Nayeon Lee


2023

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A Multitask, Multilingual, Multimodal Evaluation of ChatGPT on Reasoning, Hallucination, and Interactivity
Yejin Bang | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Nayeon Lee | Wenliang Dai | Dan Su | Bryan Wilie | Holy Lovenia | Ziwei Ji | Tiezheng Yu | Willy Chung | Quyet V. Do | Yan Xu | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing and the 3rd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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RHO: Reducing Hallucination in Open-domain Dialogues with Knowledge Grounding
Ziwei Ji | Zihan Liu | Nayeon Lee | Tiezheng Yu | Bryan Wilie | Min Zeng | Pascale Fung
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Dialogue systems can leverage large pre-trained language models and knowledge to generate fluent and informative responses. However, these models are still prone to produce hallucinated responses not supported by the input source, which greatly hinders their application. The heterogeneity between external knowledge and dialogue context challenges representation learning and source integration, which further contributes to unfaithfulness. To handle this challenge and generate more faithful responses, this paper presents RHO (ρ) utilizing the representations of linked entities and relation predicates from a knowledge graph (KG). We propose (1) local knowledge grounding to combine textual embeddings with the corresponding KG embeddings; and (2) global knowledge grounding to equip RHO with multi-hop reasoning abilities via the attention mechanism. In addition, we devise a response re-ranking technique based on walks over KG sub-graphs for better conversational reasoning. Experimental results on OpenDialKG (Moon et al., 2019) show that our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods on both automatic and human evaluation by a large margin, especially in hallucination reduction (17.54% in FeQA (Durmus et al., 2020)).

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Towards Mitigating LLM Hallucination via Self Reflection
Ziwei Ji | Tiezheng Yu | Yan Xu | Nayeon Lee | Etsuko Ishii | Pascale Fung
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Large language models (LLMs) have shown promise for generative and knowledge-intensive tasks including question-answering (QA) tasks. However, the practical deployment still faces challenges, notably the issue of “hallucination”, where models generate plausible-sounding but unfaithful or nonsensical information. This issue becomes particularly critical in the medical domain due to the uncommon professional concepts and potential social risks involved. This paper analyses the phenomenon of hallucination in medical generative QA systems using widely adopted LLMs and datasets. Our investigation centers on the identification and comprehension of common problematic answers, with a specific emphasis on hallucination. To tackle this challenge, we present an interactive self-reflection methodology that incorporates knowledge acquisition and answer generation. Through this feedback process, our approach steadily enhances the factuality, consistency, and entailment of the generated answers. Consequently, we harness the interactivity and multitasking ability of LLMs and produce progressively more precise and accurate answers. Experimental results on both automatic and human evaluation demonstrate the superiority of our approach in hallucination reduction compared to baselines.

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Mitigating Framing Bias with Polarity Minimization Loss
Yejin Bang | Nayeon Lee | Pascale Fung
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Framing bias plays a significant role in exacerbating political polarization by distorting the perception of actual events. Media outlets with divergent political stances often use polarized language in their reporting of the same event. We propose a new loss function that encourages the model to minimize the polarity difference between the polarized input articles to reduce framing bias. Specifically, our loss is designed to jointly optimize the model to map polarity ends bidirectionally. Our experimental results demonstrate that incorporating the proposed polarity minimization loss leads to a substantial reduction in framing bias when compared to a BART-based multi-document summarization model. Notably, we find that the effectiveness of this approach is most pronounced when the model is trained to minimize the polarity loss associated with informational framing bias (i.e., skewed selection of information to report).

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Hate Speech Classifiers are Culturally Insensitive
Nayeon Lee | Chani Jung | Alice Oh
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Cross-Cultural Considerations in NLP (C3NLP)

Increasingly, language models and machine translation are becoming valuable tools to help people communicate with others from diverse cultural backgrounds. However, current language models lack cultural awareness because they are trained on data representing only the culture within the dataset. This presents a problem in the context of hate speech classification, where cultural awareness is especially critical. This study aims to quantify the cultural insensitivity of three monolingual (Korean, English, Arabic) hate speech classifiers by evaluating their performance on translated datasets from the other two languages. Our research has revealed that hate speech classifiers evaluated on datasets from other cultures yield significantly lower F1 scores, up to almost 50%. In addition, they produce considerably higher false negative rates, with a magnitude up to five times greater, demonstrating the extent of the cultural gap. The study highlights the severity of cultural insensitivity of language models in hate speech classification.

2022

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Evaluating Parameter Efficient Learning for Generation
Peng Xu | Mostofa Patwary | Shrimai Prabhumoye | Virginia Adams | Ryan Prenger | Wei Ping | Nayeon Lee | Mohammad Shoeybi | Bryan Catanzaro
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Parameter efficient learning methods (PERMs)have recently gained significant attention asthey provide an efficient way for pre-trainedlanguage models (PLMs) to adapt to a downstream task. However, these conclusions aremostly drawn from in-domain evaluations overthe full training set. In this paper, we presentcomparisons between PERMs and finetuningfrom three new perspectives: (1) the effect ofsample and model size to in-domain evaluations, (2) generalization to unseen domains andnew datasets, and (3) the faithfulness of generations. Our results show that for in-domainsettings (a) there is a cross point of samplesize for which PERMs will perform better thanfinetuning when training with fewer samples,and (b) larger PLMs have larger cross points. For cross-domain and cross-dataset cases, weshow that (a) Adapter (Houlsby et al., 2019)performs the best amongst all the PERMs studied here, and (b) it outperforms finetuning ifthe task dataset is below a certain size. Wealso compare the faithfulness of generationsand show that PERMs can achieve better faithfulness score than finetuning, especially forsmall training set, by as much as 6%. Finally,we apply Adapter to MT-NLG 530b (Smithet al., 2022) and achieve new state-of-the-artresults on Xsum (Narayan et al., 2018) for allROUGE scores (ROUGE-1 49.17, ROUGE-227.20, ROUGE-L 40.98).

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NeuS: Neutral Multi-News Summarization for Mitigating Framing Bias
Nayeon Lee | Yejin Bang | Tiezheng Yu | Andrea Madotto | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Media news framing bias can increase political polarization and undermine civil society. The need for automatic mitigation methods is therefore growing. We propose a new task, a neutral summary generation from multiple news articles of the varying political leaningsto facilitate balanced and unbiased news reading. In this paper, we first collect a new dataset, illustrate insights about framing bias through a case study, and propose a new effective metric and model (NeuS-Title) for the task. Based on our discovery that title provides a good signal for framing bias, we present NeuS-Title that learns to neutralize news content in hierarchical order from title to article. Our hierarchical multi-task learning is achieved by formatting our hierarchical data pair (title, article) sequentially with identifier-tokens (“TITLE=>”, “ARTICLE=>”) and fine-tuning the auto-regressive decoder with the standard negative log-likelihood objective. We then analyze and point out the remaining challenges and future directions. One of the most interesting observations is that neural NLG models can hallucinate not only factually inaccurate or unverifiable content but also politically biased content.

2021

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Towards Few-shot Fact-Checking via Perplexity
Nayeon Lee | Yejin Bang | Andrea Madotto | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Few-shot learning has drawn researchers’ attention to overcome the problem of data scarcity. Recently, large pre-trained language models have shown great performance in few-shot learning for various downstream tasks, such as question answering and machine translation. Nevertheless, little exploration has been made to achieve few-shot learning for the fact-checking task. However, fact-checking is an important problem, especially when the amount of information online is growing exponentially every day. In this paper, we propose a new way of utilizing the powerful transfer learning ability of a language model via a perplexity score. The most notable strength of our methodology lies in its capability in few-shot learning. With only two training samples, our methodology can already outperform the Major Class baseline by more than an absolute 10% on the F1-Macro metric across multiple datasets. Through experiments, we empirically verify the plausibility of the rather surprising usage of the perplexity score in the context of fact-checking and highlight the strength of our few-shot methodology by comparing it to strong fine-tuning-based baseline models. Moreover, we construct and publicly release two new fact-checking datasets related to COVID-19.

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On Unifying Misinformation Detection
Nayeon Lee | Belinda Z. Li | Sinong Wang | Pascale Fung | Hao Ma | Wen-tau Yih | Madian Khabsa
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

In this paper, we introduce UnifiedM2, a general-purpose misinformation model that jointly models multiple domains of misinformation with a single, unified setup. The model is trained to handle four tasks: detecting news bias, clickbait, fake news, and verifying rumors. By grouping these tasks together, UnifiedM2 learns a richer representation of misinformation, which leads to state-of-the-art or comparable performance across all tasks. Furthermore, we demonstrate that UnifiedM2’s learned representation is helpful for few-shot learning of unseen misinformation tasks/datasets and the model’s generalizability to unseen events.

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Assessing Political Prudence of Open-domain Chatbots
Yejin Bang | Nayeon Lee | Etsuko Ishii | Andrea Madotto | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue

Politically sensitive topics are still a challenge for open-domain chatbots. However, dealing with politically sensitive content in a responsible, non-partisan, and safe behavior way is integral for these chatbots. Currently, the main approach to handling political sensitivity is by simply changing such a topic when it is detected. This is safe but evasive and results in a chatbot that is less engaging. In this work, as a first step towards a politically safe chatbot, we propose a group of metrics for assessing their political prudence. We then conduct political prudence analysis of various chatbots and discuss their behavior from multiple angles through our automatic metric and human evaluation metrics. The testsets and codebase are released to promote research in this area.

2020

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Language Models as Fact Checkers?
Nayeon Lee | Belinda Z. Li | Sinong Wang | Wen-tau Yih | Hao Ma | Madian Khabsa
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Fact Extraction and VERification (FEVER)

Recent work has suggested that language models (LMs) store both common-sense and factual knowledge learned from pre-training data. In this paper, we leverage this implicit knowledge to create an effective end-to-end fact checker using a solely a language model, without any external knowledge or explicit retrieval components. While previous work on extracting knowledge from LMs have focused on the task of open-domain question answering, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to examine the use of language models as fact checkers. In a closed-book setting, we show that our zero-shot LM approach outperforms a random baseline on the standard FEVER task, and that our finetuned LM compares favorably with standard baselines. Though we do not ultimately outperform methods which use explicit knowledge bases, we believe our exploration shows that this method is viable and has much room for exploration.

2019

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Understanding the Shades of Sexism in Popular TV Series
Nayeon Lee | Yejin Bang | Jamin Shin | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 2019 Workshop on Widening NLP

[Multiple-submission] In the midst of a generation widely exposed to and influenced by media entertainment, the NLP research community has shown relatively little attention on the sexist comments in popular TV series. To understand sexism in TV series, we propose a way of collecting distant supervision dataset using Character Persona information with the psychological theories on sexism. We assume that sexist characters from TV shows are more prone to making sexist comments when talking about women, and show that this hypothesis is valid through experiment. Finally, we conduct an interesting analysis on popular TV show characters and successfully identify different shades of sexism that is often overlooked.

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Exploring Social Bias in Chatbots using Stereotype Knowledge
Nayeon Lee | Andrea Madotto | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 2019 Workshop on Widening NLP

Exploring social bias in chatbot is an important, yet relatively unexplored problem. In this paper, we propose an approach to understand social bias in chatbots by leveraging stereotype knowledge. It allows interesting comparison of bias between chatbots and humans, and provides intuitive analysis of existing chatbots by borrowing the finer-grain concepts of sexism and racism.

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Team yeon-zi at SemEval-2019 Task 4: Hyperpartisan News Detection by De-noising Weakly-labeled Data
Nayeon Lee | Zihan Liu | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper describes our system that has been submitted to SemEval-2019 Task 4: Hyperpartisan News Detection. We focus on removing the noise inherent in the hyperpartisanship dataset from both data-level and model-level by leveraging semi-supervised pseudo-labels and the state-of-the-art BERT model. Our model achieves 75.8% accuracy in the final by-article dataset without ensemble learning.

2018

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Improving Large-Scale Fact-Checking using Decomposable Attention Models and Lexical Tagging
Nayeon Lee | Chien-Sheng Wu | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Fact-checking of textual sources needs to effectively extract relevant information from large knowledge bases. In this paper, we extend an existing pipeline approach to better tackle this problem. We propose a neural ranker using a decomposable attention model that dynamically selects sentences to achieve promising improvement in evidence retrieval F1 by 38.80%, with (x65) speedup compared to a TF-IDF method. Moreover, we incorporate lexical tagging methods into our pipeline framework to simplify the tasks and render the model more generalizable. As a result, our framework achieves promising performance on a large-scale fact extraction and verification dataset with speedup.