Mohit Bansal


2022

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GraDA: Graph Generative Data Augmentation for Commonsense Reasoning
Adyasha Maharana | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Deep Learning on Graphs for Natural Language Processing (DLG4NLP 2022)

Recent advances in commonsense reasoning have been fueled by the availability of large-scale human annotated datasets. Manual annotation of such datasets, many of which are based on existing knowledge bases, is expensive and not scalable. Moreover, it is challenging to build augmentation data for commonsense reasoning because the synthetic questions need to adhere to real-world scenarios. Hence, we present GraDA, a graph-generative data augmentation framework to synthesize factual data samples from knowledge graphs for commonsense reasoning datasets. First, we train a graph-to-text model for conditional generation of questions from graph entities and relations. Then, we train a generator with GAN loss to generate distractors for synthetic questions. Our approach improves performance for SocialIQA, CODAH, HellaSwag and CommonsenseQA, and works well for generative tasks like ProtoQA. We show improvement in robustness to semantic adversaries after training with GraDA and provide human evaluation of the quality of synthetic datasets in terms of factuality and answerability. Our work provides evidence and encourages future research into graph-based generative data augmentation.

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On the Limits of Evaluating Embodied Agent Model Generalization Using Validation Sets
Hyounghun Kim | Aishwarya Padmakumar | Di Jin | Mohit Bansal | Dilek Hakkani-Tur
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Insights from Negative Results in NLP

Natural language guided embodied task completion is a challenging problem since it requires understanding natural language instructions, aligning them with egocentric visual observations, and choosing appropriate actions to execute in the environment to produce desired changes. We experiment with augmenting a transformer model for this task with modules that effectively utilize a wider field of view and learn to choose whether the next step requires a navigation or manipulation action. We observed that the proposed modules resulted in improved, and in fact state-of-the-art performance on an unseen validation set of a popular benchmark dataset, ALFRED. However, our best model selected using the unseen validation set underperforms on the unseen test split of ALFRED, indicating that performance on the unseen validation set may not in itself be a sufficient indicator of whether model improvements generalize to unseen test sets. We highlight this result as we believe it may be a wider phenomenon in machine learning tasks but primarily noticeable only in benchmarks that limit evaluations on test splits, and highlights the need to modify benchmark design to better account for variance in model performance.

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Explanation Graph Generation via Pre-trained Language Models: An Empirical Study with Contrastive Learning
Swarnadeep Saha | Prateek Yadav | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Pre-trained sequence-to-sequence language models have led to widespread success in many natural language generation tasks. However, there has been relatively less work on analyzing their ability to generate structured outputs such as graphs. Unlike natural language, graphs have distinct structural and semantic properties in the context of a downstream NLP task, e.g., generating a graph that is connected and acyclic can be attributed to its structural constraints, while the semantics of a graph can refer to how meaningfully an edge represents the relation between two node concepts. In this work, we study pre-trained language models that generate explanation graphs in an end-to-end manner and analyze their ability to learn the structural constraints and semantics of such graphs. We first show that with limited supervision, pre-trained language models often generate graphs that either violate these constraints or are semantically incoherent. Since curating large amount of human-annotated graphs is expensive and tedious, we propose simple yet effective ways of graph perturbations via node and edge edit operations that lead to structurally and semantically positive and negative graphs. Next, we leverage these graphs in different contrastive learning models with Max-Margin and InfoNCE losses. Our methods lead to significant improvements in both structural and semantic accuracy of explanation graphs and also generalize to other similar graph generation tasks. Lastly, we show that human errors are the best negatives for contrastive learning and also that automatically generating more such human-like negative graphs can lead to further improvements.

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How can NLP Help Revitalize Endangered Languages? A Case Study and Roadmap for the Cherokee Language
Shiyue Zhang | Ben Frey | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

More than 43% of the languages spoken in the world are endangered, and language loss currently occurs at an accelerated rate because of globalization and neocolonialism. Saving and revitalizing endangered languages has become very important for maintaining the cultural diversity on our planet. In this work, we focus on discussing how NLP can help revitalize endangered languages. We first suggest three principles that may help NLP practitioners to foster mutual understanding and collaboration with language communities, and we discuss three ways in which NLP can potentially assist in language education. We then take Cherokee, a severely-endangered Native American language, as a case study. After reviewing the language’s history, linguistic features, and existing resources, we (in collaboration with Cherokee community members) arrive at a few meaningful ways NLP practitioners can collaborate with community partners. We suggest two approaches to enrich the Cherokee language’s resources with machine-in-the-loop processing, and discuss several NLP tools that people from the Cherokee community have shown interest in. We hope that our work serves not only to inform the NLP community about Cherokee, but also to provide inspiration for future work on endangered languages in general.

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CoSIm: Commonsense Reasoning for Counterfactual Scene Imagination
Hyounghun Kim | Abhay Zala | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

As humans, we can modify our assumptions about a scene by imagining alternative objects or concepts in our minds. For example, we can easily anticipate the implications of the sun being overcast by rain clouds (e.g., the street will get wet) and accordingly prepare for that. In this paper, we introduce a new dataset called Commonsense Reasoning for Counterfactual Scene Imagination (CoSIm) which is designed to evaluate the ability of AI systems to reason about scene change imagination. To be specific, in this multimodal task/dataset, models are given an image and an initial question-response pair about the image. Next, a counterfactual imagined scene change (in textual form) is applied, and the model has to predict the new response to the initial question based on this scene change. We collect 3.5K high-quality and challenging data instances, with each instance consisting of an image, a commonsense question with a response, a description of a counterfactual change, a new response to the question, and three distractor responses. Our dataset contains various complex scene change types (such as object addition/removal/state change, event description, environment change, etc.) that require models to imagine many different scenarios and reason about the changed scenes. We present a baseline model based on a vision-language Transformer (i.e., LXMERT) and ablation studies. Through human evaluation, we demonstrate a large human-model performance gap, suggesting room for promising future work on this challenging, counterfactual multimodal task.

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On Curriculum Learning for Commonsense Reasoning
Adyasha Maharana | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Commonsense reasoning tasks follow a standard paradigm of finetuning pretrained language models on the target task data, where samples are introduced to the model in a random order during training. However, recent research suggests that data order can have a significant impact on the performance of finetuned models for natural language understanding. Hence, we examine the effect of a human-like easy-to-difficult curriculum during finetuning of language models for commonsense reasoning tasks. We use paced curriculum learning to rank data and sample training mini-batches with increasing levels of difficulty from the ranked dataset during finetuning. Further, we investigate the effect of an adaptive curriculum, i.e., the data ranking is dynamically updated during training based on the current state of the learner model. We use a teacher model to measure difficulty of each sample and experiment with three measures based on question answering probability, variability and out-of-distribution. To understand the effectiveness of curriculum learning in various scenarios, we apply it on full model fine-tuning as well as parameter-efficient prompt-tuning settings. Our results show that fixed as well as adaptive curriculum learning significantly improve performance for five commonsense reasoning tasks, i.e., SocialIQA, CosmosQA, CODAH, HellaSwag, WinoGrande in both tuning settings. Further, we find that prioritizing the difficult samples in the tail end of training improves generalization to unseen in-domain data as well as out-of-domain data. Our work provides evidence and encourages research into curriculum learning for commonsense reasoning.

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FactPEGASUS: Factuality-Aware Pre-training and Fine-tuning for Abstractive Summarization
David Wan | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

We present FactPEGASUS, an abstractive summarization model that addresses the problem of factuality during pre-training and fine-tuning: (1) We augment the sentence selection strategy of PEGASUS’s (Zhang et al., 2019) pre-training objective to create pseudo-summaries that are both important and factual; (2) We introduce three complementary components for fine-tuning. The corrector removes hallucinations present in the reference summary, the contrastor uses contrastive learning to better differentiate nonfactual summaries from factual ones, and the connector bridges the gap between the pre-training and fine-tuning for better transfer of knowledge. Experiments on three downstream tasks demonstrate that FactPEGASUS substantially improves factuality evaluated by multiple automatic metrics and humans. Our thorough analysis suggests that FactPEGASUS is more factual than using the original pre-training objective in zero-shot and few-shot settings, retains factual behavior more robustly than strong baselines, and does not rely entirely on becoming more extractive to improve factuality.

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Masked Part-Of-Speech Model: Does Modeling Long Context Help Unsupervised POS-tagging?
Xiang Zhou | Shiyue Zhang | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Previous Part-Of-Speech (POS) induction models usually assume certain independence assumptions (e.g., Markov, unidirectional, local dependency) that do not hold in real languages. For example, the subject-verb agreement can be both long-term and bidirectional. To facilitate flexible dependency modeling, we propose a Masked Part-of-Speech Model (MPoSM), inspired by the recent success of Masked Language Models (MLM). MPoSM can model arbitrary tag dependency and perform POS induction through the objective of masked POS reconstruction. We achieve competitive results on both the English Penn WSJ dataset as well as the universal treebank containing 10 diverse languages. Though modeling the long-term dependency should ideally help this task, our ablation study shows mixed trends in different languages. To better understand this phenomenon, we design a novel synthetic experiment that can specifically diagnose the model’s ability to learn tag agreement. Surprisingly, we find that even strong baselines fail to solve this problem consistently in a very simplified setting: the agreement between adjacent words. Nonetheless, MPoSM achieves overall better performance. Lastly, we conduct a detailed error analysis to shed light on other remaining challenges.

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Proposition-Level Clustering for Multi-Document Summarization
Ori Ernst | Avi Caciularu | Ori Shapira | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Mohit Bansal | Jacob Goldberger | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Text clustering methods were traditionally incorporated into multi-document summarization (MDS) as a means for coping with considerable information repetition. Particularly, clusters were leveraged to indicate information saliency as well as to avoid redundancy. Such prior methods focused on clustering sentences, even though closely related sentences usually contain also non-aligned parts. In this work, we revisit the clustering approach, grouping together sub-sentential propositions, aiming at more precise information alignment. Specifically, our method detects salient propositions, clusters them into paraphrastic clusters, and generates a representative sentence for each cluster via text fusion.Our summarization method improves over the previous state-of-the-art MDS method in the DUC 2004 and TAC 2011 datasets, both in automatic ROUGE scores and human preference.

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Interactive Query-Assisted Summarization via Deep Reinforcement Learning
Ori Shapira | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Mohit Bansal | Ido Dagan | Yael Amsterdamer
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Interactive summarization is a task that facilitates user-guided exploration of information within a document set. While one would like to employ state of the art neural models to improve the quality of interactive summarization, many such technologies cannot ingest the full document set or cannot operate at sufficient speed for interactivity. To that end, we propose two novel deep reinforcement learning models for the task that address, respectively, the subtask of summarizing salient information that adheres to user queries, and the subtask of listing suggested queries to assist users throughout their exploration. In particular, our models allow encoding the interactive session state and history to refrain from redundancy. Together, these models compose a state of the art solution that addresses all of the task requirements. We compare our solution to a recent interactive summarization system, and show through an experimental study involving real users that our models are able to improve informativeness while preserving positive user experience.

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Enhancing Knowledge Selection for Grounded Dialogues via Document Semantic Graphs
Sha Li | Mahdi Namazifar | Di Jin | Mohit Bansal | Heng Ji | Yang Liu | Dilek Hakkani-Tur
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Providing conversation models with background knowledge has been shown to make open-domain dialogues more informative and engaging. Existing models treat knowledge selection as a sentence ranking or classification problem where each sentence is handled individually, ignoring the internal semantic connection between sentences. In this work, we propose to automatically convert the background knowledge documents into document semantic graphs and then perform knowledge selection over such graphs. Our document semantic graphs preserve sentence-level information through the use of sentence nodes and provide concept connections between sentences. We apply multi-task learning to perform sentence-level knowledge selection and concept-level knowledge selection, showing that it improves sentence-level selection. Our experiments show that our semantic graph-based knowledge selection improves over sentence selection baselines for both the knowledge selection task and the end-to-end response generation task on HollE and improves generalization on unseen topics in WoW.

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FactGraph: Evaluating Factuality in Summarization with Semantic Graph Representations
Leonardo Ribeiro | Mengwen Liu | Iryna Gurevych | Markus Dreyer | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Despite recent improvements in abstractive summarization, most current approaches generate summaries that are not factually consistent with the source document, severely restricting their trust and usage in real-world applications. Recent works have shown promising improvements in factuality error identification using text or dependency arc entailments; however, they do not consider the entire semantic graph simultaneously. To this end, we propose FactGraph, a method that decomposes the document and the summary into structured meaning representations (MR), which are more suitable for factuality evaluation. MRs describe core semantic concepts and their relations, aggregating the main content in both document and summary in a canonical form, and reducing data sparsity. FactGraph encodes such graphs using a graph encoder augmented with structure-aware adapters to capture interactions among the concepts based on the graph connectivity, along with text representations using an adapter-based text encoder. Experiments on different benchmarks for evaluating factuality show that FactGraph outperforms previous approaches by up to 15%. Furthermore, FactGraph improves performance on identifying content verifiability errors and better captures subsentence-level factual inconsistencies.

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RESIN-11: Schema-guided Event Prediction for 11 Newsworthy Scenarios
Xinya Du | Zixuan Zhang | Sha Li | Pengfei Yu | Hongwei Wang | Tuan Lai | Xudong Lin | Ziqi Wang | Iris Liu | Ben Zhou | Haoyang Wen | Manling Li | Darryl Hannan | Jie Lei | Hyounghun Kim | Rotem Dror | Haoyu Wang | Michael Regan | Qi Zeng | Qing Lyu | Charles Yu | Carl Edwards | Xiaomeng Jin | Yizhu Jiao | Ghazaleh Kazeminejad | Zhenhailong Wang | Chris Callison-Burch | Mohit Bansal | Carl Vondrick | Jiawei Han | Dan Roth | Shih-Fu Chang | Martha Palmer | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: System Demonstrations

We introduce RESIN-11, a new schema-guided event extraction&prediction framework that can be applied to a large variety of newsworthy scenarios. The framework consists of two parts: (1) an open-domain end-to-end multimedia multilingual information extraction system with weak-supervision and zero-shot learningbased techniques. (2) schema matching and schema-guided event prediction based on our curated schema library. We build a demo website based on our dockerized system and schema library publicly available for installation (https://github.com/RESIN-KAIROS/RESIN-11). We also include a video demonstrating the system.

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SETSum: Summarization and Visualization of Student Evaluations of Teaching
Yinuo Hu | Shiyue Zhang | Viji Sathy | Abigail Panter | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: System Demonstrations

Student Evaluations of Teaching (SETs) are widely used in colleges and universities. Typically SET results are summarized for instructors in a static PDF report. The report often includes summary statistics for quantitative ratings and an unsorted list of open-ended student comments. The lack of organization and summarization of the raw comments hinders those interpreting the reports from fully utilizing informative feedback, making accurate inferences, and designing appropriate instructional improvements. In this work, we introduce a novel system, SETSUM, that leverages sentiment analysis, aspect extraction, summarization, and visualization techniques to provide organized illustrations of SET findings to instructors and other reviewers. Ten university professors from diverse departments serve as evaluators of the system and all agree that SETSUM help them interpret SET results more efficiently; and 6 out of 10 instructors prefer our system over the standard static PDF report (while the remaining 4 would like to have both). This demonstrates that our work holds the potential of reforming the SET reporting conventions in the future.

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Distributed NLI: Learning to Predict Human Opinion Distributions for Language Reasoning
Xiang Zhou | Yixin Nie | Mohit Bansal
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

We introduce distributed NLI, a new NLU task with a goal to predict the distribution of human judgements for natural language inference. We show that by applying additional distribution estimation methods, namely, Monte Carlo (MC) Dropout, Deep Ensemble, Re-Calibration, and Distribution Distillation, models can capture human judgement distribution more effectively than the softmax baseline. We show that MC Dropout is able to achieve decent performance without any distribution annotations while Re-Calibration can give further improvements with extra distribution annotations, suggesting the value of multiple annotations for one example in modeling the distribution of human judgements. Despite these improvements, the best results are still far below the estimated human upper-bound, indicating that predicting the distribution of human judgements is still an open, challenging problem with a large room for improvements. We showcase the common errors for MC Dropout and Re-Calibration. Finally, we give guidelines on the usage of these methods with different levels of data availability and encourage future work on modeling the human opinion distribution for language reasoning.

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Multimodal Intent Discovery from Livestream Videos
Adyasha Maharana | Quan Tran | Franck Dernoncourt | Seunghyun Yoon | Trung Bui | Walter Chang | Mohit Bansal
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Individuals, educational institutions, and businesses are prolific at generating instructional video content such as “how-to” and tutorial guides. While significant progress has been made in basic video understanding tasks, identifying procedural intent within these instructional videos is a challenging and important task that remains unexplored but essential to video summarization, search, and recommendations. This paper introduces the problem of instructional intent identification and extraction from software instructional livestreams. We construct and present a new multimodal dataset consisting of software instructional livestreams and containing manual annotations for both detailed and abstract procedural intent that enable training and evaluation of joint video and text understanding models. We then introduce a multimodal cascaded cross-attention model to efficiently combine the weaker and noisier video signal with the more discriminative text signal. Our experiments show that our proposed model brings significant gains compared to strong baselines, including large-scale pretrained multimodal models. Our analysis further identifies that the task benefits from spatial as well as motion features extracted from videos, and provides insight on how the video signal is preferentially used for intent discovery. We also show that current models struggle to comprehend the nature of abstract intents, revealing important gaps in multimodal understanding and paving the way for future work.

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Fine-grained Image Captioning with CLIP Reward
Jaemin Cho | Seunghyun Yoon | Ajinkya Kale | Franck Dernoncourt | Trung Bui | Mohit Bansal
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Modern image captioning models are usually trained with text similarity objectives. However, since reference captions in public datasets often describe the most salient common objects, models trained with the text similarity objectives tend to ignore specific and detailed aspects of an image that distinguish it from others. Towards more descriptive and distinctive caption generation, we propose to use CLIP, a multimodal encoder trained on huge image-text pairs from the web, to calculate multi-modal similarity and use it as a reward function. We also propose a simple finetuning strategy of CLIP text encoder to improve grammar that does not require extra text annotation. This completely eliminates the need for reference captions during the reward computation. To comprehensively evaluate descriptive captions, we introduce FineCapEval, a new dataset for caption evaluation with fine-grained criteria: overall, background, object, relations. In our experiments on text-to-image retrieval and FineCapEval, the proposed CLIP-guided model generates more distinctive captions than the CIDEroptimized model. We also show that our unsupervised grammar finetuning of the CLIP text encoder alleviates the degeneration problem of the naive CLIP reward. Lastly, we show human analysis where the annotators strongly prefer CLIP reward to CIDEr and MLE objectives on diverse criteria.

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CLEAR: Improving Vision-Language Navigation with Cross-Lingual, Environment-Agnostic Representations
Jialu Li | Hao Tan | Mohit Bansal
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Vision-and-Language Navigation (VLN) tasks require an agent to navigate through the environment based on language instructions. In this paper, we aim to solve two key challenges in this task: utilizing multilingual instructions for improved instruction-path grounding and navigating through new environments that are unseen during training. To address these challenges, first, our agent learns a shared and visually-aligned cross-lingual language representation for the three languages (English, Hindi and Telugu) in the Room-Across-Room dataset. Our language representation learning is guided by text pairs that are aligned by visual information. Second, our agent learns an environment-agnostic visual representation by maximizing the similarity between semantically-aligned image pairs (with constraints on object-matching) from different environments. Our environment agnostic visual representation can mitigate the environment bias induced by low-level visual information. Empirically, on the Room-Across-Room dataset, we show that our multi-lingual agent gets large improvements in all metrics over the strong baseline model when generalizing to unseen environments with the cross-lingual language representation and the environment-agnostic visual representation. Furthermore, we show that our learned language and visual representations can be successfully transferred to the Room-to-Room and Cooperative Vision-and-Dialogue Navigation task, and present detailed qualitative and quantitative generalization and grounding analysis.

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Efficient Few-Shot Fine-Tuning for Opinion Summarization
Arthur Brazinskas | Ramesh Nallapati | Mohit Bansal | Markus Dreyer
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Abstractive summarization models are typically pre-trained on large amounts of generic texts, then fine-tuned on tens or hundreds of thousands of annotated samples. However, in opinion summarization, large annotated datasets of reviews paired with reference summaries are not available and would be expensive to create. This calls for fine-tuning methods robust to overfitting on small datasets. In addition, generically pre-trained models are often not accustomed to the specifics of customer reviews and, after fine-tuning, yield summaries with disfluencies and semantic mistakes. To address these problems, we utilize an efficient few-shot method based on adapters which, as we show, can easily store in-domain knowledge. Instead of fine-tuning the entire model, we add adapters and pre-train them in a task-specific way on a large corpus of unannotated customer reviews, using held-out reviews as pseudo summaries. Then, fine-tune the adapters on the small available human-annotated dataset. We show that this self-supervised adapter pre-training improves summary quality over standard fine-tuning by 2.0 and 1.3 ROUGE-L points on the Amazon and Yelp datasets, respectively. Finally, for summary personalization, we condition on aspect keyword queries, automatically created from generic datasets. In the same vein, we pre-train the adapters in a query-based manner on customer reviews and then fine-tune them on annotated datasets. This results in better-organized summary content reflected in improved coherence and fewer redundancies.

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When Can Models Learn From Explanations? A Formal Framework for Understanding the Roles of Explanation Data
Peter Hase | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Learning with Natural Language Supervision

Many methods now exist for conditioning models on task instructions and user-provided explanations for individual data points. These methods show great promise for improving task performance of language models beyond what can be achieved by learning from individual (x,y) pairs. In this paper, we (1) provide a formal framework for characterizing approaches to learning from explanation data, and (2) we propose a synthetic task for studying how models learn from explanation data. In the first direction, we give graphical models for the available modeling approaches, in which explanation data can be used as model inputs, as targets, or as a prior. In the second direction, we introduce a carefully designed synthetic task with several properties making it useful for studying a model’s ability to learn from explanation data. Each data point in this binary classification task is accompanied by a string that is essentially an answer to the why question: “why does data point x have label y?” We aim to encourage research into this area by identifying key considerations for the modeling problem and providing an empirical testbed for theories of how models can best learn from explanation data.

2021

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An Overview of Uncertainty Calibration for Text Classification and the Role of Distillation
Han Guo | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP (RepL4NLP-2021)

Recent advances in NLP systems, notably the pretraining-and-finetuning paradigm, have achieved great success in predictive accuracy. However, these systems are usually not well calibrated for uncertainty out-of-the-box. Many recalibration methods have been proposed in the literature for quantifying predictive uncertainty and calibrating model outputs, with varying degrees of complexity. In this work, we present a systematic study of a few of these methods. Focusing on the text classification task and finetuned large pretrained language models, we first show that many of the finetuned models are not well calibrated out-of-the-box, especially when the data come from out-of-domain settings. Next, we compare the effectiveness of a few widely-used recalibration methods (such as ensembles, temperature scaling). Then, we empirically illustrate a connection between distillation and calibration. We view distillation as a regularization term encouraging the student model to output uncertainties that match those of a teacher model. With this insight, we develop simple recalibration methods based on distillation with no additional inference-time cost. We show on the GLUE benchmark that our simple methods can achieve competitive out-of-domain (OOD) calibration performance w.r.t. more expensive approaches. Finally, we include ablations to understand the usefulness of components of our proposed method and examine the transferability of calibration via distillation.

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Extending Multi-Document Summarization Evaluation to the Interactive Setting
Ori Shapira | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Hadar Ronen | Mohit Bansal | Yael Amsterdamer | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Allowing users to interact with multi-document summarizers is a promising direction towards improving and customizing summary results. Different ideas for interactive summarization have been proposed in previous work but these solutions are highly divergent and incomparable. In this paper, we develop an end-to-end evaluation framework for interactive summarization, focusing on expansion-based interaction, which considers the accumulating information along a user session. Our framework includes a procedure of collecting real user sessions, as well as evaluation measures relying on summarization standards, but adapted to reflect interaction. All of our solutions and resources are available publicly as a benchmark, allowing comparison of future developments in interactive summarization, and spurring progress in its methodological evaluation. We demonstrate the use of our framework by evaluating and comparing baseline implementations that we developed for this purpose, which will serve as part of our benchmark. Our extensive experimentation and analysis motivate the proposed evaluation framework design and support its viability.

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Improving Cross-Modal Alignment in Vision Language Navigation via Syntactic Information
Jialu Li | Hao Tan | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Vision language navigation is the task that requires an agent to navigate through a 3D environment based on natural language instructions. One key challenge in this task is to ground instructions with the current visual information that the agent perceives. Most of the existing work employs soft attention over individual words to locate the instruction required for the next action. However, different words have different functions in a sentence (e.g., modifiers convey attributes, verbs convey actions). Syntax information like dependencies and phrase structures can aid the agent to locate important parts of the instruction. Hence, in this paper, we propose a navigation agent that utilizes syntax information derived from a dependency tree to enhance alignment between the instruction and the current visual scenes. Empirically, our agent outperforms the baseline model that does not use syntax information on the Room-to-Room dataset, especially in the unseen environment. Besides, our agent achieves the new state-of-the-art on Room-Across-Room dataset, which contains instructions in 3 languages (English, Hindi, and Telugu). We also show that our agent is better at aligning instructions with the current visual information via qualitative visualizations.

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DeCEMBERT: Learning from Noisy Instructional Videos via Dense Captions and Entropy Minimization
Zineng Tang | Jie Lei | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Leveraging large-scale unlabeled web videos such as instructional videos for pre-training followed by task-specific finetuning has become the de facto approach for many video-and-language tasks. However, these instructional videos are very noisy, the accompanying ASR narrations are often incomplete, and can be irrelevant to or temporally misaligned with the visual content, limiting the performance of the models trained on such data. To address these issues, we propose an improved video-and-language pre-training method that first adds automatically-extracted dense region captions from the video frames as auxiliary text input, to provide informative visual cues for learning better video and language associations. Second, to alleviate the temporal misalignment issue, our method incorporates an entropy minimization-based constrained attention loss, to encourage the model to automatically focus on the correct caption from a pool of candidate ASR captions. Our overall approach is named DeCEMBERT (Dense Captions and Entropy Minimization). Comprehensive experiments on three video-and-language tasks (text-to-video retrieval, video captioning, and video question answering) across five datasets demonstrate that our approach outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods. Ablation studies on pre-training and downstream tasks show that adding dense captions and constrained attention loss help improve the model performance. Lastly, we also provide attention visualization to show the effect of applying the proposed constrained attention loss.

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Improving Generation and Evaluation of Visual Stories via Semantic Consistency
Adyasha Maharana | Darryl Hannan | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Story visualization is an underexplored task that falls at the intersection of many important research directions in both computer vision and natural language processing. In this task, given a series of natural language captions which compose a story, an agent must generate a sequence of images that correspond to the captions. Prior work has introduced recurrent generative models which outperform text-to-image synthesis models on this task. However, there is room for improvement of generated images in terms of visual quality, coherence and relevance. We present a number of improvements to prior modeling approaches, including (1) the addition of a dual learning framework that utilizes video captioning to reinforce the semantic alignment between the story and generated images, (2) a copy-transform mechanism for sequentially-consistent story visualization, and (3) MART-based transformers to model complex interactions between frames. We present ablation studies to demonstrate the effect of each of these techniques on the generative power of the model for both individual images as well as the entire narrative. Furthermore, due to the complexity and generative nature of the task, standard evaluation metrics do not accurately reflect performance. Therefore, we also provide an exploration of evaluation metrics for the model, focused on aspects of the generated frames such as the presence/quality of generated characters, the relevance to captions, and the diversity of the generated images. We also present correlation experiments of our proposed automated metrics with human evaluations.

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multiPRover: Generating Multiple Proofs for Improved Interpretability in Rule Reasoning
Swarnadeep Saha | Prateek Yadav | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

We focus on a type of linguistic formal reasoning where the goal is to reason over explicit knowledge in the form of natural language facts and rules (Clark et al., 2020). A recent work, named PRover (Saha et al., 2020), performs such reasoning by answering a question and also generating a proof graph that explains the answer. However, compositional reasoning is not always unique and there may be multiple ways of reaching the correct answer. Thus, in our work, we address a new and challenging problem of generating multiple proof graphs for reasoning over natural language rule-bases. Each proof provides a different rationale for the answer, thereby improving the interpretability of such reasoning systems. In order to jointly learn from all proof graphs and exploit the correlations between multiple proofs for a question, we pose this task as a set generation problem over structured output spaces where each proof is represented as a directed graph. We propose two variants of a proof-set generation model, multiPRover. Our first model, Multilabel-multiPRover, generates a set of proofs via multi-label classification and implicit conditioning between the proofs; while the second model, Iterative-multiPRover, generates proofs iteratively by explicitly conditioning on the previously generated proofs. Experiments on multiple synthetic, zero-shot, and human-paraphrased datasets reveal that both multiPRover models significantly outperform PRover on datasets containing multiple gold proofs. Iterative-multiPRover obtains state-of-the-art proof F1 in zero-shot scenarios where all examples have single correct proofs. It also generalizes better to questions requiring higher depths of reasoning where multiple proofs are more frequent.

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Dynabench: Rethinking Benchmarking in NLP
Douwe Kiela | Max Bartolo | Yixin Nie | Divyansh Kaushik | Atticus Geiger | Zhengxuan Wu | Bertie Vidgen | Grusha Prasad | Amanpreet Singh | Pratik Ringshia | Zhiyi Ma | Tristan Thrush | Sebastian Riedel | Zeerak Waseem | Pontus Stenetorp | Robin Jia | Mohit Bansal | Christopher Potts | Adina Williams
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

We introduce Dynabench, an open-source platform for dynamic dataset creation and model benchmarking. Dynabench runs in a web browser and supports human-and-model-in-the-loop dataset creation: annotators seek to create examples that a target model will misclassify, but that another person will not. In this paper, we argue that Dynabench addresses a critical need in our community: contemporary models quickly achieve outstanding performance on benchmark tasks but nonetheless fail on simple challenge examples and falter in real-world scenarios. With Dynabench, dataset creation, model development, and model assessment can directly inform each other, leading to more robust and informative benchmarks. We report on four initial NLP tasks, illustrating these concepts and highlighting the promise of the platform, and address potential objections to dynamic benchmarking as a new standard for the field.

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Efficiently Summarizing Text and Graph Encodings of Multi-Document Clusters
Ramakanth Pasunuru | Mengwen Liu | Mohit Bansal | Sujith Ravi | Markus Dreyer
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

This paper presents an efficient graph-enhanced approach to multi-document summarization (MDS) with an encoder-decoder Transformer model. This model is based on recent advances in pre-training both encoder and decoder on very large text data (Lewis et al., 2019), and it incorporates an efficient encoding mechanism (Beltagy et al., 2020) that avoids the quadratic memory growth typical for traditional Transformers. We show that this powerful combination not only scales to large input documents commonly found when summarizing news clusters; it also enables us to process additional input in the form of auxiliary graph representations, which we derive from the multi-document clusters. We present a mechanism to incorporate such graph information into the encoder-decoder model that was pre-trained on text only. Our approach leads to significant improvements on the Multi-News dataset, overall leading to an average 1.8 ROUGE score improvement over previous work (Li et al., 2020). We also show improvements in a transfer-only setup on the DUC-2004 dataset. The graph encodings lead to summaries that are more abstractive. Human evaluation shows that they are also more informative and factually more consistent with their input documents.

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Enriching Transformers with Structured Tensor-Product Representations for Abstractive Summarization
Yichen Jiang | Asli Celikyilmaz | Paul Smolensky | Paul Soulos | Sudha Rao | Hamid Palangi | Roland Fernandez | Caitlin Smith | Mohit Bansal | Jianfeng Gao
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Abstractive summarization, the task of generating a concise summary of input documents, requires: (1) reasoning over the source document to determine the salient pieces of information scattered across the long document, and (2) composing a cohesive text by reconstructing these salient facts into a shorter summary that faithfully reflects the complex relations connecting these facts. In this paper, we adapt TP-Transformer (Schlag et al., 2019), an architecture that enriches the original Transformer (Vaswani et al., 2017) with the explicitly compositional Tensor Product Representation (TPR), for the task of abstractive summarization. The key feature of our model is a structural bias that we introduce by encoding two separate representations for each token to represent the syntactic structure (with role vectors) and semantic content (with filler vectors) separately. The model then binds the role and filler vectors into the TPR as the layer output. We argue that the structured intermediate representations enable the model to take better control of the contents (salient facts) and structures (the syntax that connects the facts) when generating the summary. Empirically, we show that our TP-Transformer outperforms the Transformer and the original TP-Transformer significantly on several abstractive summarization datasets based on both automatic and human evaluations. On several syntactic and semantic probing tasks, we demonstrate the emergent structural information in the role vectors and the performance gain by information specificity of the role vectors and improved syntactic interpretability in the TPR layer outputs.(Code and models are available at https://github.com/jiangycTarheel/TPT-Summ)

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Robustness Gym: Unifying the NLP Evaluation Landscape
Karan Goel | Nazneen Fatema Rajani | Jesse Vig | Zachary Taschdjian | Mohit Bansal | Christopher Ré
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Demonstrations

Despite impressive performance on standard benchmarks, natural language processing (NLP) models are often brittle when deployed in real-world systems. In this work, we identify challenges with evaluating NLP systems and propose a solution in the form of Robustness Gym (RG), a simple and extensible evaluation toolkit that unifies 4 standard evaluation paradigms: subpopulations, transformations, evaluation sets, and adversarial attacks. By providing a common platform for evaluation, RG enables practitioners to compare results from disparate evaluation paradigms with a single click, and to easily develop and share novel evaluation methods using a built-in set of abstractions. RG is under active development and we welcome feedback & contributions from the community.

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GENE: Global Event Network Embedding
Qi Zeng | Manling Li | Tuan Lai | Heng Ji | Mohit Bansal | Hanghang Tong
Proceedings of the Fifteenth Workshop on Graph-Based Methods for Natural Language Processing (TextGraphs-15)

Current methods for event representation ignore related events in a corpus-level global context. For a deep and comprehensive understanding of complex events, we introduce a new task, Event Network Embedding, which aims to represent events by capturing the connections among events. We propose a novel framework, Global Event Network Embedding (GENE), that encodes the event network with a multi-view graph encoder while preserving the graph topology and node semantics. The graph encoder is trained by minimizing both structural and semantic losses. We develop a new series of structured probing tasks, and show that our approach effectively outperforms baseline models on node typing, argument role classification, and event coreference resolution.

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The Effect of Pretraining on Extractive Summarization for Scientific Documents
Yash Gupta | Pawan Sasanka Ammanamanchi | Shikha Bordia | Arjun Manoharan | Deepak Mittal | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Manish Shrivastava | Maneesh Singh | Mohit Bansal | Preethi Jyothi
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Scholarly Document Processing

Large pretrained models have seen enormous success in extractive summarization tasks. In this work, we investigate the influence of pretraining on a BERT-based extractive summarization system for scientific documents. We derive significant performance improvements using an intermediate pretraining step that leverages existing summarization datasets and report state-of-the-art results on a recently released scientific summarization dataset, SciTLDR. We systematically analyze the intermediate pretraining step by varying the size and domain of the pretraining corpus, changing the length of the input sequence in the target task and varying target tasks. We also investigate how intermediate pretraining interacts with contextualized word embeddings trained on different domains.

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ERNIE-NLI: Analyzing the Impact of Domain-Specific External Knowledge on Enhanced Representations for NLI
Lisa Bauer | Lingjia Deng | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of Deep Learning Inside Out (DeeLIO): The 2nd Workshop on Knowledge Extraction and Integration for Deep Learning Architectures

We examine the effect of domain-specific external knowledge variations on deep large scale language model performance. Recent work in enhancing BERT with external knowledge has been very popular, resulting in models such as ERNIE (Zhang et al., 2019a). Using the ERNIE architecture, we provide a detailed analysis on the types of knowledge that result in a performance increase on the Natural Language Inference (NLI) task, specifically on the Multi-Genre Natural Language Inference Corpus (MNLI). While ERNIE uses general TransE embeddings, we instead train domain-specific knowledge embeddings and insert this knowledge via an information fusion layer in the ERNIE architecture, allowing us to directly control and analyze knowledge input. Using several different knowledge training objectives, sources of knowledge, and knowledge ablations, we find a strong correlation between knowledge and classification labels within the same polarity, illustrating that knowledge polarity is an important feature in predicting entailment. We also perform classification change analysis across different knowledge variations to illustrate the importance of selecting appropriate knowledge input regarding content and polarity, and show representative examples of these changes.

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Disentangling Online Chats with DAG-structured LSTMs
Duccio Pappadopulo | Lisa Bauer | Marco Farina | Ozan İrsoy | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of *SEM 2021: The Tenth Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics

Many modern messaging systems allow fast and synchronous textual communication among many users. The resulting sequence of messages hides a more complicated structure in which independent sub-conversations are interwoven with one another. This poses a challenge for any task aiming to understand the content of the chat logs or gather information from them. The ability to disentangle these conversations is then tantamount to the success of many downstream tasks such as summarization and question answering. Structured information accompanying the text such as user turn, user mentions, timestamps, is used as a cue by the participants themselves who need to follow the conversation and has been shown to be important for disentanglement. DAG-LSTMs, a generalization of Tree-LSTMs that can handle directed acyclic dependencies, are a natural way to incorporate such information and its non-sequential nature. In this paper, we apply DAG-LSTMs to the conversation disentanglement task. We perform our experiments on the Ubuntu IRC dataset. We show that the novel model we propose achieves state of the art status on the task of recovering reply-to relations and it is competitive on other disentanglement metrics.

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Improving and Simplifying Pattern Exploiting Training
Derek Tam | Rakesh R. Menon | Mohit Bansal | Shashank Srivastava | Colin Raffel
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recently, pre-trained language models (LMs) have achieved strong performance when fine-tuned on difficult benchmarks like SuperGLUE. However, performance can suffer when there are very few labeled examples available for fine-tuning. Pattern Exploiting Training (PET) is a recent approach that leverages patterns for few-shot learning. However, PET uses task-specific unlabeled data. In this paper, we focus on few-shot learning without any unlabeled data and introduce ADAPET, which modifies PET’s objective to provide denser supervision during fine-tuning. As a result, ADAPET outperforms PET on SuperGLUE without any task-specific unlabeled data.

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Continual Few-Shot Learning for Text Classification
Ramakanth Pasunuru | Veselin Stoyanov | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is increasingly relying on general end-to-end systems that need to handle many different linguistic phenomena and nuances. For example, a Natural Language Inference (NLI) system has to recognize sentiment, handle numbers, perform coreference, etc. Our solutions to complex problems are still far from perfect, so it is important to create systems that can learn to correct mistakes quickly, incrementally, and with little training data. In this work, we propose a continual few-shot learning (CFL) task, in which a system is challenged with a difficult phenomenon and asked to learn to correct mistakes with only a few (10 to 15) training examples. To this end, we first create benchmarks based on previously annotated data: two NLI (ANLI and SNLI) and one sentiment analysis (IMDB) datasets. Next, we present various baselines from diverse paradigms (e.g., memory-aware synapses and Prototypical networks) and compare them on few-shot learning and continual few-shot learning setups. Our contributions are in creating a benchmark suite and evaluation protocol for continual few-shot learning on the text classification tasks, and making several interesting observations on the behavior of similarity-based methods. We hope that our work serves as a useful starting point for future work on this important topic.

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Inducing Transformer’s Compositional Generalization Ability via Auxiliary Sequence Prediction Tasks
Yichen Jiang | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Systematic compositionality is an essential mechanism in human language, allowing the recombination of known parts to create novel expressions. However, existing neural models have been shown to lack this basic ability in learning symbolic structures. Motivated by the failure of a Transformer model on the SCAN compositionality challenge (Lake and Baroni, 2018), which requires parsing a command into actions, we propose two auxiliary sequence prediction tasks as additional training supervision. These automatically-generated sequences are more representative of the underlying compositional symbolic structures of the input data. During inference, the model jointly predicts the next action and the next tokens in the auxiliary sequences at each step. Experiments on the SCAN dataset show that our method encourages the Transformer to understand compositional structures of the command, improving its accuracy on multiple challenging splits from ≤ 10% to 100%. With only 418 (5%) training instances, our approach still achieves 97.8% accuracy on the MCD1 split. Therefore, we argue that compositionality can be induced in Transformers given minimal but proper guidance. We also show that a better result is achieved using less contextualized vectors as the attention’s query, providing insights into architecture choices in achieving systematic compositionality. Finally, we show positive generalization results on the grounded-SCAN task (Ruis et al., 2020).

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NDH-Full: Learning and Evaluating Navigational Agents on Full-Length Dialogue
Hyounghun Kim | Jialu Li | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Communication between human and mobile agents is getting increasingly important as such agents are widely deployed in our daily lives. Vision-and-Dialogue Navigation is one of the tasks that evaluate the agent’s ability to interact with humans for assistance and navigate based on natural language responses. In this paper, we explore the Navigation from Dialogue History (NDH) task, which is based on the Cooperative Vision-and-Dialogue Navigation (CVDN) dataset, and present a state-of-the-art model which is built upon Vision-Language transformers. However, despite achieving competitive performance, we find that the agent in the NDH task is not evaluated appropriately by the primary metric – Goal Progress. By analyzing the performance mismatch between Goal Progress and other metrics (e.g., normalized Dynamic Time Warping) from our state-of-the-art model, we show that NDH’s sub-path based task setup (i.e., navigating partial trajectory based on its correspondent subset of the full dialogue) does not provide the agent with enough supervision signal towards the goal region. Therefore, we propose a new task setup called NDH-Full which takes the full dialogue and the whole navigation path as one instance. We present a strong baseline model and show initial results on this new task. We further describe several approaches that we try, in order to improve the model performance (based on curriculum learning, pre-training, and data-augmentation), suggesting potential useful training methods on this new NDH-Full task.

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Finding a Balanced Degree of Automation for Summary Evaluation
Shiyue Zhang | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Human evaluation for summarization tasks is reliable but brings in issues of reproducibility and high costs. Automatic metrics are cheap and reproducible but sometimes poorly correlated with human judgment. In this work, we propose flexible semiautomatic to automatic summary evaluation metrics, following the Pyramid human evaluation method. Semi-automatic Lite2Pyramid retains the reusable human-labeled Summary Content Units (SCUs) for reference(s) but replaces the manual work of judging SCUs’ presence in system summaries with a natural language inference (NLI) model. Fully automatic Lite3Pyramid further substitutes SCUs with automatically extracted Semantic Triplet Units (STUs) via a semantic role labeling (SRL) model. Finally, we propose in-between metrics, Lite2.xPyramid, where we use a simple regressor to predict how well the STUs can simulate SCUs and retain SCUs that are more difficult to simulate, which provides a smooth transition and balance between automation and manual evaluation. Comparing to 15 existing metrics, we evaluate human-metric correlations on 3 existing meta-evaluation datasets and our newly collected PyrXSum (with 100/10 XSum examples/systems). It shows that Lite2Pyramid consistently has the best summary-level correlations; Lite3Pyramid works better than or comparable to other automatic metrics; Lite2.xPyramid trades off small correlation drops for larger manual effort reduction, which can reduce costs for future data collection.

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Integrating Visuospatial, Linguistic, and Commonsense Structure into Story Visualization
Adyasha Maharana | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

While much research has been done in text-to-image synthesis, little work has been done to explore the usage of linguistic structure of the input text. Such information is even more important for story visualization since its inputs have an explicit narrative structure that needs to be translated into an image sequence (or visual story). Prior work in this domain has shown that there is ample room for improvement in the generated image sequence in terms of visual quality, consistency and relevance. In this paper, we first explore the use of constituency parse trees using a Transformer-based recurrent architecture for encoding structured input. Second, we augment the structured input with commonsense information and study the impact of this external knowledge on the generation of visual story. Third, we also incorporate visual structure via bounding boxes and dense captioning to provide feedback about the characters/objects in generated images within a dual learning setup. We show that off-the-shelf dense-captioning models trained on Visual Genome can improve the spatial structure of images from a different target domain without needing fine-tuning. We train the model end-to-end using intra-story contrastive loss (between words and image sub-regions) and show significant improvements in visual quality. Finally, we provide an analysis of the linguistic and visuo-spatial information.

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ExplaGraphs: An Explanation Graph Generation Task for Structured Commonsense Reasoning
Swarnadeep Saha | Prateek Yadav | Lisa Bauer | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent commonsense-reasoning tasks are typically discriminative in nature, where a model answers a multiple-choice question for a certain context. Discriminative tasks are limiting because they fail to adequately evaluate the model’s ability to reason and explain predictions with underlying commonsense knowledge. They also allow such models to use reasoning shortcuts and not be “right for the right reasons”. In this work, we present ExplaGraphs, a new generative and structured commonsense-reasoning task (and an associated dataset) of explanation graph generation for stance prediction. Specifically, given a belief and an argument, a model has to predict if the argument supports or counters the belief and also generate a commonsense-augmented graph that serves as non-trivial, complete, and unambiguous explanation for the predicted stance. We collect explanation graphs through a novel Create-Verify-And-Refine graph collection framework that improves the graph quality (up to 90%) via multiple rounds of verification and refinement. A significant 79% of our graphs contain external commonsense nodes with diverse structures and reasoning depths. Next, we propose a multi-level evaluation framework, consisting of automatic metrics and human evaluation, that check for the structural and semantic correctness of the generated graphs and their degree of match with ground-truth graphs. Finally, we present several structured, commonsense-augmented, and text generation models as strong starting points for this explanation graph generation task, and observe that there is a large gap with human performance, thereby encouraging future work for this new challenging task.

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FastIF: Scalable Influence Functions for Efficient Model Interpretation and Debugging
Han Guo | Nazneen Rajani | Peter Hase | Mohit Bansal | Caiming Xiong
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Influence functions approximate the “influences” of training data-points for test predictions and have a wide variety of applications. Despite the popularity, their computational cost does not scale well with model and training data size. We present FastIF, a set of simple modifications to influence functions that significantly improves their run-time. We use k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN) to narrow the search space down to a subset of good candidate data points, identify the configurations that best balance the speed-quality trade-off in estimating the inverse Hessian-vector product, and introduce a fast parallel variant. Our proposed method achieves about 80X speedup while being highly correlated with the original influence values. With the availability of the fast influence functions, we demonstrate their usefulness in four applications. First, we examine whether influential data-points can “explain” test time behavior using the framework of simulatability. Second, we visualize the influence interactions between training and test data-points. Third, we show that we can correct model errors by additional fine-tuning on certain influential data-points, improving the accuracy of a trained MultiNLI model by 2.5% on the HANS dataset. Finally, we experiment with a similar setup but fine-tuning on datapoints not seen during training, improving the model accuracy by 2.8% and 1.7% on HANS and ANLI datasets respectively. Overall, our fast influence functions can be efficiently applied to large models and datasets, and our experiments demonstrate the potential of influence functions in model interpretation and correcting model errors.

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iFacetSum: Coreference-based Interactive Faceted Summarization for Multi-Document Exploration
Eran Hirsch | Alon Eirew | Ori Shapira | Avi Caciularu | Arie Cattan | Ori Ernst | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Hadar Ronen | Mohit Bansal | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

We introduce iFᴀᴄᴇᴛSᴜᴍ, a web application for exploring topical document collections. iFᴀᴄᴇᴛSᴜᴍ integrates interactive summarization together with faceted search, by providing a novel faceted navigation scheme that yields abstractive summaries for the user’s selections. This approach offers both a comprehensive overview as well as particular details regard-ing subtopics of choice. The facets are automatically produced based on cross-document coreference pipelines, rendering generic concepts, entities and statements surfacing in the source texts. We analyze the effectiveness of our application through small-scale user studies that suggest the usefulness of our tool.

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To what extent do human explanations of model behavior align with actual model behavior?
Grusha Prasad | Yixin Nie | Mohit Bansal | Robin Jia | Douwe Kiela | Adina Williams
Proceedings of the Fourth BlackboxNLP Workshop on Analyzing and Interpreting Neural Networks for NLP

Given the increasingly prominent role NLP models (will) play in our lives, it is important for human expectations of model behavior to align with actual model behavior. Using Natural Language Inference (NLI) as a case study, we investigate the extent to which human-generated explanations of models’ inference decisions align with how models actually make these decisions. More specifically, we define three alignment metrics that quantify how well natural language explanations align with model sensitivity to input words, as measured by integrated gradients. Then, we evaluate eight different models (the base and large versions of BERT,RoBERTa and ELECTRA, as well as anRNN and bag-of-words model), and find that the BERT-base model has the highest alignment with human-generated explanations, for all alignment metrics. Focusing in on transformers, we find that the base versions tend to have higher alignment with human-generated explanations than their larger counterparts, suggesting that increasing the number of model parameters leads, in some cases, to worse alignment with human explanations. Finally, we find that a model’s alignment with human explanations is not predicted by the model’s accuracy, suggesting that accuracy and alignment are complementary ways to evaluate models.

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Analysis of Tree-Structured Architectures for Code Generation
Samip Dahal | Adyasha Maharana | Mohit Bansal
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Learning and Analyzing Generation Order for Undirected Sequence Models
Yichen Jiang | Mohit Bansal
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Undirected neural sequence models have achieved performance competitive with the state-of-the-art directed sequence models that generate monotonically from left to right in machine translation tasks. In this work, we train a policy that learns the generation order for a pre-trained, undirected translation model via reinforcement learning. We show that the translations decoded by our learned orders achieve higher BLEU scores than the outputs decoded from left to right or decoded by the learned order from Mansimov et al. (2019) on the WMT’14 German-English translation task. On examples with a maximum source and target length of 30 from De-En and WMT’16 English-Romanian tasks, our learned order outperforms all heuristic generation orders on three out of four language pairs. We next carefully analyze the learned order patterns via qualitative and quantitative analysis. We show that our policy generally follows an outer-to-inner order, predicting the left-most and right-most positions first, and then moving toward the middle while skipping less important words at the beginning. Furthermore, the policy usually predicts positions for a single syntactic constituent structure in consecutive steps. We believe our findings could provide more insights on the mechanism of undirected generation models and encourage further research in this direction.

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Summary-Source Proposition-level Alignment: Task, Datasets and Supervised Baseline
Ori Ernst | Ori Shapira | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Michael Lepioshkin | Jacob Goldberger | Mohit Bansal | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 25th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

Aligning sentences in a reference summary with their counterparts in source documents was shown as a useful auxiliary summarization task, notably for generating training data for salience detection. Despite its assessed utility, the alignment step was mostly approached with heuristic unsupervised methods, typically ROUGE-based, and was never independently optimized or evaluated. In this paper, we propose establishing summary-source alignment as an explicit task, while introducing two major novelties: (1) applying it at the more accurate proposition span level, and (2) approaching it as a supervised classification task. To that end, we created a novel training dataset for proposition-level alignment, derived automatically from available summarization evaluation data. In addition, we crowdsourced dev and test datasets, enabling model development and proper evaluation. Utilizing these data, we present a supervised proposition alignment baseline model, showing improved alignment-quality over the unsupervised approach.

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InfoSurgeon: Cross-Media Fine-grained Information Consistency Checking for Fake News Detection
Yi Fung | Christopher Thomas | Revanth Gangi Reddy | Sandeep Polisetty | Heng Ji | Shih-Fu Chang | Kathleen McKeown | Mohit Bansal | Avi Sil
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

To defend against machine-generated fake news, an effective mechanism is urgently needed. We contribute a novel benchmark for fake news detection at the knowledge element level, as well as a solution for this task which incorporates cross-media consistency checking to detect the fine-grained knowledge elements making news articles misinformative. Due to training data scarcity, we also formulate a novel data synthesis method by manipulating knowledge elements within the knowledge graph to generate noisy training data with specific, hard to detect, known inconsistencies. Our detection approach outperforms the state-of-the-art (up to 16.8% accuracy gain), and more critically, yields fine-grained explanations.

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I like fish, especially dolphins: Addressing Contradictions in Dialogue Modeling
Yixin Nie | Mary Williamson | Mohit Bansal | Douwe Kiela | Jason Weston
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

To quantify how well natural language understanding models can capture consistency in a general conversation, we introduce the DialoguE COntradiction DEtection task (DECODE) and a new conversational dataset containing both human-human and human-bot contradictory dialogues. We show that: (i) our newly collected dataset is notably more effective at providing supervision for the dialogue contradiction detection task than existing NLI data including those aimed to cover the dialogue domain; (ii) Transformer models that explicitly hinge on utterance structures for dialogue contradiction detection are more robust and generalize well on both analysis and out-of-distribution dialogues than standard (unstructured) Transformers. We also show that our best contradiction detection model correlates well with human judgments and further provide evidence for its usage in both automatically evaluating and improving the consistency of state-of-the-art generative chatbots.

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Continuous Language Generative Flow
Zineng Tang | Shiyue Zhang | Hyounghun Kim | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recent years have witnessed various types of generative models for natural language generation (NLG), especially RNNs or transformer based sequence-to-sequence models, as well as variational autoencoder (VAE) and generative adversarial network (GAN) based models. However, flow-based generative models, which achieve strong performance in image generation due to their invertibility and exact density estimation properties, have been less explored for NLG. In this paper, we propose a flow-based language generation model by adapting previous flow generative models to language generation via continuous input embeddings, adapted affine coupling structures, and a novel architecture for autoregressive text generation. We also apply our framework to Sequence-to-Sequence generation, including text- and video-based Question Generation (QG) and Neural Machine Translation (NMT), and data augmentation for Question Answering (QA). We use our language flow model to provide extra input features for QG and NMT, which achieves improvements over the strong QG baselines on SQuAD and TVQA and NMT baseline on WMT16. We also augment QA data with new context by injecting noise to the latent features of the language flow and show this augmentation leads to a large performance improvement from strong baselines on SQuAD and TVQA.

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EmailSum: Abstractive Email Thread Summarization
Shiyue Zhang | Asli Celikyilmaz | Jianfeng Gao | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recent years have brought about an interest in the challenging task of summarizing conversation threads (meetings, online discussions, etc.). Such summaries help analysis of the long text to quickly catch up with the decisions made and thus improve our work or communication efficiency. To spur research in thread summarization, we have developed an abstractive Email Thread Summarization (EmailSum) dataset, which contains human-annotated short (<30 words) and long (<100 words) summaries of 2,549 email threads (each containing 3 to 10 emails) over a wide variety of topics. We perform a comprehensive empirical study to explore different summarization techniques (including extractive and abstractive methods, single-document and hierarchical models, as well as transfer and semisupervised learning) and conduct human evaluations on both short and long summary generation tasks. Our results reveal the key challenges of current abstractive summarization models in this task, such as understanding the sender’s intent and identifying the roles of sender and receiver. Furthermore, we find that widely used automatic evaluation metrics (ROUGE, BERTScore) are weakly correlated with human judgments on this email thread summarization task. Hence, we emphasize the importance of human evaluation and the development of better metrics by the community.

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mTVR: Multilingual Moment Retrieval in Videos
Jie Lei | Tamara Berg | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

We introduce mTVR, a large-scale multilingual video moment retrieval dataset, containing 218K English and Chinese queries from 21.8K TV show video clips. The dataset is collected by extending the popular TVR dataset (in English) with paired Chinese queries and subtitles. Compared to existing moment retrieval datasets, mTVR is multilingual, larger, and comes with diverse annotations. We further propose mXML, a multilingual moment retrieval model that learns and operates on data from both languages, via encoder parameter sharing and language neighborhood constraints. We demonstrate the effectiveness of mXML on the newly collected mTVR dataset, where mXML outperforms strong monolingual baselines while using fewer parameters. In addition, we also provide detailed dataset analyses and model ablations. Data and code are publicly available at https://github.com/jayleicn/mTVRetrieval

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ChrEnTranslate: Cherokee-English Machine Translation Demo with Quality Estimation and Corrective Feedback
Shiyue Zhang | Benjamin Frey | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

We introduce ChrEnTranslate, an online machine translation demonstration system for translation between English and an endangered language Cherokee. It supports both statistical and neural translation models as well as provides quality estimation to inform users of reliability, two user feedback interfaces for experts and common users respectively, example inputs to collect human translations for monolingual data, word alignment visualization, and relevant terms from the Cherokee English dictionary. The quantitative evaluation demonstrates that our backbone translation models achieve state-of-the-art translation performance and our quality estimation well correlates with both BLEU and human judgment. By analyzing 216 pieces of expert feedback, we find that NMT is preferable because it copies less than SMT, and, in general, current models can translate fragments of the source sentence but make major mistakes. When we add these 216 expert-corrected parallel texts into the training set and retrain models, equal or slightly better performance is observed, which demonstrates indicates the potential of human-in-the-loop learning.

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Identify, Align, and Integrate: Matching Knowledge Graphs to Commonsense Reasoning Tasks
Lisa Bauer | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Integrating external knowledge into commonsense reasoning tasks has shown progress in resolving some, but not all, knowledge gaps in these tasks. For knowledge integration to yield peak performance, it is critical to select a knowledge graph (KG) that is well-aligned with the given task’s objective. We present an approach to assess how well a candidate KG can correctly identify and accurately fill in gaps of reasoning for a task, which we call KG-to-task match. We show this KG-to-task match in 3 phases: knowledge-task identification, knowledge-task alignment, and knowledge-task integration. We also analyze our transformer-based KG-to-task models via commonsense probes to measure how much knowledge is captured in these models before and after KG integration. Empirically, we investigate KG matches for the SocialIQA (SIQA) (Sap et al., 2019b), Physical IQA (PIQA) (Bisk et al., 2020), and MCScript2.0 (Ostermann et al., 2019) datasets with 3 diverse KGs: ATOMIC (Sap et al., 2019a), ConceptNet (Speer et al., 2017), and an automatically constructed instructional KG based on WikiHow (Koupaee and Wang, 2018). With our methods we are able to demonstrate that ATOMIC, an event-inference focused KG, is the best match for SIQA and MCScript2.0, and that the taxonomic ConceptNet and WikiHow-based KGs are the best match for PIQA across all 3 analysis phases. We verify our methods and findings with human evaluation.

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Hidden Biases in Unreliable News Detection Datasets
Xiang Zhou | Heba Elfardy | Christos Christodoulopoulos | Thomas Butler | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Automatic unreliable news detection is a research problem with great potential impact. Recently, several papers have shown promising results on large-scale news datasets with models that only use the article itself without resorting to any fact-checking mechanism or retrieving any supporting evidence. In this work, we take a closer look at these datasets. While they all provide valuable resources for future research, we observe a number of problems that may lead to results that do not generalize in more realistic settings. Specifically, we show that selection bias during data collection leads to undesired artifacts in the datasets. In addition, while most systems train and predict at the level of individual articles, overlapping article sources in the training and evaluation data can provide a strong confounding factor that models can exploit. In the presence of this confounding factor, the models can achieve good performance by directly memorizing the site-label mapping instead of modeling the real task of unreliable news detection. We observed a significant drop (>10%) in accuracy for all models tested in a clean split with no train/test source overlap. Using the observations and experimental results, we provide practical suggestions on how to create more reliable datasets for the unreliable news detection task. We suggest future dataset creation include a simple model as a difficulty/bias probe and future model development use a clean non-overlapping site and date split.

2020

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FENAS: Flexible and Expressive Neural Architecture Search
Ramakanth Pasunuru | Mohit Bansal
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Architecture search is the automatic process of designing the model or cell structure that is optimal for the given dataset or task. Recently, this approach has shown good improvements in terms of performance (tested on language modeling and image classification) with reasonable training speed using a weight sharing-based approach called Efficient Neural Architecture Search (ENAS). In this work, we propose a novel architecture search algorithm called Flexible and Expressible Neural Architecture Search (FENAS), with more flexible and expressible search space than ENAS, in terms of more activation functions, input edges, and atomic operations. Also, our FENAS approach is able to reproduce the well-known LSTM and GRU architectures (unlike ENAS), and is also able to initialize with them for finding architectures more efficiently. We explore this extended search space via evolutionary search and show that FENAS performs significantly better on several popular text classification tasks and performs similar to ENAS on standard language model benchmark. Further, we present ablations and analyses on our FENAS approach.

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HoVer: A Dataset for Many-Hop Fact Extraction And Claim Verification
Yichen Jiang | Shikha Bordia | Zheng Zhong | Charles Dognin | Maneesh Singh | Mohit Bansal
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

We introduce HoVer (HOppy VERification), a dataset for many-hop evidence extraction and fact verification. It challenges models to extract facts from several Wikipedia articles that are relevant to a claim and classify whether the claim is supported or not-supported by the facts. In HoVer, the claims require evidence to be extracted from as many as four English Wikipedia articles and embody reasoning graphs of diverse shapes. Moreover, most of the 3/4-hop claims are written in multiple sentences, which adds to the complexity of understanding long-range dependency relations such as coreference. We show that the performance of an existing state-of-the-art semantic-matching model degrades significantly on our dataset as the number of reasoning hops increases, hence demonstrating the necessity of many-hop reasoning to achieve strong results. We hope that the introduction of this challenging dataset and the accompanying evaluation task will encourage research in many-hop fact retrieval and information verification.

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Adversarial Augmentation Policy Search for Domain and Cross-Lingual Generalization in Reading Comprehension
Adyasha Maharana | Mohit Bansal
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Reading comprehension models often overfit to nuances of training datasets and fail at adversarial evaluation. Training with adversarially augmented dataset improves robustness against those adversarial attacks but hurts generalization of the models. In this work, we present several effective adversaries and automated data augmentation policy search methods with the goal of making reading comprehension models more robust to adversarial evaluation, but also improving generalization to the source domain as well as new domains and languages. We first propose three new methods for generating QA adversaries, that introduce multiple points of confusion within the context, show dependence on insertion location of the distractor, and reveal the compounding effect of mixing adversarial strategies with syntactic and semantic paraphrasing methods. Next, we find that augmenting the training datasets with uniformly sampled adversaries improves robustness to the adversarial attacks but leads to decline in performance on the original unaugmented dataset. We address this issue via RL and more efficient Bayesian policy search methods for automatically learning the best augmentation policy combinations of the transformation probability for each adversary in a large search space. Using these learned policies, we show that adversarial training can lead to significant improvements in in-domain, out-of-domain, and cross-lingual (German, Russian, Turkish) generalization.

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ArraMon: A Joint Navigation-Assembly Instruction Interpretation Task in Dynamic Environments
Hyounghun Kim | Abhaysinh Zala | Graham Burri | Hao Tan | Mohit Bansal
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

For embodied agents, navigation is an important ability but not an isolated goal. Agents are also expected to perform specific tasks after reaching the target location, such as picking up objects and assembling them into a particular arrangement. We combine Vision-andLanguage Navigation, assembling of collected objects, and object referring expression comprehension, to create a novel joint navigation-and-assembly task, named ARRAMON. During this task, the agent (similar to a PokeMON GO player) is asked to find and collect different target objects one-by-one by navigating based on natural language (English) instructions in a complex, realistic outdoor environment, but then also ARRAnge the collected objects part-by-part in an egocentric grid-layout environment. To support this task, we implement a 3D dynamic environment simulator and collect a dataset with human-written navigation and assembling instructions, and the corresponding ground truth trajectories. We also filter the collected instructions via a verification stage, leading to a total of 7.7K task instances (30.8K instructions and paths). We present results for several baseline models (integrated and biased) and metrics (nDTW, CTC, rPOD, and PTC), and the large model-human performance gap demonstrates that our task is challenging and presents a wide scope for future work.

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Leakage-Adjusted Simulatability: Can Models Generate Non-Trivial Explanations of Their Behavior in Natural Language?
Peter Hase | Shiyue Zhang | Harry Xie | Mohit Bansal
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Data collection for natural language (NL) understanding tasks has increasingly included human explanations alongside data points, allowing past works to introduce models that both perform a task and generate NL explanations for their outputs. Yet to date, model-generated explanations have been evaluated on the basis of surface-level similarities to human explanations, both through automatic metrics like BLEU and human evaluations. We argue that these evaluations are insufficient, since they fail to indicate whether explanations support actual model behavior (faithfulness), rather than simply match what a human would say (plausibility). In this work, we address the problem of evaluating explanations from the the model simulatability perspective. Our contributions are as follows: (1) We introduce a leakage-adjusted simulatability (LAS) metric for evaluating NL explanations, which measures how well explanations help an observer predict a model’s output, while controlling for how explanations can directly leak the output. We use a model as a proxy for a human observer, and validate this choice with two human subject experiments. (2) Using the CoS-E and e-SNLI datasets, we evaluate two existing generative graphical models and two new approaches; one rationalizing method we introduce achieves roughly human-level LAS scores. (3) Lastly, we frame explanation generation as a multi-agent game and optimize explanations for simulatability while penalizing label leakage, which can improve LAS scores.

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MART: Memory-Augmented Recurrent Transformer for Coherent Video Paragraph Captioning
Jie Lei | Liwei Wang | Yelong Shen | Dong Yu | Tamara Berg | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Generating multi-sentence descriptions for videos is one of the most challenging captioning tasks due to its high requirements for not only visual relevance but also discourse-based coherence across the sentences in the paragraph. Towards this goal, we propose a new approach called Memory-Augmented Recurrent Transformer (MART), which uses a memory module to augment the transformer architecture. The memory module generates a highly summarized memory state from the video segments and the sentence history so as to help better prediction of the next sentence (w.r.t. coreference and repetition aspects), thus encouraging coherent paragraph generation. Extensive experiments, human evaluations, and qualitative analyses on two popular datasets ActivityNet Captions and YouCookII show that MART generates more coherent and less repetitive paragraph captions than baseline methods, while maintaining relevance to the input video events.

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Dense-Caption Matching and Frame-Selection Gating for Temporal Localization in VideoQA
Hyounghun Kim | Zineng Tang | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Videos convey rich information. Dynamic spatio-temporal relationships between people/objects, and diverse multimodal events are present in a video clip. Hence, it is important to develop automated models that can accurately extract such information from videos. Answering questions on videos is one of the tasks which can evaluate such AI abilities. In this paper, we propose a video question answering model which effectively integrates multi-modal input sources and finds the temporally relevant information to answer questions. Specifically, we first employ dense image captions to help identify objects and their detailed salient regions and actions, and hence give the model useful extra information (in explicit textual format to allow easier matching) for answering questions. Moreover, our model is also comprised of dual-level attention (word/object and frame level), multi-head self/cross-integration for different sources (video and dense captions), and gates which pass more relevant information to the classifier. Finally, we also cast the frame selection problem as a multi-label classification task and introduce two loss functions, In-andOut Frame Score Margin (IOFSM) and Balanced Binary Cross-Entropy (BBCE), to better supervise the model with human importance annotations. We evaluate our model on the challenging TVQA dataset, where each of our model components provides significant gains, and our overall model outperforms the state-of-the-art by a large margin (74.09% versus 70.52%). We also present several word, object, and frame level visualization studies.

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Adversarial NLI: A New Benchmark for Natural Language Understanding
Yixin Nie | Adina Williams | Emily Dinan | Mohit Bansal | Jason Weston | Douwe Kiela
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We introduce a new large-scale NLI benchmark dataset, collected via an iterative, adversarial human-and-model-in-the-loop procedure. We show that training models on this new dataset leads to state-of-the-art performance on a variety of popular NLI benchmarks, while posing a more difficult challenge with its new test set. Our analysis sheds light on the shortcomings of current state-of-the-art models, and shows that non-expert annotators are successful at finding their weaknesses. The data collection method can be applied in a never-ending learning scenario, becoming a moving target for NLU, rather than a static benchmark that will quickly saturate.

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Evaluating Explainable AI: Which Algorithmic Explanations Help Users Predict Model Behavior?
Peter Hase | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Algorithmic approaches to interpreting machine learning models have proliferated in recent years. We carry out human subject tests that are the first of their kind to isolate the effect of algorithmic explanations on a key aspect of model interpretability, simulatability, while avoiding important confounding experimental factors. A model is simulatable when a person can predict its behavior on new inputs. Through two kinds of simulation tests involving text and tabular data, we evaluate five explanations methods: (1) LIME, (2) Anchor, (3) Decision Boundary, (4) a Prototype model, and (5) a Composite approach that combines explanations from each method. Clear evidence of method effectiveness is found in very few cases: LIME improves simulatability in tabular classification, and our Prototype method is effective in counterfactual simulation tests. We also collect subjective ratings of explanations, but we do not find that ratings are predictive of how helpful explanations are. Our results provide the first reliable and comprehensive estimates of how explanations influence simulatability across a variety of explanation methods and data domains. We show that (1) we need to be careful about the metrics we use to evaluate explanation methods, and (2) there is significant room for improvement in current methods.

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TVQA+: Spatio-Temporal Grounding for Video Question Answering
Jie Lei | Licheng Yu | Tamara Berg | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We present the task of Spatio-Temporal Video Question Answering, which requires intelligent systems to simultaneously retrieve relevant moments and detect referenced visual concepts (people and objects) to answer natural language questions about videos. We first augment the TVQA dataset with 310.8K bounding boxes, linking depicted objects to visual concepts in questions and answers. We name this augmented version as TVQA+. We then propose Spatio-Temporal Answerer with Grounded Evidence (STAGE), a unified framework that grounds evidence in both spatial and temporal domains to answer questions about videos. Comprehensive experiments and analyses demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework and how the rich annotations in our TVQA+ dataset can contribute to the question answering task. Moreover, by performing this joint task, our model is able to produce insightful and interpretable spatio-temporal attention visualizations.

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Towards Robustifying NLI Models Against Lexical Dataset Biases
Xiang Zhou | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

While deep learning models are making fast progress on the task of Natural Language Inference, recent studies have also shown that these models achieve high accuracy by exploiting several dataset biases, and without deep understanding of the language semantics. Using contradiction-word bias and word-overlapping bias as our two bias examples, this paper explores both data-level and model-level debiasing methods to robustify models against lexical dataset biases. First, we debias the dataset through data augmentation and enhancement, but show that the model bias cannot be fully removed via this method. Next, we also compare two ways of directly debiasing the model without knowing what the dataset biases are in advance. The first approach aims to remove the label bias at the embedding level. The second approach employs a bag-of-words sub-model to capture the features that are likely to exploit the bias and prevents the original model from learning these biased features by forcing orthogonality between these two sub-models. We performed evaluations on new balanced datasets extracted from the original MNLI dataset as well as the NLI stress tests, and show that the orthogonality approach is better at debiasing the model while maintaining competitive overall accuracy.

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Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Spatial Language Understanding
Parisa Kordjamshidi | Archna Bhatia | Malihe Alikhani | Jason Baldridge | Mohit Bansal | Marie-Francine Moens
Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Spatial Language Understanding

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PRover: Proof Generation for Interpretable Reasoning over Rules
Swarnadeep Saha | Sayan Ghosh | Shashank Srivastava | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Recent work by Clark et al. (2020) shows that transformers can act as “soft theorem provers” by answering questions over explicitly provided knowledge in natural language. In our work, we take a step closer to emulating formal theorem provers, by proposing PRover, an interpretable transformer-based model that jointly answers binary questions over rule-bases and generates the corresponding proofs. Our model learns to predict nodes and edges corresponding to proof graphs in an efficient constrained training paradigm. During inference, a valid proof, satisfying a set of global constraints is generated. We conduct experiments on synthetic, hand-authored, and human-paraphrased rule-bases to show promising results for QA and proof generation, with strong generalization performance. First, PRover generates proofs with an accuracy of 87%, while retaining or improving performance on the QA task, compared to RuleTakers (up to 6% improvement on zero-shot evaluation). Second, when trained on questions requiring lower depths of reasoning, it generalizes significantly better to higher depths (up to 15% improvement). Third, PRover obtains near perfect QA accuracy of 98% using only 40% of the training data. However, generating proofs for questions requiring higher depths of reasoning becomes challenging, and the accuracy drops to 65% for “depth 5”, indicating significant scope for future work.

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ChrEn: Cherokee-English Machine Translation for Endangered Language Revitalization
Shiyue Zhang | Benjamin Frey | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Cherokee is a highly endangered Native American language spoken by the Cherokee people. The Cherokee culture is deeply embedded in its language. However, there are approximately only 2,000 fluent first language Cherokee speakers remaining in the world and the number is declining every year. To help save this endangered language, we introduce ChrEn, a Cherokee-English parallel dataset, to facilitate machine translation research between Cherokee and English. Compared to some popular machine translation language pairs, ChrEn is extremely low-resource, only containing 14k sentence pairs in total. We split our parallel data in ways that facilitate both in-domain and out-of-domain evaluation. We also collect 5k Cherokee monolingual data to enable semi-supervised learning. Besides these datasets, we propose several Cherokee-English and English-Cherokee machine translation systems. We compare SMT (phrase-based) versus NMT (RNN-based and Transformer-based) systems; supervised versus semi-supervised (via language model, back-translation, and BERT/Multilingual-BERT) methods; as well as transfer learning versus multilingual joint training with 4 other languages. Our best results are 15.8/12.7 BLEU for in-domain and 6.5/5.0 BLEU for out-of-domain Chr-En/EnChr translations, respectively; and we hope that our dataset and systems will encourage future work by the community for Cherokee language revitalization.

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Vokenization: Improving Language Understanding with Contextualized, Visual-Grounded Supervision
Hao Tan | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Humans learn language by listening, speaking, writing, reading, and also, via interaction with the multimodal real world. Existing language pre-training frameworks show the effectiveness of text-only self-supervision while we explore the idea of a visually-supervised language model in this paper. We find that the main reason hindering this exploration is the large divergence in magnitude and distributions between the visually-grounded language datasets and pure-language corpora. Therefore, we develop a technique named “vokenization” that extrapolates multimodal alignments to language-only data by contextually mapping language tokens to their related images (which we call “vokens”). The “vokenizer” is trained on relatively small image captioning datasets and we then apply it to generate vokens for large language corpora. Trained with these contextually generated vokens, our visually-supervised language models show consistent improvements over self-supervised alternatives on multiple pure-language tasks such as GLUE, SQuAD, and SWAG.

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DORB: Dynamically Optimizing Multiple Rewards with Bandits
Ramakanth Pasunuru | Han Guo | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Policy gradients-based reinforcement learning has proven to be a promising approach for directly optimizing non-differentiable evaluation metrics for language generation tasks. However, optimizing for a specific metric reward leads to improvements in mostly that metric only, suggesting that the model is gaming the formulation of that metric in a particular way without often achieving real qualitative improvements. Hence, it is more beneficial to make the model optimize multiple diverse metric rewards jointly. While appealing, this is challenging because one needs to manually decide the importance and scaling weights of these metric rewards. Further, it is important to consider using a dynamic combination and curriculum of metric rewards that flexibly changes over time. Considering the above aspects, in our work, we automate the optimization of multiple metric rewards simultaneously via a multi-armed bandit approach (DORB), where at each round, the bandit chooses which metric reward to optimize next, based on expected arm gains. We use the Exp3 algorithm for bandits and formulate two approaches for bandit rewards: (1) Single Multi-reward Bandit (SM-Bandit); (2) Hierarchical Multi-reward Bandit (HM-Bandit). We empirically show the effectiveness of our approaches via various automatic metrics and human evaluation on two important NLG tasks: question generation and data-to-text generation. Finally, we present interpretable analyses of the learned bandit curriculum over the optimized rewards.

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The Curse of Performance Instability in Analysis Datasets: Consequences, Source, and Suggestions
Xiang Zhou | Yixin Nie | Hao Tan | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

We find that the performance of state-of-the-art models on Natural Language Inference (NLI) and Reading Comprehension (RC) analysis/stress sets can be highly unstable. This raises three questions: (1) How will the instability affect the reliability of the conclusions drawn based on these analysis sets? (2) Where does this instability come from? (3) How should we handle this instability and what are some potential solutions? For the first question, we conduct a thorough empirical study over analysis sets and find that in addition to the unstable final performance, the instability exists all along the training curve. We also observe lower-than-expected correlations between the analysis validation set and standard validation set, questioning the effectiveness of the current model-selection routine. Next, to answer the second question, we give both theoretical explanations and empirical evidence regarding the source of the instability, demonstrating that the instability mainly comes from high inter-example correlations within analysis sets. Finally, for the third question, we discuss an initial attempt to mitigate the instability and suggest guidelines for future work such as reporting the decomposed variance for more interpretable results and fair comparison across models.

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ConjNLI: Natural Language Inference Over Conjunctive Sentences
Swarnadeep Saha | Yixin Nie | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Reasoning about conjuncts in conjunctive sentences is important for a deeper understanding of conjunctions in English and also how their usages and semantics differ from conjunctive and disjunctive boolean logic. Existing NLI stress tests do not consider non-boolean usages of conjunctions and use templates for testing such model knowledge. Hence, we introduce ConjNLI, a challenge stress-test for natural language inference over conjunctive sentences, where the premise differs from the hypothesis by conjuncts removed, added, or replaced. These sentences contain single and multiple instances of coordinating conjunctions (“and”, “or”, “but”, “nor”) with quantifiers, negations, and requiring diverse boolean and non-boolean inferences over conjuncts. We find that large-scale pre-trained language models like RoBERTa do not understand conjunctive semantics well and resort to shallow heuristics to make inferences over such sentences. As some initial solutions, we first present an iterative adversarial fine-tuning method that uses synthetically created training data based on boolean and non-boolean heuristics. We also propose a direct model advancement by making RoBERTa aware of predicate semantic roles. While we observe some performance gains, ConjNLI is still challenging for current methods, thus encouraging interesting future work for better understanding of conjunctions.

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What is More Likely to Happen Next? Video-and-Language Future Event Prediction
Jie Lei | Licheng Yu | Tamara Berg | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Given a video with aligned dialogue, people can often infer what is more likely to happen next. Making such predictions requires not only a deep understanding of the rich dynamics underlying the video and dialogue, but also a significant amount of commonsense knowledge. In this work, we explore whether AI models are able to learn to make such multimodal commonsense next-event predictions. To support research in this direction, we collect a new dataset, named Video-and-Language Event Prediction (VLEP), with 28,726 future event prediction examples (along with their rationales) from 10,234 diverse TV Show and YouTube Lifestyle Vlog video clips. In order to promote the collection of non-trivial challenging examples, we employ an adversarial human-and-model-in-the-loop data collection procedure. We also present a strong baseline incorporating information from video, dialogue, and commonsense knowledge. Experiments show that each type of information is useful for this challenging task, and that compared to the high human performance on VLEP, our model provides a good starting point but leaves large room for future work.

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What Can We Learn from Collective Human Opinions on Natural Language Inference Data?
Yixin Nie | Xiang Zhou | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Despite the subjective nature of many NLP tasks, most NLU evaluations have focused on using the majority label with presumably high agreement as the ground truth. Less attention has been paid to the distribution of human opinions. We collect ChaosNLI, a dataset with a total of 464,500 annotations to study Collective HumAn OpinionS in oft-used NLI evaluation sets. This dataset is created by collecting 100 annotations per example for 3,113 examples in SNLI and MNLI and 1,532 examples in αNLI. Analysis reveals that: (1) high human disagreement exists in a noticeable amount of examples in these datasets; (2) the state-of-the-art models lack the ability to recover the distribution over human labels; (3) models achieve near-perfect accuracy on the subset of data with a high level of human agreement, whereas they can barely beat a random guess on the data with low levels of human agreement, which compose most of the common errors made by state-of-the-art models on the evaluation sets. This questions the validity of improving model performance on old metrics for the low-agreement part of evaluation datasets. Hence, we argue for a detailed examination of human agreement in future data collection efforts, and evaluating model outputs against the distribution over collective human opinions.

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Simple Compounded-Label Training for Fact Extraction and Verification
Yixin Nie | Lisa Bauer | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Fact Extraction and VERification (FEVER)

Automatic fact checking is an important task motivated by the need for detecting and preventing the spread of misinformation across the web. The recently released FEVER challenge provides a benchmark task that assesses systems’ capability for both the retrieval of required evidence and the identification of authentic claims. Previous approaches share a similar pipeline training paradigm that decomposes the task into three subtasks, with each component built and trained separately. Although achieving acceptable scores, these methods induce difficulty for practical application development due to unnecessary complexity and expensive computation. In this paper, we explore the potential of simplifying the system design and reducing training computation by proposing a joint training setup in which a single sequence matching model is trained with compounded labels that give supervision for both sentence selection and claim verification subtasks, eliminating the duplicate computation that occurs when models are designed and trained separately. Empirical results on FEVER indicate that our method: (1) outperforms the typical multi-task learning approach, and (2) gets comparable results to top performing systems with a much simpler training setup and less training computation (in terms of the amount of data consumed and the number of model parameters), facilitating future works on the automatic fact checking task and its practical usage.

2019

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Crowdsourcing Lightweight Pyramids for Manual Summary Evaluation
Ori Shapira | David Gabay | Yang Gao | Hadar Ronen | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Mohit Bansal | Yael Amsterdamer | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Conducting a manual evaluation is considered an essential part of summary evaluation methodology. Traditionally, the Pyramid protocol, which exhaustively compares system summaries to references, has been perceived as very reliable, providing objective scores. Yet, due to the high cost of the Pyramid method and the required expertise, researchers resorted to cheaper and less thorough manual evaluation methods, such as Responsiveness and pairwise comparison, attainable via crowdsourcing. We revisit the Pyramid approach, proposing a lightweight sampling-based version that is crowdsourcable. We analyze the performance of our method in comparison to original expert-based Pyramid evaluations, showing higher correlation relative to the common Responsiveness method. We release our crowdsourced Summary-Content-Units, along with all crowdsourcing scripts, for future evaluations.

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Learning to Navigate Unseen Environments: Back Translation with Environmental Dropout
Hao Tan | Licheng Yu | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

A grand goal in AI is to build a robot that can accurately navigate based on natural language instructions, which requires the agent to perceive the scene, understand and ground language, and act in the real-world environment. One key challenge here is to learn to navigate in new environments that are unseen during training. Most of the existing approaches perform dramatically worse in unseen environments as compared to seen ones. In this paper, we present a generalizable navigational agent. Our agent is trained in two stages. The first stage is training via mixed imitation and reinforcement learning, combining the benefits from both off-policy and on-policy optimization. The second stage is fine-tuning via newly-introduced ‘unseen’ triplets (environment, path, instruction). To generate these unseen triplets, we propose a simple but effective ‘environmental dropout’ method to mimic unseen environments, which overcomes the problem of limited seen environment variability. Next, we apply semi-supervised learning (via back-translation) on these dropout environments to generate new paths and instructions. Empirically, we show that our agent is substantially better at generalizability when fine-tuned with these triplets, outperforming the state-of-art approaches by a large margin on the private unseen test set of the Room-to-Room task, and achieving the top rank on the leaderboard.

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AutoSeM: Automatic Task Selection and Mixing in Multi-Task Learning
Han Guo | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Multi-task learning (MTL) has achieved success over a wide range of problems, where the goal is to improve the performance of a primary task using a set of relevant auxiliary tasks. However, when the usefulness of the auxiliary tasks w.r.t. the primary task is not known a priori, the success of MTL models depends on the correct choice of these auxiliary tasks and also a balanced mixing ratio of these tasks during alternate training. These two problems could be resolved via manual intuition or hyper-parameter tuning over all combinatorial task choices, but this introduces inductive bias or is not scalable when the number of candidate auxiliary tasks is very large. To address these issues, we present AutoSeM, a two-stage MTL pipeline, where the first stage automatically selects the most useful auxiliary tasks via a Beta-Bernoulli multi-armed bandit with Thompson Sampling, and the second stage learns the training mixing ratio of these selected auxiliary tasks via a Gaussian Process based Bayesian optimization framework. We conduct several MTL experiments on the GLUE language understanding tasks, and show that our AutoSeM framework can successfully find relevant auxiliary tasks and automatically learn their mixing ratio, achieving significant performance boosts on several primary tasks. Finally, we present ablations for each stage of AutoSeM and analyze the learned auxiliary task choices.

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Automatically Learning Data Augmentation Policies for Dialogue Tasks
Tong Niu | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Automatic data augmentation (AutoAugment) (Cubuk et al., 2019) searches for optimal perturbation policies via a controller trained using performance rewards of a sampled policy on the target task, hence reducing data-level model bias. While being a powerful algorithm, their work has focused on computer vision tasks, where it is comparatively easy to apply imperceptible perturbations without changing an image’s semantic meaning. In our work, we adapt AutoAugment to automatically discover effective perturbation policies for natural language processing (NLP) tasks such as dialogue generation. We start with a pool of atomic operations that apply subtle semantic-preserving perturbations to the source inputs of a dialogue task (e.g., different POS-tag types of stopword dropout, grammatical errors, and paraphrasing). Next, we allow the controller to learn more complex augmentation policies by searching over the space of the various combinations of these atomic operations. Moreover, we also explore conditioning the controller on the source inputs of the target task, since certain strategies may not apply to inputs that do not contain that strategy’s required linguistic features. Empirically, we demonstrate that both our input-agnostic and input-aware controllers discover useful data augmentation policies, and achieve significant improvements over the previous state-of-the-art, including trained on manually-designed policies.

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Addressing Semantic Drift in Question Generation for Semi-Supervised Question Answering
Shiyue Zhang | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Text-based Question Generation (QG) aims at generating natural and relevant questions that can be answered by a given answer in some context. Existing QG models suffer from a “semantic drift” problem, i.e., the semantics of the model-generated question drifts away from the given context and answer. In this paper, we first propose two semantics-enhanced rewards obtained from downstream question paraphrasing and question answering tasks to regularize the QG model to generate semantically valid questions. Second, since the traditional evaluation metrics (e.g., BLEU) often fall short in evaluating the quality of generated questions, we propose a QA-based evaluation method which measures the QG model’s ability to mimic human annotators in generating QA training data. Experiments show that our method achieves the new state-of-the-art performance w.r.t. traditional metrics, and also performs best on our QA-based evaluation metrics. Further, we investigate how to use our QG model to augment QA datasets and enable semi-supervised QA. We propose two ways to generate synthetic QA pairs: generate new questions from existing articles or collect QA pairs from new articles. We also propose two empirically effective strategies, a data filter and mixing mini-batch training, to properly use the QG-generated data for QA. Experiments show that our method improves over both BiDAF and BERT QA baselines, even without introducing new articles.

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Revealing the Importance of Semantic Retrieval for Machine Reading at Scale
Yixin Nie | Songhe Wang | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Machine Reading at Scale (MRS) is a challenging task in which a system is given an input query and is asked to produce a precise output by “reading” information from a large knowledge base. The task has gained popularity with its natural combination of information retrieval (IR) and machine comprehension (MC). Advancements in representation learning have led to separated progress in both IR and MC; however, very few studies have examined the relationship and combined design of retrieval and comprehension at different levels of granularity, for development of MRS systems. In this work, we give general guidelines on system design for MRS by proposing a simple yet effective pipeline system with special consideration on hierarchical semantic retrieval at both paragraph and sentence level, and their potential effects on the downstream task. The system is evaluated on both fact verification and open-domain multihop QA, achieving state-of-the-art results on the leaderboard test sets of both FEVER and HOTPOTQA. To further demonstrate the importance of semantic retrieval, we present ablation and analysis studies to quantify the contribution of neural retrieval modules at both paragraph-level and sentence-level, and illustrate that intermediate semantic retrieval modules are vital for not only effectively filtering upstream information and thus saving downstream computation, but also for shaping upstream data distribution and providing better data for downstream modeling.

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Self-Assembling Modular Networks for Interpretable Multi-Hop Reasoning
Yichen Jiang | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Multi-hop QA requires a model to connect multiple pieces of evidence scattered in a long context to answer the question. The recently proposed HotpotQA (Yang et al., 2018) dataset is comprised of questions embodying four different multi-hop reasoning paradigms (two bridge entity setups, checking multiple properties, and comparing two entities), making it challenging for a single neural network to handle all four. In this work, we present an interpretable, controller-based Self-Assembling Neural Modular Network (Hu et al., 2017, 2018) for multi-hop reasoning, where we design four novel modules (Find, Relocate, Compare, NoOp) to perform unique types of language reasoning. Based on a question, our layout controller RNN dynamically infers a series of reasoning modules to construct the entire network. Empirically, we show that our dynamic, multi-hop modular network achieves significant improvements over the static, single-hop baseline (on both regular and adversarial evaluation). We further demonstrate the interpretability of our model via three analyses. First, the controller can softly decompose the multi-hop question into multiple single-hop sub-questions to promote compositional reasoning behavior of the main network. Second, the controller can predict layouts that conform to the layouts designed by human experts. Finally, the intermediate module can infer the entity that connects two distantly-located supporting facts by addressing the sub-question from the controller.

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LXMERT: Learning Cross-Modality Encoder Representations from Transformers
Hao Tan | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Vision-and-language reasoning requires an understanding of visual concepts, language semantics, and, most importantly, the alignment and relationships between these two modalities. We thus propose the LXMERT (Learning Cross-Modality Encoder Representations from Transformers) framework to learn these vision-and-language connections. In LXMERT, we build a large-scale Transformer model that consists of three encoders: an object relationship encoder, a language encoder, and a cross-modality encoder. Next, to endow our model with the capability of connecting vision and language semantics, we pre-train the model with large amounts of image-and-sentence pairs, via five diverse representative pre-training tasks: masked language modeling, masked object prediction (feature regression and label classification), cross-modality matching, and image question answering. These tasks help in learning both intra-modality and cross-modality relationships. After fine-tuning from our pre-trained parameters, our model achieves the state-of-the-art results on two visual question answering datasets (i.e., VQA and GQA). We also show the generalizability of our pre-trained cross-modality model by adapting it to a challenging visual-reasoning task, NLVR2, and improve the previous best result by 22% absolute (54% to 76%). Lastly, we demonstrate detailed ablation studies to prove that both our novel model components and pre-training strategies significantly contribute to our strong results. Code and pre-trained models publicly available at: https://github.com/airsplay/lxmert

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Expressing Visual Relationships via Language
Hao Tan | Franck Dernoncourt | Zhe Lin | Trung Bui | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Describing images with text is a fundamental problem in vision-language research. Current studies in this domain mostly focus on single image captioning. However, in various real applications (e.g., image editing, difference interpretation, and retrieval), generating relational captions for two images, can also be very useful. This important problem has not been explored mostly due to lack of datasets and effective models. To push forward the research in this direction, we first introduce a new language-guided image editing dataset that contains a large number of real image pairs with corresponding editing instructions. We then propose a new relational speaker model based on an encoder-decoder architecture with static relational attention and sequential multi-head attention. We also extend the model with dynamic relational attention, which calculates visual alignment while decoding. Our models are evaluated on our newly collected and two public datasets consisting of image pairs annotated with relationship sentences. Experimental results, based on both automatic and human evaluation, demonstrate that our model outperforms all baselines and existing methods on all the datasets.

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Continual and Multi-Task Architecture Search
Ramakanth Pasunuru | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Architecture search is the process of automatically learning the neural model or cell structure that best suits the given task. Recently, this approach has shown promising performance improvements (on language modeling and image classification) with reasonable training speed, using a weight sharing strategy called Efficient Neural Architecture Search (ENAS). In our work, we first introduce a novel continual architecture search (CAS) approach, so as to continually evolve the model parameters during the sequential training of several tasks, without losing performance on previously learned tasks (via block-sparsity and orthogonality constraints), thus enabling life-long learning. Next, we explore a multi-task architecture search (MAS) approach over ENAS for finding a unified, single cell structure that performs well across multiple tasks (via joint controller rewards), and hence allows more generalizable transfer of the cell structure knowledge to an unseen new task. We empirically show the effectiveness of our sequential continual learning and parallel multi-task learning based architecture search approaches on diverse sentence-pair classification tasks (GLUE) and multimodal-generation based video captioning tasks. Further, we present several ablations and analyses on the learned cell structures.

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PaperRobot: Incremental Draft Generation of Scientific Ideas
Qingyun Wang | Lifu Huang | Zhiying Jiang | Kevin Knight | Heng Ji | Mohit Bansal | Yi Luan
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We present a PaperRobot who performs as an automatic research assistant by (1) conducting deep understanding of a large collection of human-written papers in a target domain and constructing comprehensive background knowledge graphs (KGs); (2) creating new ideas by predicting links from the background KGs, by combining graph attention and contextual text attention; (3) incrementally writing some key elements of a new paper based on memory-attention networks: from the input title along with predicted related entities to generate a paper abstract, from the abstract to generate conclusion and future work, and finally from future work to generate a title for a follow-on paper. Turing Tests, where a biomedical domain expert is asked to compare a system output and a human-authored string, show PaperRobot generated abstracts, conclusion and future work sections, and new titles are chosen over human-written ones up to 30%, 24% and 12% of the time, respectively.

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Explore, Propose, and Assemble: An Interpretable Model for Multi-Hop Reading Comprehension
Yichen Jiang | Nitish Joshi | Yen-Chun Chen | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Multi-hop reading comprehension requires the model to explore and connect relevant information from multiple sentences/documents in order to answer the question about the context. To achieve this, we propose an interpretable 3-module system called Explore-Propose-Assemble reader (EPAr). First, the Document Explorer iteratively selects relevant documents and represents divergent reasoning chains in a tree structure so as to allow assimilating information from all chains. The Answer Proposer then proposes an answer from every root-to-leaf path in the reasoning tree. Finally, the Evidence Assembler extracts a key sentence containing the proposed answer from every path and combines them to predict the final answer. Intuitively, EPAr approximates the coarse-to-fine-grained comprehension behavior of human readers when facing multiple long documents. We jointly optimize our 3 modules by minimizing the sum of losses from each stage conditioned on the previous stage’s output. On two multi-hop reading comprehension datasets WikiHop and MedHop, our EPAr model achieves significant improvements over the baseline and competitive results compared to the state-of-the-art model. We also present multiple reasoning-chain-recovery tests and ablation studies to demonstrate our system’s ability to perform interpretable and accurate reasoning.

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Avoiding Reasoning Shortcuts: Adversarial Evaluation, Training, and Model Development for Multi-Hop QA
Yichen Jiang | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Multi-hop question answering requires a model to connect multiple pieces of evidence scattered in a long context to answer the question. In this paper, we show that in the multi-hop HotpotQA (Yang et al., 2018) dataset, the examples often contain reasoning shortcuts through which models can directly locate the answer by word-matching the question with a sentence in the context. We demonstrate this issue by constructing adversarial documents that create contradicting answers to the shortcut but do not affect the validity of the original answer. The performance of strong baseline models drops significantly on our adversarial test, indicating that they are indeed exploiting the shortcuts rather than performing multi-hop reasoning. After adversarial training, the baseline’s performance improves but is still limited on the adversarial test. Hence, we use a control unit that dynamically attends to the question at different reasoning hops to guide the model’s multi-hop reasoning. We show that our 2-hop model trained on the regular data is more robust to the adversaries than the baseline. After adversarial training, it not only achieves significant improvements over its counterpart trained on regular data, but also outperforms the adversarially-trained baseline significantly. Finally, we sanity-check that these improvements are not obtained by exploiting potential new shortcuts in the adversarial data, but indeed due to robust multi-hop reasoning skills of the models.

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Improving Visual Question Answering by Referring to Generated Paragraph Captions
Hyounghun Kim | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Paragraph-style image captions describe diverse aspects of an image as opposed to the more common single-sentence captions that only provide an abstract description of the image. These paragraph captions can hence contain substantial information of the image for tasks such as visual question answering. Moreover, this textual information is complementary with visual information present in the image because it can discuss both more abstract concepts and more explicit, intermediate symbolic information about objects, events, and scenes that can directly be matched with the textual question and copied into the textual answer (i.e., via easier modality match). Hence, we propose a combined Visual and Textual Question Answering (VTQA) model which takes as input a paragraph caption as well as the corresponding image, and answers the given question based on both inputs. In our model, the inputs are fused to extract related information by cross-attention (early fusion), then fused again in the form of consensus (late fusion), and finally expected answers are given an extra score to enhance the chance of selection (later fusion). Empirical results show that paragraph captions, even when automatically generated (via an RL-based encoder-decoder model), help correctly answer more visual questions. Overall, our joint model, when trained on the Visual Genome dataset, significantly improves the VQA performance over a strong baseline model.

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Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)
Mohit Bansal | Aline Villavicencio
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)

2018

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Adversarial Over-Sensitivity and Over-Stability Strategies for Dialogue Models
Tong Niu | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 22nd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

We present two categories of model-agnostic adversarial strategies that reveal the weaknesses of several generative, task-oriented dialogue models: Should-Not-Change strategies that evaluate over-sensitivity to small and semantics-preserving edits, as well as Should-Change strategies that test if a model is over-stable against subtle yet semantics-changing modifications. We next perform adversarial training with each strategy, employing a max-margin approach for negative generative examples. This not only makes the target dialogue model more robust to the adversarial inputs, but also helps it perform significantly better on the original inputs. Moreover, training on all strategies combined achieves further improvements, achieving a new state-of-the-art performance on the original task (also verified via human evaluation). In addition to adversarial training, we also address the robustness task at the model-level, by feeding it subword units as both inputs and outputs, and show that the resulting model is equally competitive, requires only 1/4 of the original vocabulary size, and is robust to one of the adversarial strategies (to which the original model is vulnerable) even without adversarial training.

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Polite Dialogue Generation Without Parallel Data
Tong Niu | Mohit Bansal
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 6

Stylistic dialogue response generation, with valuable applications in personality-based conversational agents, is a challenging task because the response needs to be fluent, contextually-relevant, as well as paralinguistically accurate. Moreover, parallel datasets for regular-to-stylistic pairs are usually unavailable. We present three weakly-supervised models that can generate diverse, polite (or rude) dialogue responses without parallel data. Our late fusion model (Fusion) merges the decoder of an encoder-attention-decoder dialogue model with a language model trained on stand-alone polite utterances. Our label-finetuning (LFT) model prepends to each source sequence a politeness-score scaled label (predicted by our state-of-the-art politeness classifier) during training, and at test time is able to generate polite, neutral, and rude responses by simply scaling the label embedding by the corresponding score. Our reinforcement learning model (Polite-RL) encourages politeness generation by assigning rewards proportional to the politeness classifier score of the sampled response. We also present two retrievalbased, polite dialogue model baselines. Human evaluation validates that while the Fusion and the retrieval-based models achieve politeness with poorer context-relevance, the LFT and Polite-RL models can produce significantly more polite responses without sacrificing dialogue quality.

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Game-Based Video-Context Dialogue
Ramakanth Pasunuru | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Current dialogue systems focus more on textual and speech context knowledge and are usually based on two speakers. Some recent work has investigated static image-based dialogue. However, several real-world human interactions also involve dynamic visual context (similar to videos) as well as dialogue exchanges among multiple speakers. To move closer towards such multimodal conversational skills and visually-situated applications, we introduce a new video-context, many-speaker dialogue dataset based on live-broadcast soccer game videos and chats from Twitch.tv. This challenging testbed allows us to develop visually-grounded dialogue models that should generate relevant temporal and spatial event language from the live video, while also being relevant to the chat history. For strong baselines, we also present several discriminative and generative models, e.g., based on tridirectional attention flow (TriDAF). We evaluate these models via retrieval ranking-recall, automatic phrase-matching metrics, as well as human evaluation studies. We also present dataset analyses, model ablations, and visualizations to understand the contribution of different modalities and model components.

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TVQA: Localized, Compositional Video Question Answering
Jie Lei | Licheng Yu | Mohit Bansal | Tamara Berg
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent years have witnessed an increasing interest in image-based question-answering (QA) tasks. However, due to data limitations, there has been much less work on video-based QA. In this paper, we present TVQA, a large-scale video QA dataset based on 6 popular TV shows. TVQA consists of 152,545 QA pairs from 21,793 clips, spanning over 460 hours of video. Questions are designed to be compositional in nature, requiring systems to jointly localize relevant moments within a clip, comprehend subtitle-based dialogue, and recognize relevant visual concepts. We provide analyses of this new dataset as well as several baselines and a multi-stream end-to-end trainable neural network framework for the TVQA task. The dataset is publicly available at http://tvqa.cs.unc.edu.

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SafeCity: Understanding Diverse Forms of Sexual Harassment Personal Stories
Sweta Karlekar | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

With the recent rise of #MeToo, an increasing number of personal stories about sexual harassment and sexual abuse have been shared online. In order to push forward the fight against such harassment and abuse, we present the task of automatically categorizing and analyzing various forms of sexual harassment, based on stories shared on the online forum SafeCity. For the labels of groping, ogling, and commenting, our single-label CNN-RNN model achieves an accuracy of 86.5%, and our multi-label model achieves a Hamming score of 82.5%. Furthermore, we present analysis using LIME, first-derivative saliency heatmaps, activation clustering, and embedding visualization to interpret neural model predictions and demonstrate how this helps extract features that can help automatically fill out incident reports, identify unsafe areas, avoid unsafe practices, and ‘pin the creeps’.

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Incorporating Background Knowledge into Video Description Generation
Spencer Whitehead | Heng Ji | Mohit Bansal | Shih-Fu Chang | Clare Voss
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Most previous efforts toward video captioning focus on generating generic descriptions, such as, “A man is talking.” We collect a news video dataset to generate enriched descriptions that include important background knowledge, such as named entities and related events, which allows the user to fully understand the video content. We develop an approach that uses video meta-data to retrieve topically related news documents for a video and extracts the events and named entities from these documents. Then, given the video as well as the extracted events and entities, we generate a description using a Knowledge-aware Video Description network. The model learns to incorporate entities found in the topically related documents into the description via an entity pointer network and the generation procedure is guided by the event and entity types from the topically related documents through a knowledge gate, which is a gating mechanism added to the model’s decoder that takes a one-hot vector of these types. We evaluate our approach on the new dataset of news videos we have collected, establishing the first benchmark for this dataset as well as proposing a new metric to evaluate these descriptions.

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Closed-Book Training to Improve Summarization Encoder Memory
Yichen Jiang | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

A good neural sequence-to-sequence summarization model should have a strong encoder that can distill and memorize the important information from long input texts so that the decoder can generate salient summaries based on the encoder’s memory. In this paper, we aim to improve the memorization capabilities of the encoder of a pointer-generator model by adding an additional ‘closed-book’ decoder without attention and pointer mechanisms. Such a decoder forces the encoder to be more selective in the information encoded in its memory state because the decoder can’t rely on the extra information provided by the attention and possibly copy modules, and hence improves the entire model. On the CNN/Daily Mail dataset, our 2-decoder model outperforms the baseline significantly in terms of ROUGE and METEOR metrics, for both cross-entropy and reinforced setups (and on human evaluation). Moreover, our model also achieves higher scores in a test-only DUC-2002 generalizability setup. We further present a memory ability test, two saliency metrics, as well as several sanity-check ablations (based on fixed-encoder, gradient-flow cut, and model capacity) to prove that the encoder of our 2-decoder model does in fact learn stronger memory representations than the baseline encoder.

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Commonsense for Generative Multi-Hop Question Answering Tasks
Lisa Bauer | Yicheng Wang | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Reading comprehension QA tasks have seen a recent surge in popularity, yet most works have focused on fact-finding extractive QA. We instead focus on a more challenging multi-hop generative task (NarrativeQA), which requires the model to reason, gather, and synthesize disjoint pieces of information within the context to generate an answer. This type of multi-step reasoning also often requires understanding implicit relations, which humans resolve via external, background commonsense knowledge. We first present a strong generative baseline that uses a multi-attention mechanism to perform multiple hops of reasoning and a pointer-generator decoder to synthesize the answer. This model performs substantially better than previous generative models, and is competitive with current state-of-the-art span prediction models. We next introduce a novel system for selecting grounded multi-hop relational commonsense information from ConceptNet via a pointwise mutual information and term-frequency based scoring function. Finally, we effectively use this extracted commonsense information to fill in gaps of reasoning between context hops, using a selectively-gated attention mechanism. This boosts the model’s performance significantly (also verified via human evaluation), establishing a new state-of-the-art for the task. We also show that our background knowledge enhancements are generalizable and improve performance on QAngaroo-WikiHop, another multi-hop reasoning dataset.

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Fast Abstractive Summarization with Reinforce-Selected Sentence Rewriting
Yen-Chun Chen | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Inspired by how humans summarize long documents, we propose an accurate and fast summarization model that first selects salient sentences and then rewrites them abstractively (i.e., compresses and paraphrases) to generate a concise overall summary. We use a novel sentence-level policy gradient method to bridge the non-differentiable computation between these two neural networks in a hierarchical way, while maintaining language fluency. Empirically, we achieve the new state-of-the-art on all metrics (including human evaluation) on the CNN/Daily Mail dataset, as well as significantly higher abstractiveness scores. Moreover, by first operating at the sentence-level and then the word-level, we enable parallel decoding of our neural generative model that results in substantially faster (10-20x) inference speed as well as 4x faster training convergence than previous long-paragraph encoder-decoder models. We also demonstrate the generalization of our model on the test-only DUC-2002 dataset, where we achieve higher scores than a state-of-the-art model.

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Soft Layer-Specific Multi-Task Summarization with Entailment and Question Generation
Han Guo | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

An accurate abstractive summary of a document should contain all its salient information and should be logically entailed by the input document. We improve these important aspects of abstractive summarization via multi-task learning with the auxiliary tasks of question generation and entailment generation, where the former teaches the summarization model how to look for salient questioning-worthy details, and the latter teaches the model how to rewrite a summary which is a directed-logical subset of the input document. We also propose novel multi-task architectures with high-level (semantic) layer-specific sharing across multiple encoder and decoder layers of the three tasks, as well as soft-sharing mechanisms (and show performance ablations and analysis examples of each contribution). Overall, we achieve statistically significant improvements over the state-of-the-art on both the CNN/DailyMail and Gigaword datasets, as well as on the DUC-2002 transfer setup. We also present several quantitative and qualitative analysis studies of our model’s learned saliency and entailment skills.

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Dynamic Multi-Level Multi-Task Learning for Sentence Simplification
Han Guo | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Sentence simplification aims to improve readability and understandability, based on several operations such as splitting, deletion, and paraphrasing. However, a valid simplified sentence should also be logically entailed by its input sentence. In this work, we first present a strong pointer-copy mechanism based sequence-to-sequence sentence simplification model, and then improve its entailment and paraphrasing capabilities via multi-task learning with related auxiliary tasks of entailment and paraphrase generation. Moreover, we propose a novel ‘multi-level’ layered soft sharing approach where each auxiliary task shares different (higher versus lower) level layers of the sentence simplification model, depending on the task’s semantic versus lexico-syntactic nature. We also introduce a novel multi-armed bandit based training approach that dynamically learns how to effectively switch across tasks during multi-task learning. Experiments on multiple popular datasets demonstrate that our model outperforms competitive simplification systems in SARI and FKGL automatic metrics, and human evaluation. Further, we present several ablation analyses on alternative layer sharing methods, soft versus hard sharing, dynamic multi-armed bandit sampling approaches, and our model’s learned entailment and paraphrasing skills.

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Parsing Speech: a Neural Approach to Integrating Lexical and Acoustic-Prosodic Information
Trang Tran | Shubham Toshniwal | Mohit Bansal | Kevin Gimpel | Karen Livescu | Mari Ostendorf
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

In conversational speech, the acoustic signal provides cues that help listeners disambiguate difficult parses. For automatically parsing spoken utterances, we introduce a model that integrates transcribed text and acoustic-prosodic features using a convolutional neural network over energy and pitch trajectories coupled with an attention-based recurrent neural network that accepts text and prosodic features. We find that different types of acoustic-prosodic features are individually helpful, and together give statistically significant improvements in parse and disfluency detection F1 scores over a strong text-only baseline. For this study with known sentence boundaries, error analyses show that the main benefit of acoustic-prosodic features is in sentences with disfluencies, attachment decisions are most improved, and transcription errors obscure gains from prosody.

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Object Ordering with Bidirectional Matchings for Visual Reasoning
Hao Tan | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

Visual reasoning with compositional natural language instructions, e.g., based on the newly-released Cornell Natural Language Visual Reasoning (NLVR) dataset, is a challenging task, where the model needs to have the ability to create an accurate mapping between the diverse phrases and the several objects placed in complex arrangements in the image. Further, this mapping needs to be processed to answer the question in the statement given the ordering and relationship of the objects across three similar images. In this paper, we propose a novel end-to-end neural model for the NLVR task, where we first use joint bidirectional attention to build a two-way conditioning between the visual information and the language phrases. Next, we use an RL-based pointer network to sort and process the varying number of unordered objects (so as to match the order of the statement phrases) in each of the three images and then pool over the three decisions. Our model achieves strong improvements (of 4-6% absolute) over the state-of-the-art on both the structured representation and raw image versions of the dataset.

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Robust Machine Comprehension Models via Adversarial Training
Yicheng Wang | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

It is shown that many published models for the Stanford Question Answering Dataset (Rajpurkar et al., 2016) lack robustness, suffering an over 50% decrease in F1 score during adversarial evaluation based on the AddSent (Jia and Liang, 2017) algorithm. It has also been shown that retraining models on data generated by AddSent has limited effect on their robustness. We propose a novel alternative adversary-generation algorithm, AddSentDiverse, that significantly increases the variance within the adversarial training data by providing effective examples that punish the model for making certain superficial assumptions. Further, in order to improve robustness to AddSent’s semantic perturbations (e.g., antonyms), we jointly improve the model’s semantic-relationship learning capabilities in addition to our AddSentDiverse-based adversarial training data augmentation. With these additions, we show that we can make a state-of-the-art model significantly more robust, achieving a 36.5% increase in F1 score under many different types of adversarial evaluation while maintaining performance on the regular SQuAD task.

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Multi-Reward Reinforced Summarization with Saliency and Entailment
Ramakanth Pasunuru | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

Abstractive text summarization is the task of compressing and rewriting a long document into a short summary while maintaining saliency, directed logical entailment, and non-redundancy. In this work, we address these three important aspects of a good summary via a reinforcement learning approach with two novel reward functions: ROUGESal and Entail, on top of a coverage-based baseline. The ROUGESal reward modifies the ROUGE metric by up-weighting the salient phrases/words detected via a keyphrase classifier. The Entail reward gives high (length-normalized) scores to logically-entailed summaries using an entailment classifier. Further, we show superior performance improvement when these rewards are combined with traditional metric (ROUGE) based rewards, via our novel and effective multi-reward approach of optimizing multiple rewards simultaneously in alternate mini-batches. Our method achieves the new state-of-the-art results on CNN/Daily Mail dataset as well as strong improvements in a test-only transfer setup on DUC-2002.

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Detecting Linguistic Characteristics of Alzheimer’s Dementia by Interpreting Neural Models
Sweta Karlekar | Tong Niu | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irreversible and progressive brain disease that can be stopped or slowed down with medical treatment. Language changes serve as a sign that a patient’s cognitive functions have been impacted, potentially leading to early diagnosis. In this work, we use NLP techniques to classify and analyze the linguistic characteristics of AD patients using the DementiaBank dataset. We apply three neural models based on CNNs, LSTM-RNNs, and their combination, to distinguish between language samples from AD and control patients. We achieve a new independent benchmark accuracy for the AD classification task. More importantly, we next interpret what these neural models have learned about the linguistic characteristics of AD patients, via analysis based on activation clustering and first-derivative saliency techniques. We then perform novel automatic pattern discovery inside activation clusters, and consolidate AD patients’ distinctive grammar patterns. Additionally, we show that first derivative saliency can not only rediscover previous language patterns of AD patients, but also shed light on the limitations of neural models. Lastly, we also include analysis of gender-separated AD data.

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Punny Captions: Witty Wordplay in Image Descriptions
Arjun Chandrasekaran | Devi Parikh | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

Wit is a form of rich interaction that is often grounded in a specific situation (e.g., a comment in response to an event). In this work, we attempt to build computational models that can produce witty descriptions for a given image. Inspired by a cognitive account of humor appreciation, we employ linguistic wordplay, specifically puns, in image descriptions. We develop two approaches which involve retrieving witty descriptions for a given image from a large corpus of sentences, or generating them via an encoder-decoder neural network architecture. We compare our approach against meaningful baseline approaches via human studies and show substantial improvements. Moreover, in a Turing test style evaluation, people find the image descriptions generated by our model to be slightly wittier than human-written witty descriptions when the human is subject to similar constraints as the model regarding word usage and style.

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Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Tutorial Abstracts
Mohit Bansal | Rebecca Passonneau
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Tutorial Abstracts

2017

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Proceedings of the First Workshop on Language Grounding for Robotics
Mohit Bansal | Cynthia Matuszek | Jacob Andreas | Yoav Artzi | Yonatan Bisk
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Language Grounding for Robotics

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Towards Improving Abstractive Summarization via Entailment Generation
Ramakanth Pasunuru | Han Guo | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the Workshop on New Frontiers in Summarization

Abstractive summarization, the task of rewriting and compressing a document into a short summary, has achieved considerable success with neural sequence-to-sequence models. However, these models can still benefit from stronger natural language inference skills, since a correct summary is logically entailed by the input document, i.e., it should not contain any contradictory or unrelated information. We incorporate such knowledge into an abstractive summarization model via multi-task learning, where we share its decoder parameters with those of an entailment generation model. We achieve promising initial improvements based on multiple metrics and datasets (including a test-only setting). The domain mismatch between the entailment (captions) and summarization (news) datasets suggests that the model is learning some domain-agnostic inference skills.

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Shortcut-Stacked Sentence Encoders for Multi-Domain Inference
Yixin Nie | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Evaluating Vector Space Representations for NLP

We present a simple sequential sentence encoder for multi-domain natural language inference. Our encoder is based on stacked bidirectional LSTM-RNNs with shortcut connections and fine-tuning of word embeddings. The overall supervised model uses the above encoder to encode two input sentences into two vectors, and then uses a classifier over the vector combination to label the relationship between these two sentences as that of entailment, contradiction, or neural. Our Shortcut-Stacked sentence encoders achieve strong improvements over existing encoders on matched and mismatched multi-domain natural language inference (top single-model result in the EMNLP RepEval 2017 Shared Task (Nangia et al., 2017)). Moreover, they achieve the new state-of-the-art encoding result on the original SNLI dataset (Bowman et al., 2015).

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Multi-Task Video Captioning with Video and Entailment Generation
Ramakanth Pasunuru | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Video captioning, the task of describing the content of a video, has seen some promising improvements in recent years with sequence-to-sequence models, but accurately learning the temporal and logical dynamics involved in the task still remains a challenge, especially given the lack of sufficient annotated data. We improve video captioning by sharing knowledge with two related directed-generation tasks: a temporally-directed unsupervised video prediction task to learn richer context-aware video encoder representations, and a logically-directed language entailment generation task to learn better video-entailing caption decoder representations. For this, we present a many-to-many multi-task learning model that shares parameters across the encoders and decoders of the three tasks. We achieve significant improvements and the new state-of-the-art on several standard video captioning datasets using diverse automatic and human evaluations. We also show mutual multi-task improvements on the entailment generation task.

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Proceedings of ACL 2017, System Demonstrations
Mohit Bansal | Heng Ji
Proceedings of ACL 2017, System Demonstrations

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Hierarchically-Attentive RNN for Album Summarization and Storytelling
Licheng Yu | Mohit Bansal | Tamara Berg
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We address the problem of end-to-end visual storytelling. Given a photo album, our model first selects the most representative (summary) photos, and then composes a natural language story for the album. For this task, we make use of the Visual Storytelling dataset and a model composed of three hierarchically-attentive Recurrent Neural Nets (RNNs) to: encode the album photos, select representative (summary) photos, and compose the story. Automatic and human evaluations show our model achieves better performance on selection, generation, and retrieval than baselines.

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Video Highlight Prediction Using Audience Chat Reactions
Cheng-Yang Fu | Joon Lee | Mohit Bansal | Alexander Berg
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Sports channel video portals offer an exciting domain for research on multimodal, multilingual analysis. We present methods addressing the problem of automatic video highlight prediction based on joint visual features and textual analysis of the real-world audience discourse with complex slang, in both English and traditional Chinese. We present a novel dataset based on League of Legends championships recorded from North American and Taiwanese Twitch.tv channels (will be released for further research), and demonstrate strong results on these using multimodal, character-level CNN-RNN model architectures.

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Reinforced Video Captioning with Entailment Rewards
Ramakanth Pasunuru | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Sequence-to-sequence models have shown promising improvements on the temporal task of video captioning, but they optimize word-level cross-entropy loss during training. First, using policy gradient and mixed-loss methods for reinforcement learning, we directly optimize sentence-level task-based metrics (as rewards), achieving significant improvements over the baseline, based on both automatic metrics and human evaluation on multiple datasets. Next, we propose a novel entailment-enhanced reward (CIDEnt) that corrects phrase-matching based metrics (such as CIDEr) to only allow for logically-implied partial matches and avoid contradictions, achieving further significant improvements over the CIDEr-reward model. Overall, our CIDEnt-reward model achieves the new state-of-the-art on the MSR-VTT dataset.

2016

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Mapping Unseen Words to Task-Trained Embedding Spaces
Pranava Swaroop Madhyastha | Mohit Bansal | Kevin Gimpel | Karen Livescu
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP

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What to talk about and how? Selective Generation using LSTMs with Coarse-to-Fine Alignment
Hongyuan Mei | Mohit Bansal | Matthew R. Walter
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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The Role of Context Types and Dimensionality in Learning Word Embeddings
Oren Melamud | David McClosky | Siddharth Patwardhan | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Tutorial Abstracts
Mohit Bansal | Alexander M. Rush
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Tutorial Abstracts

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End-to-End Relation Extraction using LSTMs on Sequences and Tree Structures
Makoto Miwa | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Question Relevance in VQA: Identifying Non-Visual And False-Premise Questions
Arijit Ray | Gordon Christie | Mohit Bansal | Dhruv Batra | Devi Parikh
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Sort Story: Sorting Jumbled Images and Captions into Stories
Harsh Agrawal | Arjun Chandrasekaran | Dhruv Batra | Devi Parikh | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Charagram: Embedding Words and Sentences via Character n-grams
John Wieting | Mohit Bansal | Kevin Gimpel | Karen Livescu
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Interpreting Neural Networks to Improve Politeness Comprehension
Malika Aubakirova | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Who did What: A Large-Scale Person-Centered Cloze Dataset
Takeshi Onishi | Hai Wang | Mohit Bansal | Kevin Gimpel | David McAllester
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

2015

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Dependency Link Embeddings: Continuous Representations of Syntactic Substructures
Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Vector Space Modeling for Natural Language Processing

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Machine Comprehension with Syntax, Frames, and Semantics
Hai Wang | Mohit Bansal | Kevin Gimpel | David McAllester
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

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Deep Multilingual Correlation for Improved Word Embeddings
Ang Lu | Weiran Wang | Mohit Bansal | Kevin Gimpel | Karen Livescu
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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A Sense-Topic Model for Word Sense Induction with Unsupervised Data Enrichment
Jing Wang | Mohit Bansal | Kevin Gimpel | Brian D. Ziebart | Clement T. Yu
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 3

Word sense induction (WSI) seeks to automatically discover the senses of a word in a corpus via unsupervised methods. We propose a sense-topic model for WSI, which treats sense and topic as two separate latent variables to be inferred jointly. Topics are informed by the entire document, while senses are informed by the local context surrounding the ambiguous word. We also discuss unsupervised ways of enriching the original corpus in order to improve model performance, including using neural word embeddings and external corpora to expand the context of each data instance. We demonstrate significant improvements over the previous state-of-the-art, achieving the best results reported to date on the SemEval-2013 WSI task.

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From Paraphrase Database to Compositional Paraphrase Model and Back
John Wieting | Mohit Bansal | Kevin Gimpel | Karen Livescu
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 3

The Paraphrase Database (PPDB; Ganitkevitch et al., 2013) is an extensive semantic resource, consisting of a list of phrase pairs with (heuristic) confidence estimates. However, it is still unclear how it can best be used, due to the heuristic nature of the confidences and its necessarily incomplete coverage. We propose models to leverage the phrase pairs from the PPDB to build parametric paraphrase models that score paraphrase pairs more accurately than the PPDB’s internal scores while simultaneously improving its coverage. They allow for learning phrase embeddings as well as improved word embeddings. Moreover, we introduce two new, manually annotated datasets to evaluate short-phrase paraphrasing models. Using our paraphrase model trained using PPDB, we achieve state-of-the-art results on standard word and bigram similarity tasks and beat strong baselines on our new short phrase paraphrase tasks.

2014

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Weakly-Supervised Learning with Cost-Augmented Contrastive Estimation
Kevin Gimpel | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

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Structured Learning for Taxonomy Induction with Belief Propagation
Mohit Bansal | David Burkett | Gerard de Melo | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Tailoring Continuous Word Representations for Dependency Parsing
Mohit Bansal | Kevin Gimpel | Karen Livescu
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

2013

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Good, Great, Excellent: Global Inference of Semantic Intensities
Gerard de Melo | Mohit Bansal
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 1

Adjectives like good, great, and excellent are similar in meaning, but differ in intensity. Intensity order information is very useful for language learners as well as in several NLP tasks, but is missing in most lexical resources (dictionaries, WordNet, and thesauri). In this paper, we present a primarily unsupervised approach that uses semantics from Web-scale data (e.g., phrases like good but not excellent) to rank words by assigning them positions on a continuous scale. We rely on Mixed Integer Linear Programming to jointly determine the ranks, such that individual decisions benefit from global information. When ranking English adjectives, our global algorithm achieves substantial improvements over previous work on both pairwise and rank correlation metrics (specifically, 70% pairwise accuracy as compared to only 56% by previous work). Moreover, our approach can incorporate external synonymy information (increasing its pairwise accuracy to 78%) and extends easily to new languages. We also make our code and data freely available.

2012

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Coreference Semantics from Web Features
Mohit Bansal | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Unsupervised Translation Sense Clustering
Mohit Bansal | John DeNero | Dekang Lin
Proceedings of the 2012 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

2011

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Web-Scale Features for Full-Scale Parsing
Mohit Bansal | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Gappy Phrasal Alignment By Agreement
Mohit Bansal | Chris Quirk | Robert Moore
Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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The Surprising Variance in Shortest-Derivation Parsing
Mohit Bansal | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Mention Detection: Heuristics for the OntoNotes annotations
Jonathan K. Kummerfeld | Mohit Bansal | David Burkett | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the Fifteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning: Shared Task

2010

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Simple, Accurate Parsing with an All-Fragments Grammar
Mohit Bansal | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

2009

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Efficient Parsing for Transducer Grammars
John DeNero | Mohit Bansal | Adam Pauls | Dan Klein
Proceedings of Human Language Technologies: The 2009 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

2008

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The Power of Negative Thinking: Exploiting Label Disagreement in the Min-cut Classification Framework
Mohit Bansal | Claire Cardie | Lillian Lee
Coling 2008: Companion volume: Posters

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