Fact-checking requires retrieving evidence related to a claim under investigation. The task can be formulated as question generation based on a claim, followed by question answering.However, recent question generation approaches assume that the answer is known and typically contained in a passage given as input,whereas such passages are what is being sought when verifying a claim.In this paper, we present Varifocal, a method that generates questions based on different focal points within a given claim, i.e. different spans of the claim and its metadata, such as its source and date.Our method outperforms previous work on a fact-checking question generation dataset on a wide range of automatic evaluation metrics.These results are corroborated by our manual evaluation, which indicates that our method generates more relevant and informative questions.We further demonstrate the potential of focal points in generating sets of clarification questions for product descriptions.
Large pre-trained language models (PTLMs) have been shown to carry biases towards different social groups which leads to the reproduction of stereotypical and toxic content by major NLP systems. We propose a method based on logistic regression classifiers to probe English, French, and Arabic PTLMs and quantify the potentially harmful content that they convey with respect to a set of templates. The templates are prompted by a name of a social group followed by a cause-effect relation. We use PTLMs to predict masked tokens at the end of a sentence in order to examine how likely they enable toxicity towards specific communities. We shed the light on how such negative content can be triggered within unrelated and benign contexts based on evidence from a large-scale study, then we explain how to take advantage of our methodology to assess and mitigate the toxicity transmitted by PTLMs.
Work on bias in hate speech typically aims to improve classification performance while relatively overlooking the quality of the data. We examine selection bias in hate speech in a language and label independent fashion. We first use topic models to discover latent semantics in eleven hate speech corpora, then, we present two bias evaluation metrics based on the semantic similarity between topics and search words frequently used to build corpora. We discuss the possibility of revising the data collection process by comparing datasets and analyzing contrastive case studies.
Current research on hate speech analysis is typically oriented towards monolingual and single classification tasks. In this paper, we present a new multilingual multi-aspect hate speech analysis dataset and use it to test the current state-of-the-art multilingual multitask learning approaches. We evaluate our dataset in various classification settings, then we discuss how to leverage our annotations in order to improve hate speech detection and classification in general.