Mingming Liu


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Towards Robust Evidence-Aware Fake News Detection via Improving Semantic Perception
Yike Wu | Yang Xiao | Mengting Hu | Mengying Liu | Pengcheng Wang | Mingming Liu
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Evidence-aware fake news detection aims to determine the veracity of a given news (i.e., claim) with external evidences. We find that existing methods lack sufficient semantic perception and are easily blinded by textual expressions. For example, they still make the same prediction after we flip the semantics of a claim, which makes them vulnerable to malicious attacks. In this paper, we propose a model-agnostic training framework to improve the semantic perception of evidence-aware fake news detection. Specifically, we first introduce two kinds of data augmentation to complement the original training set with synthetic data. The semantic-flipped augmentation synthesizes claims with similar textual expressions but opposite semantics, while the semantic-invariant augmentation synthesizes claims with the same semantics but different writing styles. Moreover, we design a novel module to learn better claim representation which is more sensitive to the semantics, and further incorporate it into a multi-objective optimization paradigm. In the experiments, we also extend the original test set of benchmark datasets with the synthetic data to better evaluate the model perception of semantics. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on the extended test set, while achieving competitive performance on the original one. Our source code are released at https://github.com/Xyang1998/RobustFND.


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Density-Aware Prototypical Network for Few-Shot Relation Classification
Jianfeng Wu | Mengting Hu | Yike Wu | Bingzhe Wu | Yalan Xie | Mingming Liu | Renhong Cheng
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

In recent years, few-shot relation classification has evoked many research interests. Yet a more challenging problem, i.e. none-of-the-above (NOTA), is under-explored. Existing works mainly regard NOTA as an extra class and treat it the same as known relations. However, such a solution ignores the overall instance distribution, where NOTA instances are actually outliers and distributed unnaturally compared with known ones. In this paper, we propose a density-aware prototypical network (D-Proto) to treat various instances distinctly. Specifically, we design unique training objectives to separate known instances and isolate NOTA instances, respectively. This produces an ideal instance distribution, where known instances are dense yet NOTAs have a small density. Moreover, we propose a NOTA detection module to further enlarge the density of known samples, and discriminate NOTA and known samples accurately. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms strong baselines with robustness towards various NOTA rates. The code will be made public after the paper is accepted.


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Classical Sequence Match Is a Competitive Few-Shot One-Class Learner
Mengting Hu | Hang Gao | Yinhao Bai | Mingming Liu
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Nowadays, transformer-based models gradually become the default choice for artificial intelligence pioneers. The models also show superiority even in the few-shot scenarios. In this paper, we revisit the classical methods and propose a new few-shot alternative. Specifically, we investigate the few-shot one-class problem, which actually takes a known sample as a reference to detect whether an unknown instance belongs to the same class. This problem can be studied from the perspective of sequence match. It is shown that with meta-learning, the classical sequence match method, i.e. Compare-Aggregate, significantly outperforms transformer ones. The classical approach requires much less training cost. Furthermore, we perform an empirical comparison between two kinds of sequence match approaches under simple fine-tuning and meta-learning. Meta-learning causes the transformer models’ features to have high-correlation dimensions. The reason is closely related to the number of layers and heads of transformer models. Experimental codes and data are available at https://github.com/hmt2014/FewOne.