Mousumi Akter


2023

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On Evaluation of Bangla Word Analogies
Mousumi Akter | Souvika Sarkar | Shubhra Kanti Karmaker Santu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

This paper presents a benchmark dataset of Bangla word analogies for evaluating the quality of existing Bangla word embeddings. Despite being the 7th largest spoken language in the world, Bangla is still a low-resource language and popular NLP models often struggle to perform well on Bangla data sets. Therefore, developing a robust evaluation set is crucial for benchmarking and guiding future research on improving Bangla word embeddings, which is currently missing. To address this issue, we introduce a new evaluation set of 16,678 unique word analogies in Bangla as well as a translated and curated version of the original Mikolov dataset (10,594 samples) in Bangla. Our experiments with different state-of-the-art embedding models reveal that current Bangla word embeddings struggle to achieve high accuracy on both data sets, demonstrating a significant gap in multilingual NLP research.

2022

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Semantic Overlap Summarization among Multiple Alternative Narratives: An Exploratory Study
Naman Bansal | Mousumi Akter | Shubhra Kanti Karmaker Santu
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

In this paper, we introduce an important yet relatively unexplored NLP task called Semantic Overlap Summarization (SOS), which entails generating a single summary from multiple alternative narratives which can convey the common information provided by those narratives. As no benchmark dataset is readily available for this task, we created one by collecting 2,925 alternative narrative pairs from the web and then, went through the tedious process of manually creating 411 different reference summaries by engaging human annotators. As a way to evaluate this novel task, we first conducted a systematic study by borrowing the popular ROUGE metric from text-summarization literature and discovered that ROUGE is not suitable for our task. Subsequently, we conducted further human annotations to create 200 document-level and 1,518 sentence-level ground-truth overlap labels. Our experiments show that the sentence-wise annotation technique with three overlap labels, i.e., Absent (A), Partially-Present (PP), and Present (P), yields a higher correlation with human judgment and higher inter-rater agreement compared to the ROUGE metric.

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Revisiting Automatic Evaluation of Extractive Summarization Task: Can We Do Better than ROUGE?
Mousumi Akter | Naman Bansal | Shubhra Kanti Karmaker
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

It has been the norm for a long time to evaluate automated summarization tasks using the popular ROUGE metric. Although several studies in the past have highlighted the limitations of ROUGE, researchers have struggled to reach a consensus on a better alternative until today. One major limitation of the traditional ROUGE metric is the lack of semantic understanding (relies on direct overlap of n-grams). In this paper, we exclusively focus on the extractive summarization task and propose a semantic-aware nCG (normalized cumulative gain)-based evaluation metric (called Sem-nCG) for evaluating this task. One fundamental contribution of the paper is that it demonstrates how we can generate more reliable semantic-aware ground truths for evaluating extractive summarization tasks without any additional human intervention. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first of its kind. We have conducted extensive experiments with this new metric using the widely used CNN/DailyMail dataset. Experimental results show that the new Sem-nCG metric is indeed semantic-aware, shows higher correlation with human judgement (more reliable) and yields a large number of disagreements with the original ROUGE metric (suggesting that ROUGE often leads to inaccurate conclusions also verified by humans).

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SEM-F1: an Automatic Way for Semantic Evaluation of Multi-Narrative Overlap Summaries at Scale
Naman Bansal | Mousumi Akter | Shubhra Kanti Karmaker Santu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent work has introduced an important yet relatively under-explored NLP task called Semantic Overlap Summarization (SOS) that entails generating a summary from multiple alternative narratives which conveys the common information provided by those narratives. Previous work also published a benchmark dataset for this task by collecting 2,925 alternative narrative pairs from the web and manually annotating 411 different reference summaries by engaging human annotators. In this paper, we exclusively focus on the automated evaluation of the SOS task using the benchmark dataset. More specifically, we first use the popular ROUGE metric from text-summarization literature and conduct a systematic study to evaluate the SOS task. Our experiments discover that ROUGE is not suitable for this novel task and therefore, we propose a new sentence-level precision-recall style automated evaluation metric, called SEM-F1 (Semantic F1). It is inspired by the benefits of the sentence-wise annotation technique using overlap labels reported by the previous work. Our experiments show that the proposed SEM-F1 metric yields a higher correlation with human judgment and higher inter-rater agreement compared to the ROUGE metric.

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Learning to Generate Overlap Summaries through Noisy Synthetic Data
Naman Bansal | Mousumi Akter | Shubhra Kanti Karmaker Santu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Semantic Overlap Summarization (SOS) is a novel and relatively under-explored seq-to-seq task which entails summarizing common information from multiple alternate narratives. One of the major challenges for solving this task is the lack of existing datasets for supervised training. To address this challenge, we propose a novel data augmentation technique, which allows us to create large amount of synthetic data for training a seq-to-seq model that can perform the SOS task. Through extensive experiments using narratives from the news domain, we show that the models fine-tuned using the synthetic dataset provide significant performance improvements over the pre-trained vanilla summarization techniques and are close to the models fine-tuned on the golden training data; which essentially demonstrates the effectiveness of out proposed data augmentation technique for training seq-to-seq models on the SOS task.