Knowledge graphs (KGs) facilitate a wide variety of applications. Despite great efforts in creation and maintenance, even the largest KGs are far from complete. Hence, KG completion (KGC) has become one of the most crucial tasks for KG research. Recently, considerable literature in this space has centered around the use of Message Passing (Graph) Neural Networks (MPNNs), to learn powerful embeddings. The success of these methods is naturally attributed to the use of MPNNs over simpler multi-layer perceptron (MLP) models, given their additional message passing (MP) component. In this work, we find that surprisingly, simple MLP models are able to achieve comparable performance to MPNNs, suggesting that MP may not be as crucial as previously believed. With further exploration, we show careful scoring function and loss function design has a much stronger influence on KGC model performance. This suggests a conflation of scoring function design, loss function design, and MP in prior work, with promising insights regarding the scalability of state-of-the-art KGC methods today, as well as careful attention to more suitable MP designs for KGC tasks tomorrow.
Contextual embeddings derived from transformer-based neural language models have shown state-of-the-art performance for various tasks such as question answering, sentiment analysis, and textual similarity in recent years. Extensive work shows how accurately such models can represent abstract, semantic information present in text. In this expository work, we explore a tangent direction and analyze such models’ performance on tasks that require a more granular level of representation. We focus on the problem of textual similarity from two perspectives: matching documents on a granular level (requiring embeddings to capture fine-grained attributes in the text), and an abstract level (requiring embeddings to capture overall textual semantics). We empirically demonstrate, across two datasets from different domains, that despite high performance in abstract document matching as expected, contextual embeddings are consistently (and at times, vastly) outperformed by simple baselines like TF-IDF for more granular tasks. We then propose a simple but effective method to incorporate TF-IDF into models that use contextual embeddings, achieving relative improvements of up to 36% on granular tasks.