Mohaddeseh Bastan


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SuMe: A Dataset Towards Summarizing Biomedical Mechanisms
Mohaddeseh Bastan | Nishant Shankar | Mihai Surdeanu | Niranjan Balasubramanian
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Can language models read biomedical texts and explain the biomedical mechanisms discussed? In this work we introduce a biomedical mechanism summarization task. Biomedical studies often investigate the mechanisms behind how one entity (e.g., a protein or a chemical) affects another in a biological context. The abstracts of these publications often include a focused set of sentences that present relevant supporting statements regarding such relationships, associated experimental evidence, and a concluding sentence that summarizes the mechanism underlying the relationship. We leverage this structure and create a summarization task, where the input is a collection of sentences and the main entities in an abstract, and the output includes the relationship and a sentence that summarizes the mechanism. Using a small amount of manually labeled mechanism sentences, we train a mechanism sentence classifier to filter a large biomedical abstract collection and create a summarization dataset with 22k instances. We also introduce conclusion sentence generation as a pretraining task with 611k instances. We benchmark the performance of large bio-domain language models. We find that while the pretraining task help improves performance, the best model produces acceptable mechanism outputs in only 32% of the instances, which shows the task presents significant challenges in biomedical language understanding and summarization.

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A Preordered RNN Layer Boosts Neural Machine Translation in Low Resource Settings
Mohaddeseh Bastan | Shahram Khadivi
Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Technologies for Machine Translation of Low-Resource Languages (LoResMT 2022)

Neural Machine Translation (NMT) models are strong enough to convey semantic and syntactic information from the source language to the target language. However, these models are suffering from the need for a large amount of data to learn the parameters. As a result, for languages with scarce data, these models are at risk of underperforming. We propose to augment attention based neural network with reordering information to alleviate the lack of data. This augmentation improves the translation quality for both English to Persian and Persian to English by up to 6% BLEU absolute over the baseline models.


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Modeling Label Semantics for Predicting Emotional Reactions
Radhika Gaonkar | Heeyoung Kwon | Mohaddeseh Bastan | Niranjan Balasubramanian | Nathanael Chambers
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Predicting how events induce emotions in the characters of a story is typically seen as a standard multi-label classification task, which usually treats labels as anonymous classes to predict. They ignore information that may be conveyed by the emotion labels themselves. We propose that the semantics of emotion labels can guide a model’s attention when representing the input story. Further, we observe that the emotions evoked by an event are often related: an event that evokes joy is unlikely to also evoke sadness. In this work, we explicitly model label classes via label embeddings, and add mechanisms that track label-label correlations both during training and inference. We also introduce a new semi-supervision strategy that regularizes for the correlations on unlabeled data. Our empirical evaluations show that modeling label semantics yields consistent benefits, and we advance the state-of-the-art on an emotion inference task.

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Author’s Sentiment Prediction
Mohaddeseh Bastan | Mahnaz Koupaee | Youngseo Son | Richard Sicoli | Niranjan Balasubramanian
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Even though sentiment analysis has been well-studied on a wide range of domains, there hasn’tbeen much work on inferring author sentiment in news articles. To address this gap, we introducePerSenT, a crowd-sourced dataset that captures the sentiment of an author towards the mainentity in a news article. Our benchmarks of multiple strong baselines show that this is a difficultclassification task. BERT performs the best amongst the baselines. However, it only achievesa modest performance overall suggesting that fine-tuning document-level representations aloneisn’t adequate for this task. Making paragraph-level decisions and aggregating over the entiredocument is also ineffective. We present empirical and qualitative analyses that illustrate thespecific challenges posed by this dataset. We release this dataset with 5.3k documents and 38kparagraphs with 3.2k unique entities as a challenge in entity sentiment analysis.