Recent emergence of multilingual pre-training language model (mPLM) has enabled breakthroughs on various downstream cross-lingual transfer (CLT) tasks. However, mPLM-based methods usually involve two problems: (1) simply fine-tuning may not adapt general-purpose multilingual representations to be task-aware on low-resource languages; (2) ignore how cross-lingual adaptation happens for downstream tasks. To address the issues, we propose a meta graph learning (MGL) method. Unlike prior works that transfer from scratch, MGL can learn to cross-lingual transfer by extracting meta-knowledge from historical CLT experiences (tasks), making mPLM insensitive to low-resource languages. Besides, for each CLT task, MGL formulates its transfer process as information propagation over a dynamic graph, where the geometric structure can automatically capture intrinsic language relationships to explicitly guide cross-lingual transfer. Empirically, extensive experiments on both public and real-world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the MGL method.