Embeddings, which compress information in raw text into semantics-preserving low-dimensional vectors, have been widely adopted for their efficacy. However, recent research has shown that embeddings can potentially leak private information about sensitive attributes of the text, and in some cases, can be inverted to recover the original input text. To address these growing privacy challenges, we propose a privatization mechanism for embeddings based on homomorphic encryption, to prevent potential leakage of any piece of information in the process of text classification. In particular, our method performs text classification on the encryption of embeddings from state-of-the-art models like BERT, supported by an efficient GPU implementation of CKKS encryption scheme. We show that our method offers encrypted protection of BERT embeddings, while largely preserving their utility on downstream text classification tasks.
Deep learning for Information Retrieval (IR) requires a large amount of high-quality query-document relevance labels, but such labels are inherently sparse. Label smoothing redistributes some observed probability mass over unobserved instances, often uniformly, uninformed of the true distribution. In contrast, we propose knowledge distillation for informed labeling, without incurring high computation overheads at evaluation time. Our contribution is designing a simple but efficient teacher model which utilizes collective knowledge, to outperform state-of-the-arts distilled from a more complex teacher model. Specifically, we train up to ×8
faster than the state-of-the-art teacher, while distilling the rankings better. Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/jihyukkim-nlp/CollectiveKD
World models have improved the ability of reinforcement learning agents to operate in a sample efficient manner, by being trained to predict plausible changes in the underlying environment. As the core tasks of world models are future prediction and commonsense understanding, our claim is that pre-trained language models (PLMs) already provide a strong base upon which to build world models. Worldformer is a recently proposed world model for text-based game environments, based only partially on PLM and transformers. Our distinction is to fully leverage PLMs as actionable world models in text-based game environments, by reformulating generation as constrained decoding which decomposes actions into verb templates and objects. We show that our model improves future valid action prediction and graph change prediction. Additionally, we show that our model better reflects commonsense than standard PLM.
Knowledge distillation (KD) has been a ubiquitous method for model compression to strengthen the capability of a lightweight model with the transferred knowledge from the teacher. In particular, KD has been employed in quantization-aware training (QAT) of Transformer encoders like BERT to improve the accuracy of the student model with the reduced-precision weight parameters. However, little is understood about which of the various KD approaches best fits the QAT of Transformers. In this work, we provide an in-depth analysis of the mechanism of KD on attention recovery of quantized large Transformers. In particular, we reveal that the previously adopted MSE loss on the attention score is insufficient for recovering the self-attention information. Therefore, we propose two KD methods; attention-map and attention-output losses. Furthermore, we explore the unification of both losses to address task-dependent preference between attention-map and output losses. The experimental results on various Transformer encoder models demonstrate that the proposed KD methods achieve state-of-the-art accuracy for QAT with sub-2-bit weight quantization.