Mustafa Jarrar


2023

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Open-Source Thesaurus Development for Under-Resourced Languages: a Welsh Case Study
Nouran Khallaf | Elin Arfon | Mo El-Haj | Jonathan Morris | Dawn Knight | Paul Rayson | Tymaa Hasanain Hammouda | Mustafa Jarrar
Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Language, Data and Knowledge

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Context-Gloss Augmentation for Improving Arabic Target Sense Verification
Sanad Malaysha | Mustafa Jarrar | Mohammed Khalilia
Proceedings of the 12th Global Wordnet Conference

Arabic language lacks semantic datasets and sense inventories. The most common semantically-labeled dataset for Arabic is the ArabGlossBERT, a relatively small dataset that consists of 167K context-gloss pairs (about 60K positive and 107K negative pairs), collected from Arabic dictionaries. This paper presents an enrichment to the ArabGlossBERT dataset, by augmenting it using (Arabic-English-Arabic) machine back-translation. Augmentation increased the dataset size to 352K pairs (149K positive and 203K negative pairs). We measure the impact of augmentation using different data configurations to fine-tune BERT on target sense verification (TSV) task. Overall, the accuracy ranges between 78% to 84% for different data configurations. Although our approach performed at par with the baseline, we did observe some improvements for some POS tags in some experiments. Furthermore, our fine-tuned models are trained on a larger dataset covering larger vocabulary and contexts. We provide an in-depth analysis of the accuracy for each part-of-speech (POS).

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A Benchmark and Scoring Algorithm for Enriching Arabic Synonyms
Sana Ghanem | Mustafa Jarrar | Radi Jarrar | Ibrahim Bounhas
Proceedings of the 12th Global Wordnet Conference

This paper addresses the task of extending a given synset with additional synonyms taking into account synonymy strength as a fuzzy value. Given a mono/multilingual synset and a threshold (a fuzzy value [0−1]), our goal is to extract new synonyms above this threshold from existing lexicons. We present twofold contributions: an algorithm and a benchmark dataset. The dataset consists of 3K candidate synonyms for 500 synsets. Each candidate synonym is annotated with a fuzzy value by four linguists. The dataset is important for (i) understanding how much linguists (dis/)agree on synonymy, in addition to (ii) using the dataset as a baseline to evaluate our algorithm. Our proposed algorithm extracts synonyms from existing lexicons and computes a fuzzy value for each candidate. Our evaluations show that the algorithm behaves like a linguist and its fuzzy values are close to those proposed by linguists (using RMSE and MAE). The dataset and a demo page are publicly available at https://portal.sina.birzeit.edu/synonyms.

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Nâbra: Syrian Arabic Dialects with Morphological Annotations
Amal Nayouf | Tymaa Hammouda | Mustafa Jarrar | Fadi Zaraket | Mohamad-Bassam Kurdy
Proceedings of ArabicNLP 2023

This paper presents Nâbra (نَبْرَة), a corpora of Syrian Arabic dialects with morphological annotations. A team of Syrian natives collected more than 6K sentences containing about 60K words from several sources including social media posts, scripts of movies and series, lyrics of songs and local proverbs to build Nâbra. Nâbra covers several local Syrian dialects including those of Aleppo, Damascus, Deir-ezzur, Hama, Homs, Huran, Latakia, Mardin, Raqqah, and Suwayda. A team of nine annotators annotated the 60K tokens with full morphological annotations across sentence contexts. We trained the annotators to follow methodological annotation guidelines to ensure unique morpheme annotations, and normalized the annotations. F1 and 𝜅 agreement scores ranged between 74% and 98% across features, showing the excellent quality of Nâbra annotations. Our corpora are open-source and publicly available as part of the Currasat portal https://sina.birzeit.edu/currasat.

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ArBanking77: Intent Detection Neural Model and a New Dataset in Modern and Dialectical Arabic
Mustafa Jarrar | Ahmet Birim | Mohammed Khalilia | Mustafa Erden | Sana Ghanem
Proceedings of ArabicNLP 2023

This paper presents the ArBanking77, a large Arabic dataset for intent detection in the banking domain. Our dataset was arabized and localized from the original English Banking77 dataset, which consists of 13,083 queries to ArBanking77 dataset with 31,404 queries in both Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and Palestinian dialect, with each query classified into one of the 77 classes (intents). Furthermore, we present a neural model, based on AraBERT, fine-tuned on ArBanking77, which achieved an F1-score of 0.9209 and 0.8995 on MSA and Palestinian dialect, respectively. We performed extensive experimentation in which we simulated low-resource settings, where the model is trained on a subset of the data and augmented with noisy queries to simulate colloquial terms, mistakes and misspellings found in real NLP systems, especially live chat queries. The data and the models are publicly available at https://sina.birzeit.edu/arbanking77.

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Arabic Fine-Grained Entity Recognition
Haneen Liqreina | Mustafa Jarrar | Mohammed Khalilia | Ahmed El-Shangiti | Muhammad Abdul-Mageed
Proceedings of ArabicNLP 2023

Traditional NER systems are typically trained to recognize coarse-grained categories of entities, and less attention is given to classifying entities into a hierarchy of fine-grained lower-level sub-types. This article aims to advance Arabic NER with fine-grained entities. We chose to extend Wojood (an open-source Nested Arabic Named Entity Corpus) with sub-types. In particular, four main entity types in Wojood (geopolitical entity (GPE), location (LOC), organization (ORG), and facility (FAC) are extended with 31 sub-types of entities. To do this, we first revised Wojood’s annotations of GPE, LOC, ORG, and FAC to be compatible with the LDC’s ACE guidelines, which yielded 5, 614 changes. Second, all mentions of GPE, LOC, ORG, and FAC (~ 44K) in Wojood are manually annotated with the LDC’s ACE subtypes. This extended version of Wojood is called WojoodFine. To evaluate our annotations, we measured the inter-annotator agreement (IAA) using both Cohen’s Kappa and F1 score, resulting in 0.9861 and 0.9889, respectively. To compute the baselines of WojoodFine, we fine-tune three pre-trained Arabic BERT encoders in three settings: flat NER, nested NER and nested NER with sub-types and achieved F1 score of 0.920, 0.866, and 0.885, respectively. Our corpus and models are open source and available at https://sina.birzeit.edu/wojood/.

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SALMA: Arabic Sense-Annotated Corpus and WSD Benchmarks
Mustafa Jarrar | Sanad Malaysha | Tymaa Hammouda | Mohammed Khalilia
Proceedings of ArabicNLP 2023

SALMA, the first Arabic sense-annotated corpus, consists of ~34K tokens, which are all sense-annotated. The corpus is annotated using two different sense inventories simultaneously (Modern and Ghani). SALMA novelty lies in how tokens and senses are associated. Instead of linking a token to only one intended sense, SALMA links a token to multiple senses and provides a score to each sense. A smart web-based annotation tool was developed to support scoring multiple senses against a given word. In addition to sense annotations, we also annotated the corpus using six types of named entities. The quality of our annotations was assessed using various metrics (Kappa, Linear Weighted Kappa, Quadratic Weighted Kappa, Mean Average Error, and Root Mean Square Error), which show very high inter-annotator agreement. To establish a Word Sense Disambiguation baseline using our SALMA corpus, we developed an end-to-end Word Sense Disambiguation system using Target Sense Verification. We used this system to evaluate three Target Sense Verification models available in the literature. Our best model achieved an accuracy with 84.2% using Modern and 78.7% using Ghani. The full corpus and the annotation tool are open-source and publicly available at https://sina.birzeit.edu/salma/.

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WojoodNER 2023: The First Arabic Named Entity Recognition Shared Task
Mustafa Jarrar | Muhammad Abdul-Mageed | Mohammed Khalilia | Bashar Talafha | AbdelRahim Elmadany | Nagham Hamad | Alaa’ Omar
Proceedings of ArabicNLP 2023

We present WojoodNER-2023, the first Arabic Named Entity Recognition (NER) Shared Task. The primary focus of WojoodNER 2023 is on Arabic NER, offering a novel NER datasets (i.e., Wojood) and the definition of subtasks designed to facilitate meaningful comparisons between different NER approaches. WojoodNER-2023 encompassed two Subtasks: FlatNER and NestedNER. A total of 45 unique teams registered for this shared task, with 11 of them actively participating in the test phase. Specifically, 11 teams participated in FlatNER, while 8 teams tackled NestedNER. The winning team achieved F1 score of 91.96 and 93.73 in FlatNER and NestedNER respectively.

2022

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Curras + Baladi: Towards a Levantine Corpus
Karim Al-Haff | Mustafa Jarrar | Tymaa Hammouda | Fadi Zaraket
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

This paper presents two-fold contributions: a full revision of the Palestinian morphologically annotated corpus (Curras), and a newly annotated Lebanese corpus (Baladi). Both corpora can be used as a more general Levantine corpus. Baladi consists of around 9.6K morphologically annotated tokens. Each token was manually annotated with several morphological features and using LDC’s SAMA lemmas and tags. The inter-annotator evaluation on most features illustrates 78.5% Kappa and 90.1% F1-Score. Curras was revised by refining all annotations for accuracy, normalization and unification of POS tags, and linking with SAMA lemmas. This revision was also important to ensure that both corpora are compatible and can help to bridge the nuanced linguistic gaps that exist between the two highly mutually intelligible dialects. Both corpora are publicly available through a web portal.

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Wojood: Nested Arabic Named Entity Corpus and Recognition using BERT
Mustafa Jarrar | Mohammed Khalilia | Sana Ghanem
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

This paper presents Wojood, a corpus for Arabic nested Named Entity Recognition (NER). Nested entities occur when one entity mention is embedded inside another entity mention. Wojood consists of about 550K Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and dialect tokens that are manually annotated with 21 entity types including person, organization, location, event and date. More importantly, the corpus is annotated with nested entities instead of the more common flat annotations. The data contains about 75K entities and 22.5% of which are nested. The inter-annotator evaluation of the corpus demonstrated a strong agreement with Cohen’s Kappa of 0.979 and an F1-score of 0.976. To validate our data, we used the corpus to train a nested NER model based on multi-task learning using the pre-trained AraBERT (Arabic BERT). The model achieved an overall micro F1-score of 0.884. Our corpus, the annotation guidelines, the source code and the pre-trained model are publicly available.

2021

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Extracting Synonyms from Bilingual Dictionaries
Mustafa Jarrar | Eman Naser | Muhammad Khalifa | Khaled Shaalan
Proceedings of the 11th Global Wordnet Conference

We present our progress in developing a novel algorithm to extract synonyms from bilingual dictionaries. Identification and usage of synonyms play a significant role in improving the performance of information access applications. The idea is to construct a translation graph from translation pairs, then to extract and consolidate cyclic paths to form bilingual sets of synonyms. The initial evaluation of this algorithm illustrates promising results in extracting Arabic-English bilingual synonyms. In the evaluation, we first converted the synsets in the Arabic WordNet into translation pairs (i.e., losing word-sense memberships). Next, we applied our algorithm to rebuild these synsets. We compared the original and extracted synsets obtaining an F-Measure of 82.3% and 82.1% for Arabic and English synsets extraction, respectively.

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ArabGlossBERT: Fine-Tuning BERT on Context-Gloss Pairs for WSD
Moustafa Al-Hajj | Mustafa Jarrar
Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP 2021)

Using pre-trained transformer models such as BERT has proven to be effective in many NLP tasks. This paper presents our work to fine-tune BERT models for Arabic Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD). We treated the WSD task as a sentence-pair binary classification task. First, we constructed a dataset of labeled Arabic context-gloss pairs (~167k pairs) we extracted from the Arabic Ontology and the large lexicographic database available at Birzeit University. Each pair was labeled as True or False and target words in each context were identified and annotated. Second, we used this dataset for fine-tuning three pre-trained Arabic BERT models. Third, we experimented the use of different supervised signals used to emphasize target words in context. Our experiments achieved promising results (accuracy of 84%) although we used a large set of senses in the experiment.

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LU-BZU at SemEval-2021 Task 2: Word2Vec and Lemma2Vec performance in Arabic Word-in-Context disambiguation
Moustafa Al-Hajj | Mustafa Jarrar
Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2021)

This paper presents a set of experiments to evaluate and compare between the performance of using CBOW Word2Vec and Lemma2Vec models for Arabic Word-in-Context (WiC) disambiguation without using sense inventories or sense embeddings. As part of the SemEval-2021 Shared Task 2 on WiC disambiguation, we used the dev.ar-ar dataset (2k sentence pairs) to decide whether two words in a given sentence pair carry the same meaning. We used two Word2Vec models: Wiki-CBOW, a pre-trained model on Arabic Wikipedia, and another model we trained on large Arabic corpora of about 3 billion tokens. Two Lemma2Vec models was also constructed based on the two Word2Vec models. Each of the four models was then used in the WiC disambiguation task, and then evaluated on the SemEval-2021 test.ar-ar dataset. At the end, we reported the performance of different models and compared between using lemma-based and word-based models.

2014

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Towards Building Lexical Ontology via Cross-Language Matching
Mamoun Abu Helou | Matteo Palmonari | Mustafa Jarrar | Christiane Fellbaum
Proceedings of the Seventh Global Wordnet Conference

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Building a Corpus for Palestinian Arabic: a Preliminary Study
Mustafa Jarrar | Nizar Habash | Diyam Akra | Nasser Zalmout
Proceedings of the EMNLP 2014 Workshop on Arabic Natural Language Processing (ANLP)