Mio Arai


2020

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Construction of an Evaluation Corpus for Grammatical Error Correction for Learners of Japanese as a Second Language
Aomi Koyama | Tomoshige Kiyuna | Kenji Kobayashi | Mio Arai | Mamoru Komachi
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

The NAIST Lang-8 Learner Corpora (Lang-8 corpus) is one of the largest second-language learner corpora. The Lang-8 corpus is suitable as a training dataset for machine translation-based grammatical error correction systems. However, it is not suitable as an evaluation dataset because the corrected sentences sometimes include inappropriate sentences. Therefore, we created and released an evaluation corpus for correcting grammatical errors made by learners of Japanese as a Second Language (JSL). As our corpus has less noise and its annotation scheme reflects the characteristics of the dataset, it is ideal as an evaluation corpus for correcting grammatical errors in sentences written by JSL learners. In addition, we applied neural machine translation (NMT) and statistical machine translation (SMT) techniques to correct the grammar of the JSL learners’ sentences and evaluated their results using our corpus. We also compared the performance of the NMT system with that of the SMT system.

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Automated Essay Scoring System for Nonnative Japanese Learners
Reo Hirao | Mio Arai | Hiroki Shimanaka | Satoru Katsumata | Mamoru Komachi
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

In this study, we created an automated essay scoring (AES) system for nonnative Japanese learners using an essay dataset with annotations for a holistic score and multiple trait scores, including content, organization, and language scores. In particular, we developed AES systems using two different approaches: a feature-based approach and a neural-network-based approach. In the former approach, we used Japanese-specific linguistic features, including character-type features such as “kanji” and “hiragana.” In the latter approach, we used two models: a long short-term memory (LSTM) model (Hochreiter and Schmidhuber, 1997) and a bidirectional encoder representations from transformers (BERT) model (Devlin et al., 2019), which achieved the highest accuracy in various natural language processing tasks in 2018. Overall, the BERT model achieved the best root mean squared error and quadratic weighted kappa scores. In addition, we analyzed the robustness of the outputs of the BERT model. We have released and shared this system to facilitate further research on AES for Japanese as a second language learners.

2019

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Grammatical-Error-Aware Incorrect Example Retrieval System for Learners of Japanese as a Second Language
Mio Arai | Masahiro Kaneko | Mamoru Komachi
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications

Existing example retrieval systems do not include grammatically incorrect examples or present only a few examples, if any. Even if a retrieval system has a wide coverage of incorrect examples along with the correct counterpart, learners need to know whether their query includes errors or not. Considering the usability of retrieving incorrect examples, our proposed method uses a large-scale corpus and presents correct expressions along with incorrect expressions using a grammatical error detection system so that the learner do not need to be aware of how to search for the examples. Intrinsic and extrinsic evaluations indicate that our method improves accuracy of example sentence retrieval and quality of learner’s writing.

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Sakura: Large-scale Incorrect Example Retrieval System for Learners of Japanese as a Second Language
Mio Arai | Tomonori Kodaira | Mamoru Komachi
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

This study develops an incorrect example retrieval system, called Sakura, using a large-scale Lang-8 dataset for Japanese language learners. Existing example retrieval systems do not include grammatically incorrect examples or present only a few examples, if any. If a retrieval system has a wide coverage of incorrect examples along with the correct counterpart, learners can revise their composition themselves. Considering the usability of retrieving incorrect examples, our proposed system uses a large-scale corpus to expand the coverage of incorrect examples and presents correct expressions along with incorrect expressions. Our intrinsic and extrinsic evaluations indicate that our system is more useful than a previous system.