitly Leveraging Semantic Similarity to Reduce the Parameters of Word Embeddings
Zhi Li | Yuchen Zhai | Chengyu Wang | Minghui Qiu | Kailiang Li | Yin Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Natural language processing (NLP) models often require a massive number of parameters for word embeddings, which limits their application on mobile devices. Researchers have employed many approaches, e.g. adaptive inputs, to reduce the parameters of word embeddings. However, existing methods rarely pay attention to semantic information. In this paper, we propose a novel method called Unique and Class Embeddings (UnClE), which explicitly leverages semantic similarity with weight sharing to reduce the dimensionality of word embeddings. Inspired by the fact that words with similar semantic can share a part of weights, we divide the embeddings of words into two parts: unique embedding and class embedding. The former is one-to-one mapping like traditional embedding, while the latter is many-to-one mapping and learn the representation of class information. Our method is suitable for both word-level and sub-word level models and can be used to reduce both input and output embeddings. Experimental results on the standard WMT 2014 English-German dataset show that our method is able to reduce the parameters of word embeddings by more than 11x, with about 93% performance retaining in BLEU metrics. For language modeling task, our model can reduce word embeddings by 6x or 11x on PTB/WT2 dataset at the cost of a certain degree of performance degradation.

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Meta-KD: A Meta Knowledge Distillation Framework for Language Model Compression across Domains
Haojie Pan | Chengyu Wang | Minghui Qiu | Yichang Zhang | Yaliang Li | Jun Huang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Pre-trained language models have been applied to various NLP tasks with considerable performance gains. However, the large model sizes, together with the long inference time, limit the deployment of such models in real-time applications. One line of model compression approaches considers knowledge distillation to distill large teacher models into small student models. Most of these studies focus on single-domain only, which ignores the transferable knowledge from other domains. We notice that training a teacher with transferable knowledge digested across domains can achieve better generalization capability to help knowledge distillation. Hence we propose a Meta-Knowledge Distillation (Meta-KD) framework to build a meta-teacher model that captures transferable knowledge across domains and passes such knowledge to students. Specifically, we explicitly force the meta-teacher to capture transferable knowledge at both instance-level and feature-level from multiple domains, and then propose a meta-distillation algorithm to learn single-domain student models with guidance from the meta-teacher. Experiments on public multi-domain NLP tasks show the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed Meta-KD framework. Further, we also demonstrate the capability of Meta-KD in the settings where the training data is scarce.

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SMedBERT: A Knowledge-Enhanced Pre-trained Language Model with Structured Semantics for Medical Text Mining
Taolin Zhang | Zerui Cai | Chengyu Wang | Minghui Qiu | Bite Yang | Xiaofeng He
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recently, the performance of Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) has been significantly improved by injecting knowledge facts to enhance their abilities of language understanding. For medical domains, the background knowledge sources are especially useful, due to the massive medical terms and their complicated relations are difficult to understand in text. In this work, we introduce SMedBERT, a medical PLM trained on large-scale medical corpora, incorporating deep structured semantic knowledge from neighbours of linked-entity. In SMedBERT, the mention-neighbour hybrid attention is proposed to learn heterogeneous-entity information, which infuses the semantic representations of entity types into the homogeneous neighbouring entity structure. Apart from knowledge integration as external features, we propose to employ the neighbors of linked-entities in the knowledge graph as additional global contexts of text mentions, allowing them to communicate via shared neighbors, thus enrich their semantic representations. Experiments demonstrate that SMedBERT significantly outperforms strong baselines in various knowledge-intensive Chinese medical tasks. It also improves the performance of other tasks such as question answering, question matching and natural language inference.

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TransPrompt: Towards an Automatic Transferable Prompting Framework for Few-shot Text Classification
Chengyu Wang | Jianing Wang | Minghui Qiu | Jun Huang | Ming Gao
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent studies have shown that prompts improve the performance of large pre-trained language models for few-shot text classification. Yet, it is unclear how the prompting knowledge can be transferred across similar NLP tasks for the purpose of mutual reinforcement. Based on continuous prompt embeddings, we propose TransPrompt, a transferable prompting framework for few-shot learning across similar tasks. In TransPrompt, we employ a multi-task meta-knowledge acquisition procedure to train a meta-learner that captures cross-task transferable knowledge. Two de-biasing techniques are further designed to make it more task-agnostic and unbiased towards any tasks. After that, the meta-learner can be adapted to target tasks with high accuracy. Extensive experiments show that TransPrompt outperforms single-task and cross-task strong baselines over multiple NLP tasks and datasets. We further show that the meta-learner can effectively improve the performance on previously unseen tasks; and TransPrompt also outperforms strong fine-tuning baselines when learning with full training sets.

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HRKD: Hierarchical Relational Knowledge Distillation for Cross-domain Language Model Compression
Chenhe Dong | Yaliang Li | Ying Shen | Minghui Qiu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

On many natural language processing tasks, large pre-trained language models (PLMs) have shown overwhelming performances compared with traditional neural network methods. Nevertheless, their huge model size and low inference speed have hindered the deployment on resource-limited devices in practice. In this paper, we target to compress PLMs with knowledge distillation, and propose a hierarchical relational knowledge distillation (HRKD) method to capture both hierarchical and domain relational information. Specifically, to enhance the model capability and transferability, we leverage the idea of meta-learning and set up domain-relational graphs to capture the relational information across different domains. And to dynamically select the most representative prototypes for each domain, we propose a hierarchical compare-aggregate mechanism to capture hierarchical relationships. Extensive experiments on public multi-domain datasets demonstrate the superior performance of our HRKD method as well as its strong few-shot learning ability. For reproducibility, we release the code at https://github.com/cheneydon/hrkd.

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Meta Distant Transfer Learning for Pre-trained Language Models
Chengyu Wang | Haojie Pan | Minghui Qiu | Jun Huang | Fei Yang | Yin Zhang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

With the wide availability of Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs), multi-task fine-tuning across domains has been extensively applied. For tasks related to distant domains with different class label sets, PLMs may memorize non-transferable knowledge for the target domain and suffer from negative transfer. Inspired by meta-learning, we propose the Meta Distant Transfer Learning (Meta-DTL) framework to learn the cross-task knowledge for PLM-based methods. Meta-DTL first employs task representation learning to mine implicit relations among multiple tasks and classes. Based on the results, it trains a PLM-based meta-learner to capture the transferable knowledge across tasks. The weighted maximum entropy regularizers are proposed to make meta-learner more task-agnostic and unbiased. Finally, the meta-learner can be fine-tuned to fit each task with better parameter initialization. We evaluate Meta-DTL using both BERT and ALBERT on seven public datasets. Experiment results confirm the superiority of Meta-DTL as it consistently outperforms strong baselines. We find that Meta-DTL is highly effective when very few data is available for the target task.

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Wasserstein Selective Transfer Learning for Cross-domain Text Mining
Lingyun Feng | Minghui Qiu | Yaliang Li | Haitao Zheng | Ying Shen
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Transfer learning (TL) seeks to improve the learning of a data-scarce target domain by using information from source domains. However, the source and target domains usually have different data distributions, which may lead to negative transfer. To alleviate this issue, we propose a Wasserstein Selective Transfer Learning (WSTL) method. Specifically, the proposed method considers a reinforced selector to select helpful data for transfer learning. We further use a Wasserstein-based discriminator to maximize the empirical distance between the selected source data and target data. The TL module is then trained to minimize the estimated Wasserstein distance in an adversarial manner and provides domain invariant features for the reinforced selector. We adopt an evaluation metric based on the performance of the TL module as delayed reward and a Wasserstein-based metric as immediate rewards to guide the reinforced selector learning. Compared with the competing TL approaches, the proposed method selects data samples that are closer to the target domain. It also provides better state features and reward signals that lead to better performance with faster convergence. Extensive experiments on three real-world text mining tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

2020

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Meta Fine-Tuning Neural Language Models for Multi-Domain Text Mining
Chengyu Wang | Minghui Qiu | Jun Huang | Xiaofeng He
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Pre-trained neural language models bring significant improvement for various NLP tasks, by fine-tuning the models on task-specific training sets. During fine-tuning, the parameters are initialized from pre-trained models directly, which ignores how the learning process of similar NLP tasks in different domains is correlated and mutually reinforced. In this paper, we propose an effective learning procedure named Meta Fine-Tuning (MFT), serving as a meta-learner to solve a group of similar NLP tasks for neural language models. Instead of simply multi-task training over all the datasets, MFT only learns from typical instances of various domains to acquire highly transferable knowledge. It further encourages the language model to encode domain-invariant representations by optimizing a series of novel domain corruption loss functions. After MFT, the model can be fine-tuned for each domain with better parameter initializations and higher generalization ability. We implement MFT upon BERT to solve several multi-domain text mining tasks. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of MFT and its usefulness for few-shot learning.

2018

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Transfer Learning for Context-Aware Question Matching in Information-seeking Conversations in E-commerce
Minghui Qiu | Liu Yang | Feng Ji | Wei Zhou | Jun Huang | Haiqing Chen | Bruce Croft | Wei Lin
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Building multi-turn information-seeking conversation systems is an important and challenging research topic. Although several advanced neural text matching models have been proposed for this task, they are generally not efficient for industrial applications. Furthermore, they rely on a large amount of labeled data, which may not be available in real-world applications. To alleviate these problems, we study transfer learning for multi-turn information seeking conversations in this paper. We first propose an efficient and effective multi-turn conversation model based on convolutional neural networks. After that, we extend our model to adapt the knowledge learned from a resource-rich domain to enhance the performance. Finally, we deployed our model in an industrial chatbot called AliMe Assist and observed a significant improvement over the existing online model.

2017

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Aspect Extraction from Product Reviews Using Category Hierarchy Information
Yinfei Yang | Cen Chen | Minghui Qiu | Forrest Bao
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 2, Short Papers

Aspect extraction abstracts the common properties of objects from corpora discussing them, such as reviews of products. Recent work on aspect extraction is leveraging the hierarchical relationship between products and their categories. However, such effort focuses on the aspects of child categories but ignores those from parent categories. Hence, we propose an LDA-based generative topic model inducing the two-layer categorical information (CAT-LDA), to balance the aspects of both a parent category and its child categories. Our hypothesis is that child categories inherit aspects from parent categories, controlled by the hierarchy between them. Experimental results on 5 categories of Amazon.com products show that both common aspects of parent category and the individual aspects of sub-categories can be extracted to align well with the common sense. We further evaluate the manually extracted aspects of 16 products, resulting in an average hit rate of 79.10%.

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AliMe Chat: A Sequence to Sequence and Rerank based Chatbot Engine
Minghui Qiu | Feng-Lin Li | Siyu Wang | Xing Gao | Yan Chen | Weipeng Zhao | Haiqing Chen | Jun Huang | Wei Chu
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

We propose AliMe Chat, an open-domain chatbot engine that integrates the joint results of Information Retrieval (IR) and Sequence to Sequence (Seq2Seq) based generation models. AliMe Chat uses an attentive Seq2Seq based rerank model to optimize the joint results. Extensive experiments show our engine outperforms both IR and generation based models. We launch AliMe Chat for a real-world industrial application and observe better results than another public chatbot.

2015

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Semantic Analysis and Helpfulness Prediction of Text for Online Product Reviews
Yinfei Yang | Yaowei Yan | Minghui Qiu | Forrest Bao
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

2014

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Generating Supplementary Travel Guides from Social Media
Liu Yang | Jing Jiang | Lifu Huang | Minghui Qiu | Lizi Liao
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

2013

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Mining User Relations from Online Discussions using Sentiment Analysis and Probabilistic Matrix Factorization
Minghui Qiu | Liu Yang | Jing Jiang
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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A Latent Variable Model for Viewpoint Discovery from Threaded Forum Posts
Minghui Qiu | Jing Jiang
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Learning Topics and Positions from Debatepedia
Swapna Gottipati | Minghui Qiu | Yanchuan Sim | Jing Jiang | Noah A. Smith
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing