Mittul Singh


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Service registration chatbot: collecting and comparing dialogues from AMT workers and service’s users
Luca Molteni | Mittul Singh | Juho Leinonen | Katri Leino | Mikko Kurimo | Emanuele Della Valle
Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Noisy User-generated Text (W-NUT 2020)

Crowdsourcing is the go-to solution for data collection and annotation in the context of NLP tasks. Nevertheless, crowdsourced data is noisy by nature; the source is often unknown and additional validation work is performed to guarantee the dataset’s quality. In this article, we compare two crowdsourcing sources on a dialogue paraphrasing task revolving around a chatbot service. We observe that workers hired on crowdsourcing platforms produce lexically poorer and less diverse rewrites than service users engaged voluntarily. Notably enough, on dialogue clarity and optimality, the two paraphrase sources’ human-perceived quality does not differ significantly. Furthermore, for the chatbot service, the combined crowdsourced data is enough to train a transformer-based Natural Language Generation (NLG) system. To enable similar services, we also release tools for collecting data and training the dialogue-act-based transformer-based NLG module.

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Effects of Language Relatedness for Cross-lingual Transfer Learning in Character-Based Language Models
Mittul Singh | Peter Smit | Sami Virpioja | Mikko Kurimo
Proceedings of the 1st Joint Workshop on Spoken Language Technologies for Under-resourced languages (SLTU) and Collaboration and Computing for Under-Resourced Languages (CCURL)

Character-based Neural Network Language Models (NNLM) have the advantage of smaller vocabulary and thus faster training times in comparison to NNLMs based on multi-character units. However, in low-resource scenarios, both the character and multi-character NNLMs suffer from data sparsity. In such scenarios, cross-lingual transfer has improved multi-character NNLM performance by allowing information transfer from a source to the target language. In the same vein, we propose to use cross-lingual transfer for character NNLMs applied to low-resource Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR). However, applying cross-lingual transfer to character NNLMs is not as straightforward. We observe that relatedness of the source language plays an important role in cross-lingual pretraining of character NNLMs. We evaluate this aspect on ASR tasks for two target languages: Finnish (with English and Estonian as source) and Swedish (with Danish, Norwegian, and English as source). Prior work has observed no difference between using the related or unrelated language for multi-character NNLMs. We, however, show that for character-based NNLMs, only pretraining with a related language improves the ASR performance, and using an unrelated language may deteriorate it. We also observe that the benefits are larger when there is much lesser target data than source data.


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Handling Noisy Labels for Robustly Learning from Self-Training Data for Low-Resource Sequence Labeling
Debjit Paul | Mittul Singh | Michael A. Hedderich | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

In this paper, we address the problem of effectively self-training neural networks in a low-resource setting. Self-training is frequently used to automatically increase the amount of training data. However, in a low-resource scenario, it is less effective due to unreliable annotations created using self-labeling of unlabeled data. We propose to combine self-training with noise handling on the self-labeled data. Directly estimating noise on the combined clean training set and self-labeled data can lead to corruption of the clean data and hence, performs worse. Thus, we propose the Clean and Noisy Label Neural Network which trains on clean and noisy self-labeled data simultaneously by explicitly modelling clean and noisy labels separately. In our experiments on Chunking and NER, this approach performs more robustly than the baselines. Complementary to this explicit approach, noise can also be handled implicitly with the help of an auxiliary learning task. To such a complementary approach, our method is more beneficial than other baseline methods and together provides the best performance overall.


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Long-Short Range Context Neural Networks for Language Modeling
Youssef Oualil | Mittul Singh | Clayton Greenberg | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Sub-Word Similarity based Search for Embeddings: Inducing Rare-Word Embeddings for Word Similarity Tasks and Language Modelling
Mittul Singh | Clayton Greenberg | Youssef Oualil | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Training good word embeddings requires large amounts of data. Out-of-vocabulary words will still be encountered at test-time, leaving these words without embeddings. To overcome this lack of embeddings for rare words, existing methods leverage morphological features to generate embeddings. While the existing methods use computationally-intensive rule-based (Soricut and Och, 2015) or tool-based (Botha and Blunsom, 2014) morphological analysis to generate embeddings, our system applies a computationally-simpler sub-word search on words that have existing embeddings. Embeddings of the sub-word search results are then combined using string similarity functions to generate rare word embeddings. We augmented pre-trained word embeddings with these novel embeddings and evaluated on a rare word similarity task, obtaining up to 3 times improvement in correlation over the original set of embeddings. Applying our technique to embeddings trained on larger datasets led to on-par performance with the existing state-of-the-art for this task. Additionally, while analysing augmented embeddings in a log-bilinear language model, we observed up to 50% reduction in rare word perplexity in comparison to other more complex language models.