Recent transformer language models achieve outstanding results in many natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, their enormous size often makes them impractical on memory-constrained devices, requiring practitioners to compress them to smaller networks. In this paper, we explore offline compression methods, meaning computationally-cheap approaches that do not require further fine-tuning of the compressed model. We challenge the classical matrix factorization methods by proposing a novel, better-performing autoencoder-based framework. We perform a comprehensive ablation study of our approach, examining its different aspects over a diverse set of evaluation settings. Moreover, we show that enabling collaboration between modules across layers by compressing certain modules together positively impacts the final model performance. Experiments on various NLP tasks demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms commonly used factorization-based offline compression methods.
Multilingual pre-trained language models transfer remarkably well on cross-lingual downstream tasks. However, the extent to which they learn language-neutral representations (i.e., shared representations that encode similar phenomena across languages), and the effect of such representations on cross-lingual transfer performance, remain open questions. In this work, we conceptualize language neutrality of multilingual models as a function of the overlap between language-encoding sub-networks of these models. We employ the lottery ticket hypothesis to discover sub-networks that are individually optimized for various languages and tasks. Our evaluation across three distinct tasks and eleven typologically-diverse languages demonstrates that sub-networks for different languages are topologically similar (i.e., language-neutral), making them effective initializations for cross-lingual transfer with limited performance degradation.
The adoption of Transformer-based models in natural language processing (NLP) has led to great success using a massive number of parameters. However, due to deployment constraints in edge devices, there has been a rising interest in the compression of these models to improve their inference time and memory footprint. This paper presents a novel loss objective to compress token embeddings in the Transformer-based models by leveraging an AutoEncoder architecture. More specifically, we emphasize the importance of the direction of compressed embeddings with respect to original uncompressed embeddings. The proposed method is task-agnostic and does not require further language modeling pre-training. Our method significantly outperforms the commonly used SVD-based matrix-factorization approach in terms of initial language model Perplexity. Moreover, we evaluate our proposed approach over SQuAD v1.1 dataset and several downstream tasks from the GLUE benchmark, where we also outperform the baseline in most scenarios. Our code is public.