Nagib Hakim


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Fusing Temporal Graphs into Transformers for Time-Sensitive Question Answering
Xin Su | Phillip Howard | Nagib Hakim | Steven Bethard
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Answering time-sensitive questions from long documents requires temporal reasoning over the times in questions and documents. An important open question is whether large language models can perform such reasoning solely using a provided text document, or whether they can benefit from additional temporal information extracted using other systems. We address this research question by applying existing temporal information extraction systems to construct temporal graphs of events, times, and temporal relations in questions and documents. We then investigate different approaches for fusing these graphs into Transformer models. Experimental results show that our proposed approach for fusing temporal graphs into input text substantially enhances the temporal reasoning capabilities of Transformer models with or without fine-tuning. Additionally, our proposed method outperforms various graph convolution-based approaches and establishes a new state-of-the-art performance on SituatedQA and three splits of TimeQA.


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Semi-supervised Interactive Intent Labeling
Saurav Sahay | Eda Okur | Nagib Hakim | Lama Nachman
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Data Science with Human in the Loop: Language Advances

Building the Natural Language Understanding (NLU) modules of task-oriented Spoken Dialogue Systems (SDS) involves a definition of intents and entities, collection of task-relevant data, annotating the data with intents and entities, and then repeating the same process over and over again for adding any functionality/enhancement to the SDS. In this work, we showcase an Intent Bulk Labeling system where SDS developers can interactively label and augment training data from unlabeled utterance corpora using advanced clustering and visual labeling methods. We extend the Deep Aligned Clustering work with a better backbone BERT model, explore techniques to select the seed data for labeling, and develop a data balancing method using an oversampling technique that utilizes paraphrasing models. We also look at the effect of data augmentation on the clustering process. Our results show that we can achieve over 10% gain in clustering accuracy on some datasets using the combination of the above techniques. Finally, we extract utterance embeddings from the clustering model and plot the data to interactively bulk label the samples, reducing the time and effort for data labeling of the whole dataset significantly.