Ning Jiang


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Modeling Temporal-Modal Entity Graph for Procedural Multimodal Machine Comprehension
Huibin Zhang | Zhengkun Zhang | Yao Zhang | Jun Wang | Yufan Li | Ning Jiang | Xin Wei | Zhenglu Yang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Procedural Multimodal Documents (PMDs) organize textual instructions and corresponding images step by step. Comprehending PMDs and inducing their representations for the downstream reasoning tasks is designated as Procedural MultiModal Machine Comprehension (M3C). In this study, we approach Procedural M3C at a fine-grained level (compared with existing explorations at a document or sentence level), that is, entity. With delicate consideration, we model entity both in its temporal and cross-modal relation and propose a novel Temporal-Modal Entity Graph (TMEG). Specifically, graph structure is formulated to capture textual and visual entities and trace their temporal-modal evolution. In addition, a graph aggregation module is introduced to conduct graph encoding and reasoning. Comprehensive experiments across three Procedural M3C tasks are conducted on a traditional dataset RecipeQA and our new dataset CraftQA, which can better evaluate the generalization of TMEG.


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GMH: A General Multi-hop Reasoning Model for KG Completion
Yao Zhang | Hongru Liang | Adam Jatowt | Wenqiang Lei | Xin Wei | Ning Jiang | Zhenglu Yang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Knowledge graphs are essential for numerous downstream natural language processing applications, but are typically incomplete with many facts missing. This results in research efforts on multi-hop reasoning task, which can be formulated as a search process and current models typically perform short distance reasoning. However, the long-distance reasoning is also vital with the ability to connect the superficially unrelated entities. To the best of our knowledge, there lacks a general framework that approaches multi-hop reasoning in mixed long-short distance reasoning scenarios. We argue that there are two key issues for a general multi-hop reasoning model: i) where to go, and ii) when to stop. Therefore, we propose a general model which resolves the issues with three modules: 1) the local-global knowledge module to estimate the possible paths, 2) the differentiated action dropout module to explore a diverse set of paths, and 3) the adaptive stopping search module to avoid over searching. The comprehensive results on three datasets demonstrate the superiority of our model with significant improvements against baselines in both short and long distance reasoning scenarios.

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TEMP: Taxonomy Expansion with Dynamic Margin Loss through Taxonomy-Paths
Zichen Liu | Hongyuan Xu | Yanlong Wen | Ning Jiang | HaiYing Wu | Xiaojie Yuan
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

As an essential form of knowledge representation, taxonomies are widely used in various downstream natural language processing tasks. However, with the continuously rising of new concepts, many existing taxonomies are unable to maintain coverage by manual expansion. In this paper, we propose TEMP, a self-supervised taxonomy expansion method, which predicts the position of new concepts by ranking the generated taxonomy-paths. For the first time, TEMP employs pre-trained contextual encoders in taxonomy construction and hypernym detection problems. Experiments prove that pre-trained contextual embeddings are able to capture hypernym-hyponym relations. To learn more detailed differences between taxonomy-paths, we train the model with dynamic margin loss by a novel dynamic margin function. Extensive evaluations exhibit that TEMP outperforms prior state-of-the-art taxonomy expansion approaches by 14.3% in accuracy and 15.8% in mean reciprocal rank on three public benchmarks.