Naoto Usuyama


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Exploring the Boundaries of GPT-4 in Radiology
Qianchu Liu | Stephanie Hyland | Shruthi Bannur | Kenza Bouzid | Daniel Castro | Maria Wetscherek | Robert Tinn | Harshita Sharma | Fernando Pérez-García | Anton Schwaighofer | Pranav Rajpurkar | Sameer Khanna | Hoifung Poon | Naoto Usuyama | Anja Thieme | Aditya Nori | Matthew Lungren | Ozan Oktay | Javier Alvarez-Valle
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The recent success of general-domain large language models (LLMs) has significantly changed the natural language processing paradigm towards a unified foundation model across domains and applications. In this paper, we focus on assessing the performance of GPT-4, the most capable LLM so far, on the text-based applications for radiology reports, comparing against state-of-the-art (SOTA) radiology-specific models. Exploring various prompting strategies, we evaluated GPT-4 on a diverse range of common radiology tasks and we found GPT-4 either outperforms or is on par with current SOTA radiology models. With zero-shot prompting, GPT-4 already obtains substantial gains ( 10% absolute improvement) over radiology models in temporal sentence similarity classification (accuracy) and natural language inference (F1). For tasks that require learning dataset-specific style or schema (e.g. findings summarisation), GPT-4 improves with example-based prompting and matches supervised SOTA. Our extensive error analysis with a board-certified radiologist shows GPT-4 has a sufficient level of radiology knowledge with only occasional errors in complex context that require nuanced domain knowledge. For findings summarisation, GPT-4 outputs are found to be overall comparable with existing manually-written impressions.

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Compositional Zero-Shot Domain Transfer with Text-to-Text Models
Fangyu Liu | Qianchu Liu | Shruthi Bannur | Fernando Pérez-García | Naoto Usuyama | Sheng Zhang | Tristan Naumann | Aditya Nori | Hoifung Poon | Javier Alvarez-Valle | Ozan Oktay | Stephanie L. Hyland
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 11

Label scarcity is a bottleneck for improving task performance in specialized domains. We propose a novel compositional transfer learning framework (DoT51) for zero-shot domain transfer. Without access to in-domain labels, DoT5 jointly learns domain knowledge (from masked language modelling of unlabelled in-domain free text) and task knowledge (from task training on more readily available general-domain data) in a multi-task manner. To improve the transferability of task training, we design a strategy named NLGU: We simultaneously train natural language generation (NLG) for in-domain label-to-data generation, which enables data augmentation for self-finetuning and natural language understanding (NLU) for label prediction. We evaluate DoT5 on the biomedical domain and the resource-lean subdomain of radiology, focusing on natural language inference, text summarization, and embedding learning. DoT5 demonstrates the effectiveness of compositional transfer learning through multi-task learning. In particular, DoT5 outperforms the current state-of-the-art in zero-shot transfer by over 7 absolute points in accuracy on RadNLI. We validate DoT5 with ablations and a case study demonstrating its ability to solve challenging NLI examples requiring in-domain expertise.


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Modular Self-Supervision for Document-Level Relation Extraction
Sheng Zhang | Cliff Wong | Naoto Usuyama | Sarthak Jain | Tristan Naumann | Hoifung Poon
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Extracting relations across large text spans has been relatively underexplored in NLP, but it is particularly important for high-value domains such as biomedicine, where obtaining high recall of the latest findings is crucial for practical applications. Compared to conventional information extraction confined to short text spans, document-level relation extraction faces additional challenges in both inference and learning. Given longer text spans, state-of-the-art neural architectures are less effective and task-specific self-supervision such as distant supervision becomes very noisy. In this paper, we propose decomposing document-level relation extraction into relation detection and argument resolution, taking inspiration from Davidsonian semantics. This enables us to incorporate explicit discourse modeling and leverage modular self-supervision for each sub-problem, which is less noise-prone and can be further refined end-to-end via variational EM. We conduct a thorough evaluation in biomedical machine reading for precision oncology, where cross-paragraph relation mentions are prevalent. Our method outperforms prior state of the art, such as multi-scale learning and graph neural networks, by over 20 absolute F1 points. The gain is particularly pronounced among the most challenging relation instances whose arguments never co-occur in a paragraph.