Naiara Pérez

Also published as: Naiara Perez


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Sensitive Data Detection and Classification in Spanish Clinical Text: Experiments with BERT
Aitor García Pablos | Naiara Perez | Montse Cuadros
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Massive digital data processing provides a wide range of opportunities and benefits, but at the cost of endangering personal data privacy. Anonymisation consists in removing or replacing sensitive information from data, enabling its exploitation for different purposes while preserving the privacy of individuals. Over the years, a lot of automatic anonymisation systems have been proposed; however, depending on the type of data, the target language or the availability of training documents, the task remains challenging still. The emergence of novel deep-learning models during the last two years has brought large improvements to the state of the art in the field of Natural Language Processing. These advancements have been most noticeably led by BERT, a model proposed by Google in 2018, and the shared language models pre-trained on millions of documents. In this paper, we use a BERT-based sequence labelling model to conduct a series of anonymisation experiments on several clinical datasets in Spanish. We also compare BERT with other algorithms. The experiments show that a simple BERT-based model with general-domain pre-training obtains highly competitive results without any domain specific feature engineering.

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NUBes: A Corpus of Negation and Uncertainty in Spanish Clinical Texts
Salvador Lima Lopez | Naiara Perez | Montse Cuadros | German Rigau
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

This paper introduces the first version of the NUBes corpus (Negation and Uncertainty annotations in Biomedical texts in Spanish). The corpus is part of an on-going research and currently consists of 29,682 sentences obtained from anonymised health records annotated with negation and uncertainty. The article includes an exhaustive comparison with similar corpora in Spanish, and presents the main annotation and design decisions. Additionally, we perform preliminary experiments using deep learning algorithms to validate the annotated dataset. As far as we know, NUBes is the largest available corpora for negation in Spanish and the first that also incorporates the annotation of speculation cues, scopes, and events.

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HitzalMed: Anonymisation of Clinical Text in Spanish
Salvador Lima Lopez | Naiara Perez | Laura García-Sardiña | Montse Cuadros
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

HitzalMed is a web-framed tool that performs automatic detection of sensitive information in clinical texts using machine learning algorithms reported to be competitive for the task. Moreover, once sensitive information is detected, different anonymisation techniques are implemented that are configurable by the user –for instance, substitution, where sensitive items are replaced by same category text in an effort to generate a new document that looks as natural as the original one. The tool is able to get data from different document formats and outputs downloadable anonymised data. This paper presents the anonymisation and substitution technology and the demonstrator which is publicly available at


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Hate Speech Dataset from a White Supremacy Forum
Ona de Gibert | Naiara Perez | Aitor García-Pablos | Montse Cuadros
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Abusive Language Online (ALW2)

Hate speech is commonly defined as any communication that disparages a target group of people based on some characteristic such as race, colour, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, nationality, religion, or other characteristic. Due to the massive rise of user-generated web content on social media, the amount of hate speech is also steadily increasing. Over the past years, interest in online hate speech detection and, particularly, the automation of this task has continuously grown, along with the societal impact of the phenomenon. This paper describes a hate speech dataset composed of thousands of sentences manually labelled as containing hate speech or not. The sentences have been extracted from Stormfront, a white supremacist forum. A custom annotation tool has been developed to carry out the manual labelling task which, among other things, allows the annotators to choose whether to read the context of a sentence before labelling it. The paper also provides a thoughtful qualitative and quantitative study of the resulting dataset and several baseline experiments with different classification models. The dataset is publicly available.


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Multilingual CALL Framework for Automatic Language Exercise Generation from Free Text
Naiara Perez | Montse Cuadros
Proceedings of the Software Demonstrations of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

This paper describes a web-based application to design and answer exercises for language learning. It is available in Basque, Spanish, English, and French. Based on open-source Natural Language Processing (NLP) technology such as word embedding models and word sense disambiguation, the application enables users to automatic create easily and in real time three types of exercises, namely, Fill-in-the-Gaps, Multiple Choice, and Shuffled Sentences questionnaires. These are generated from texts of the users’ own choice, so they can train their language skills with content of their particular interest.


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Exploiting a Large Strongly Comparable Corpus
Thierry Etchegoyhen | Andoni Azpeitia | Naiara Pérez
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

This article describes a large comparable corpus for Basque and Spanish and the methods employed to build a parallel resource from the original data. The EITB corpus, a strongly comparable corpus in the news domain, is to be shared with the research community, as an aid for the development and testing of methods in comparable corpora exploitation, and as basis for the improvement of data-driven machine translation systems for this language pair. Competing approaches were explored for the alignment of comparable segments in the corpus, resulting in the design of a simple method which outperformed a state-of-the-art method on the corpus test sets. The method we present is highly portable, computationally efficient, and significantly reduces deployment work, a welcome result for the exploitation of comparable corpora.