Moin Nadeem


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The GEM Benchmark: Natural Language Generation, its Evaluation and Metrics
Sebastian Gehrmann | Tosin Adewumi | Karmanya Aggarwal | Pawan Sasanka Ammanamanchi | Anuoluwapo Aremu | Antoine Bosselut | Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | Miruna-Adriana Clinciu | Dipanjan Das | Kaustubh Dhole | Wanyu Du | Esin Durmus | Ondřej Dušek | Chris Chinenye Emezue | Varun Gangal | Cristina Garbacea | Tatsunori Hashimoto | Yufang Hou | Yacine Jernite | Harsh Jhamtani | Yangfeng Ji | Shailza Jolly | Mihir Kale | Dhruv Kumar | Faisal Ladhak | Aman Madaan | Mounica Maddela | Khyati Mahajan | Saad Mahamood | Bodhisattwa Prasad Majumder | Pedro Henrique Martins | Angelina McMillan-Major | Simon Mille | Emiel van Miltenburg | Moin Nadeem | Shashi Narayan | Vitaly Nikolaev | Andre Niyongabo Rubungo | Salomey Osei | Ankur Parikh | Laura Perez-Beltrachini | Niranjan Ramesh Rao | Vikas Raunak | Juan Diego Rodriguez | Sashank Santhanam | João Sedoc | Thibault Sellam | Samira Shaikh | Anastasia Shimorina | Marco Antonio Sobrevilla Cabezudo | Hendrik Strobelt | Nishant Subramani | Wei Xu | Diyi Yang | Akhila Yerukola | Jiawei Zhou
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Natural Language Generation, Evaluation, and Metrics (GEM 2021)

We introduce GEM, a living benchmark for natural language Generation (NLG), its Evaluation, and Metrics. Measuring progress in NLG relies on a constantly evolving ecosystem of automated metrics, datasets, and human evaluation standards. Due to this moving target, new models often still evaluate on divergent anglo-centric corpora with well-established, but flawed, metrics. This disconnect makes it challenging to identify the limitations of current models and opportunities for progress. Addressing this limitation, GEM provides an environment in which models can easily be applied to a wide set of tasks and in which evaluation strategies can be tested. Regular updates to the benchmark will help NLG research become more multilingual and evolve the challenge alongside models. This paper serves as the description of the data for the 2021 shared task at the associated GEM Workshop.

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StereoSet: Measuring stereotypical bias in pretrained language models
Moin Nadeem | Anna Bethke | Siva Reddy
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

A stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular group of people, e.g., Asians are good at math or African Americans are athletic. Such beliefs (biases) are known to hurt target groups. Since pretrained language models are trained on large real-world data, they are known to capture stereotypical biases. It is important to quantify to what extent these biases are present in them. Although this is a rapidly growing area of research, existing literature lacks in two important aspects: 1) they mainly evaluate bias of pretrained language models on a small set of artificial sentences, even though these models are trained on natural data 2) current evaluations focus on measuring bias without considering the language modeling ability of a model, which could lead to misleading trust on a model even if it is a poor language model. We address both these problems. We present StereoSet, a large-scale natural English dataset to measure stereotypical biases in four domains: gender, profession, race, and religion. We contrast both stereotypical bias and language modeling ability of popular models like BERT, GPT-2, RoBERTa, and XLnet. We show that these models exhibit strong stereotypical biases. Our data and code are available at


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A Systematic Characterization of Sampling Algorithms for Open-ended Language Generation
Moin Nadeem | Tianxing He | Kyunghyun Cho | James Glass
Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 10th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

This work studies the widely adopted ancestral sampling algorithms for auto-regressive language models. We use the quality-diversity (Q-D) trade-off to investigate three popular sampling methods (top-k, nucleus and tempered sampling). We focus on the task of open-ended language generation, and first show that the existing sampling algorithms have similar performance. By carefully inspecting the transformations defined by different sampling algorithms, we identify three key properties that are shared among them: entropy reduction, order preservation, and slope preservation. To validate the importance of the identified properties, we design two sets of new sampling methods: one set in which each algorithm satisfies all three properties, and one set in which each algorithm violates at least one of the properties. We compare their performance with existing algorithms, and find that violating the identified properties could lead to drastic performance degradation, as measured by the Q-D trade-off. On the other hand, we find that the set of sampling algorithms that satisfy these properties performs on par with the existing sampling algorithms.


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Neural Multi-Task Learning for Stance Prediction
Wei Fang | Moin Nadeem | Mitra Mohtarami | James Glass
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Fact Extraction and VERification (FEVER)

We present a multi-task learning model that leverages large amount of textual information from existing datasets to improve stance prediction. In particular, we utilize multiple NLP tasks under both unsupervised and supervised settings for the target stance prediction task. Our model obtains state-of-the-art performance on a public benchmark dataset, Fake News Challenge, outperforming current approaches by a wide margin.

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FAKTA: An Automatic End-to-End Fact Checking System
Moin Nadeem | Wei Fang | Brian Xu | Mitra Mohtarami | James Glass
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Demonstrations)

We present FAKTA which is a unified framework that integrates various components of a fact-checking process: document retrieval from media sources with various types of reliability, stance detection of documents with respect to given claims, evidence extraction, and linguistic analysis. FAKTA predicts the factuality of given claims and provides evidence at the document and sentence level to explain its predictions.